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Aliases for HYI Gene

Aliases for HYI Gene

  • Hydroxypyruvate Isomerase (Putative) 2 3 5
  • Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Protein E-CE1 3 4
  • Hydroxypyruvate Isomerase Homolog (E. Coli) 2
  • Putative Hydroxypyruvate Isomerase 3
  • Hydroxypyruvate Isomerase Homolog 3
  • EC 4
  • HT036 3

External Ids for HYI Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HYI Gene

  • GC01M043586
  • GC01M043689
  • GC01M043916
  • GC01M042035

Summaries for HYI Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HYI Gene

  • This gene encodes a putative hydroxypyruvate isomerase, which likely catalyzes the conversion of hydroxypyruvate to 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropanoate, and may be involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for HYI Gene

HYI (Hydroxypyruvate Isomerase (Putative)) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include hydroxypyruvate isomerase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HYI Gene

  • Catalyzes the reversible isomerization between hydroxypyruvate and 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropanoate (also termed tartronate semialdehyde).

Additional gene information for HYI Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HYI Gene

Genomics for HYI Gene

Regulatory Elements for HYI Gene

Enhancers for HYI Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH01H042923 1.6 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 30.1 +531.1 531130 3.9 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 ZNF143 FOXJ3 SZT2 HYI MKRN8P HNRNPFP1 PPIH P3H1 RNU6-880P CCDC30 ZNF691
GH01H044212 1.2 ENCODE 34.1 -757.6 -757601 2.3 MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF416 ZNF143 ZNF548 SP3 NFYC SZT2 DMAP1 KDM4A-AS1 HYI ARTN LOC101929609 PTCH2 MED8 CCDC24 HECTD3
GH01H042929 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.4 +516.5 516520 19 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF766 ZNF143 FOS SLC2A1-AS1 HYI SZT2 ARTN RNU6-880P FOXJ3 C1orf210 ERMAP CCDC30 YBX1
GH01H044325 2.3 Ensembl ENCODE 11.1 -872.0 -872002 4 PKNOX1 FOXA2 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF121 GLIS2 FOS TSHZ1 SZT2 ZSWIM5 LOC101929609 DMAP1 ERI3 HYI ERI3-IT1 PTCH2 ARTN GC01P044305
GH01H043830 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 -378.2 -378226 6.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ZNF2 ZNF766 ZNF143 ZNF207 FOS ZC3H11A JUNB ARTN LOC101929609 ST3GAL3 IPO13 HYI LOC101929592 SZT2 DMAP1 ATP6V0B GC01M043833
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around HYI on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for HYI Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000005594 1982 1401 FOXA2 PKNOX1 FEZF1 BATF ZNF2 YY1 RFX5 TCF12 GLIS2 GATA2

Genomic Locations for HYI Gene

Genomic Locations for HYI Gene
5,276 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HYI Gene

Genes around HYI on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HYI Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HYI Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HYI Gene

Proteins for HYI Gene

  • Protein details for HYI Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Putative hydroxypyruvate isomerase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DPX4
    • D3DPX5
    • Q5Q9A2
    • Q7Z778
    • Q96S83
    • Q9BZR3
    • Q9BZR4

    Protein attributes for HYI Gene

    277 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30406 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAH06140.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=271; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAH19041.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAV84474.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=215, 228, 232, 238; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for HYI Gene


neXtProt entry for HYI Gene

Post-translational modifications for HYI Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HYI Gene

Domains & Families for HYI Gene

Gene Families for HYI Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for HYI Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the hyi family.
  • Belongs to the hyi family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HYI: view

Function for HYI Gene

Molecular function for HYI Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Hydroxypyruvate = 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropanoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the reversible isomerization between hydroxypyruvate and 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropanoate (also termed tartronate semialdehyde).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by exposure to 7,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) after which is found in the culture medium of amniotic epithelial cells.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HYI Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for HYI Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HYI Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003674 molecular_function ND --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0008903 hydroxypyruvate isomerase activity IEA --
GO:0016853 isomerase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HYI: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HYI: view

miRNA for HYI Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HYI

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HYI Gene

Localization for HYI Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HYI gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
nucleus 2
golgi apparatus 2
extracellular 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HYI Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005575 cellular_component ND --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HYI: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HYI Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HYI Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HYI: view

Pathways by source for HYI Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HYI Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008150 biological_process ND --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HYI: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HYI Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HYI Gene

(1) Drugs for HYI Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Hydroxypyruvic acid Experimental Pharma 0

(1) Additional Compounds for HYI Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Tartronate semialdehyde
  • 2-Hydroxy-3-oxopropanoate
  • 2-Hydroxy-3-oxopropanoic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HYI: view

Transcripts for HYI Gene

Unigene Clusters for HYI Gene

Hydroxypyruvate isomerase (putative):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HYI Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: -
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for HYI Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HYI Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for HYI Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HYI Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Seminal vesicle (10.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for HYI Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for HYI Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HYI Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HYI Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for HYI Gene

  • Kidney(4.3)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Nervous system(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HYI: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for HYI Gene

Orthologs for HYI Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for HYI Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HYI 33 34
  • 99.28 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HYI 33 34
  • 88.81 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hyi 34
  • 87 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hyi 33
  • 86.28 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HYI 33 34
  • 80.63 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HYI 34
  • 78 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HYI 34
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HYI 33 34
  • 71.89 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HYI 34
  • 63 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia hyi 33
  • 59.19 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hyi 33 34
  • 63.04 (n)
zgc63850 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003099 33
  • 51.47 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gip 33 34
  • 46.51 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C05D11.5 33 34
  • 45.82 (n)
Species where no ortholog for HYI was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HYI Gene

Gene Tree for HYI (if available)
Gene Tree for HYI (if available)

Paralogs for HYI Gene

No data available for Paralogs for HYI Gene

Variants for HYI Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HYI Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000646282 -- 43,453,963(+) AAAGC(A/G)CCTAC utr-variant-3-prime, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1002605123 -- 43,452,450(+) ATGCC(C/T)AGGTA intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1002975255 -- 43,453,446(+) AGGCC(A/G)CCTGT reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1003060751 -- 43,455,515(+) TCAAG(A/G)CCTCA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1004344032 -- 43,453,537(+) ACACT(C/T)CCCTG intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HYI Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv950701 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv546128 CNV loss 21841781
nsv527798 CNV loss 19592680
nsv438377 CNV loss 16468122

Variation tolerance for HYI Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 70% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.09; 50.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HYI Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HYI Gene

Disorders for HYI Gene

Relevant External Links for HYI

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for HYI Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HYI Gene

Publications for HYI Gene

  1. Low concentration of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene induces alterations of extracellular protein profile of exposed epithelial cells. (PMID: 19722193) Liu H … Yu Y (Proteomics 2009) 4 22 60
  2. Biochemical evidence that Escherichia coli hyi (orf b0508, gip) gene encodes hydroxypyruvate isomerase. (PMID: 10561547) Ashiuchi M … Misono H (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1999) 2 3 60
  3. Panorama of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes. (PMID: 26344197) Wan C … Emili A (Nature 2015) 3 60
  4. A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances. (PMID: 26496610) Hein MY … Mann M (Cell 2015) 3 60
  5. A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network. (PMID: 25416956) Rolland T … Vidal M (Cell 2014) 3 60

Products for HYI Gene

Sources for HYI Gene

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