Aliases for HRH2 Gene
External Ids for HRH2 Gene
Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. Histamine receptor H2 belongs to the family 1 of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein and stimulates gastric acid secretion. It also regulates gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion and is thought to be involved in regulating cell growth and differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
GeneCards Summary for HRH2 Gene
HRH2 (Histamine Receptor H2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HRH2 include duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include histamine receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAAR9.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRH2 Gene
The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion. Also appears to regulate gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion. Possible role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and, through a separate G protein-dependent mechanism, the phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway (By similarity).
Histamine H2 receptors are Galphas-protein-coupled receptors involved in the suppressive activities of histamine. H2 receptors exhibit a widespread distribution and are found in the gastrointestinal tract, the central nervous system, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, immune cells and more. H2 receptors regulate various functions of histamine including heart contraction, gastric acid secretion, cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune responses. In the immune system, H2 activation negatively regulates basophils and mast cells, and inhibits antibody synthesis, T cell production, cell-mediated cytolysis and cytokine production. H2 receptors are present on Th2 cells and activation increases the synthesis of cytokines such as IL-4, Il-5, Il-10 and IL-13. Furthermore, histamine-induced T cell suppressor activity is mediated through H2 receptors. Due to their role in gastric acid secretion, H2 receptor overactivity is a cause of gastric ulcers, and pharmacological inhibition of these receptors is an effective treatment for this condition. The human gene encoding the H2 receptor is localized to chromosome 5q35.3.