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IDO2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC08P039792

Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 2

(Previous name: indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3 dioxygenase-like 1)
(Previous symbol: INDOL1)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 21 2     Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3-Dioxygenase-Like Protein 12 3
INDOL11 2 3 5     IDO-22 3
Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3 Dioxygenase-Like 11 2     Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-Like 1 Protein2
Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-Like Protein 12 3     EC 1.13.11.-3

External Ids:    HGNC: 272691   Entrez Gene: 1693552   Ensembl: ENSG000001886767   OMIM: 6121295   UniProtKB: Q6ZQW03   

Export aliases for IDO2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC08P039913 GC08P038325


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for IDO2 Gene:
Along with the enzymes encoded by the INDO (MIM 147435) and TDO2 (MIM 191070) genes, the enzyme encoded by the
INDOL1 gene metabolizes tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway (Ball et al., 2007 (PubMed 17499941)).(supplied by
OMIM, Feb 2011)

GeneCards Summary for IDO2 Gene:
IDO2 (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and heme binding. An important paralog of this gene is IDO1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: I23O2_HUMAN, Q6ZQW0
Function: Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the IDO2 gene promoter:
         GR   GR-beta   LUN-1   POU3F2   C/EBPalpha   CHOP-10   FOXO1a   GR-alpha   NF-kappaB1   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for IDO2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat IDO2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8p11.21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8p11.21   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8p11.21

IDO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
IDO2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08P039792:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
39,792,133 bp from pter      End:
39,873,910 bp from pter
Size:
81,778 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: I23O2_HUMAN, Q6ZQW0 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2  
Size: 407 amino acids; 45424 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 heme group per subunit (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: A4UD41
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q6ZQW0-1   Q6ZQW0-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for IDO2: NX_Q6ZQW0

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • REFSEQ proteins: NP_919270.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000426447   ENSP00000443432  
    Reactome Protein details: Q6ZQW0

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    antibodies-online peptides for IDO2

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR000898 Indolamine_dOase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q6ZQW0

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q6ZQW0

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: I23O2_HUMAN, Q6ZQW0
    Similarity: Belongs to the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase family


    Find genes that share domains with IDO2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: I23O2_HUMAN, Q6ZQW0
    Function: Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism
    Catalytic activity: L-tryptophan + O(2) = N-formyl-L-kynurenine
    Enzyme regulation: Activity is inhibited by D-1MT (1-methyl-D-tryptophan) and MTH-trp
    (methylthiohydantoin-DL-tryptophan) but not L-1MT (1-methyl-L-tryptophan)

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 1.13.11.-1

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004833tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity EXP--
    GO:0020037heme binding IEA--
    GO:0033754indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity ISS17499941
    GO:0046872metal ion binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with IDO2           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for IDO2

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    hsa-miR-617 hsa-miR-590-3p hsa-miR-548c-3p hsa-miR-1976
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidIDO2 3' UTR sequence
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ISS17499941
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with IDO2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for IDO2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Tryptophan metabolism
    Tryptophan metabolism0.46
    Tryptophan catabolism0.00
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    3Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives
    Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives
    4African trypanosomiasis
    African trypanosomiasis


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with IDO2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1 Reactome Pathway for IDO2
        Tryptophan catabolism


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for IDO2):
        Tryptophan metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    African trypanosomiasis

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: I23O2_HUMAN, Q6ZQW0
    Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-tryptophan degradation via kynurenine pathway; L-kynurenine from L-tryptophan:
    step 1/2

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for IDO2
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for IDO2

    Selected Interacting proteins for IDO2 (Q6ZQW03) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 11)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    AMTP487283I2D: score=1 
    DLATP105153I2D: score=1 
    DNAJA1P316893I2D: score=1 
    GGPS1O957493I2D: score=1 
    GPT2Q8TD303I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006569tryptophan catabolic process TAS--
    GO:0019441tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine ISS17499941
    GO:0034641cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0044281small molecule metabolic process TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with IDO2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for IDO2
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    Browse Tocris compounds for IDO2 (I23O2)

    8 HMDB Compounds for IDO2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan(+-)-5-Hydroxytryptophan (see all 21)4350-09-8--
    5-Hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine ----
    Acetyl-N-formyl-5-methoxykynurenamineN-Acetyl-N-formyl-5-methoxykynurenamine (see all 4)52450-38-1--
    Heme(protoporphyrinato)iron (see all 19)14875-96-8--
    L-Tryptophan(-)-tryptophan (see all 53)73-22-3--
    N'-Formylkynurenine3-(N-formylanthraniloyl)-Alanine (see all 9)1022-31-7--
    OxygenOxygen (see all 5)7782-44-7--
    Serotonin3-(2-Aminoethyl)-1H-indol-5-ol (see all 14)50-67-9--



    Find genes that share compounds with IDO2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for IDO2 gene: 
    NM_194294.2  

    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000343295(uc003xno.1) ENST00000389060 ENST00000418094(uc003xnp.1)
    ENST00000502986(uc010lwy.1)
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-617 hsa-miR-590-3p hsa-miR-548c-3p hsa-miR-1976
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidIDO2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    9 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BQ022530 BI828101 AK128691 AK092502 BC031685 BQ024836 NM_194294 BQ023022 
    BF439877 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    IDO2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CAGAACCCCC
    IDO2 Expression
    About this image

    IDO2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3 --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: I23O2_HUMAN, Q6ZQW0
    Tissue specificity: Detected in liver, small intestine, spleen, placenta, thymus, lung, brain, kidney, and colon

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for IDO2 gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ido21 , 5 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 21, 5 76.78(n)1
    73.38(a)1
      8 (12.58 cM)5
    2091761  NM_145949.21  NP_666061.31 
     245318945 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves INDOL11 indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3 dioxygenase-like 1 64.43(n)
    60.05(a)
      426785  XM_424397.4  XP_424397.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia IDO26
    indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2
    55(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343418.1(676211-709277)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.14652 Xenopus laevis, Similar to hypothetical protein MGC31194, more 72(n)    BC046253.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ido11 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 59.01(n)
    51.28(a)
      571967  NM_001083854.1  NP_001077323.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes BNA26
    Putative tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase or indoleamine...
    29(a)
    1 → many
    X(578860-580221) YJR078W


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for IDO2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for IDO2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for IDO2 gene
    IDO12  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for IDO2 using alignment to 3 protein entries:     I23O2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    IDO1

    Find genes that share paralogs with IDO2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for IDO2 (see all 2222)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs558928791,2
    C--38330020(+) AAAAA-/A/AA/AAA
    /AAAAAAAAA
    GGAAA
    3 -- int1 cds11NA 2
    rs114328161,2
    C--39790482(+) AAAAA-/A/AA  
            
    GAATG
    1 -- us2k1 trp31NA 2
    rs1996570931,2
    C--39790483(+) AAAAAA/GAATGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs69915301,2
    C,F,A,H--39790600(+) ATTCTT/GTAGCT 1 -- us2k115Minor allele frequency- G:0.24NS EA NA WA CSA 791
    rs1159358151,2
    C,F--39790613(+) TGCCTC/TATATA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01WA 118
    rs1144254741,2
    F--39790689(+) CTATAT/CTAAAT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.01WA 118
    rs1909939821,2
    --39790860(+) AATTGA/GAAAGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1833078101,2
    --39790950(+) AAATGG/TCCCAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1440482491,2
    C--39791033(+) CTGCTC/TCTAAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1883524741,2
    --39791087(+) TTATTA/GCTCTC 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for IDO2 (39792133 - 39873910 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for IDO2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2677111CNV Deletion23128226
    esv1987205CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2736908CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2663657CNV Deletion23128226

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 612129    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with IDO2           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): IDO2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: IDO2 (1 document)

    Export disorders for IDO2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for IDO2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 15):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with IDO2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genotyping and expression analysis of IDO2 in human pancreatic cancer: a novel, active target. (PubMed id 19476837)1, 4 Witkiewicz A.K....Brody J.R. (J. Am. Coll. Surg. 2009)
    2. Characterization of an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein found in humans and mice. (PubMed id 17499941)1, 2 Ball H.J.... Hunt N.H. (Gene 2007)
    3. Novel tryptophan catabolic enzyme IDO2 is the preferred biochemical target of the antitumor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitory compound D-1-methyl-tryptophan. (PubMed id 17671174)1, 2 Metz R....Prendergast G.C. (Cancer Res. 2007)
    4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    5. The human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene and related human genes. (PubMed id 17430106)1, 9 Murray M.F. (Curr. Drug Metab. 2007)
    6. The SOCS3-independent expression of IDO2 supports the homeostatic generation of T regulatory cells by human dendritic cells. (PubMed id 24391212)1 Trabanelli S....Lemoli R.M. (J. Immunol. 2014)
    7. Serum levels and activity of indoleamine2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase and their association with disease severity in patients with chronic kidney disease. (PubMed id 23651343)1 Bao Y.S....Na S.P. (Biomarkers 2013)
    8. Purification and kinetic characterization of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenases 1 and 2 (IDO1 and IDO2) and discovery of selective IDO1 inhibitors. (PubMed id 21835273)1 Meininger D....Sutherland C.L. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2011)
    9. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase mediates the antiviral effect of gamma interferon against hepatitis B virus in human hepatocyte-derived cells. (PubMed id 21084489)1 Mao R....Guo H. (J. Virol. 2011)
    10. Spontaneous cytotoxic T-Cell reactivity against indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2. (PubMed id 21406395)1 SA...Andersen M.H. (Cancer Res. 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 169355 HGNC: 27269 AceView: LOC169355 Ensembl:ENSG00000188676 euGenes: HUgn169355
    ECgene: IDO2 Kegg: 169355 H-InvDB: IDO2

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for IDO2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for IDO2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for IDO2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving IDO2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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