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Aliases for HPGD Gene

Aliases for HPGD Gene

  • 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase 2 3
  • Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) 2 3 5
  • Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Family 36C Member 1 3 4
  • 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) 2 3
  • Prostaglandin Dehydrogenase 1 3 4
  • EC 4 58
  • 15-PGDH 3 4
  • SDR36C1 3 4
  • PGDH1 3 4
  • Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Family 36C, Member 1 2
  • NAD+-Dependent 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase 3
  • 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase [NAD(+)] 3
  • EC 1.1.1 58
  • PHOAR1 3
  • PGDH 3

External Ids for HPGD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HPGD Gene

  • GC04M176331
  • GC04M175949
  • GC04M176107
  • GC04M175786
  • GC04M175647
  • GC04M175411
  • GC04M171160

Summaries for HPGD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HPGD Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the short-chain nonmetalloenzyme alcohol dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of prostaglandins, which function in a variety of physiologic and cellular processes such as inflammation. Mutations in this gene result in primary autosomal recessive hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranioosteoarthropathy. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GeneCards Summary for HPGD Gene

HPGD (15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HPGD include Cranioosteoarthropathy and Digital Clubbing, Isolated Congenital. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and NAD binding. An important paralog of this gene is BDH2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HPGD Gene

  • Prostaglandin inactivation. Contributes to the regulation of events that are under the control of prostaglandin levels. Catalyzes the NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of lipoxin A4 to form 15-oxo-lipoxin A4. Inhibits in vivo proliferation of colon cancer cells.

Gene Wiki entry for HPGD Gene

Additional gene information for HPGD Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HPGD Gene

Genomics for HPGD Gene

Regulatory Elements for HPGD Gene

Enhancers for HPGD Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH04H174580 0.6 FANTOM5 48 -57.6 -57643 0.3 FOSL1 FOXJ2 HPGD LOC105377549 LOC100419741
GH04H174591 0.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl 24.2 -68.5 -68547 1 SMARCE1 ZMYM3 JUNB RUNX3 SPI1 HPGD LOC105377549 LOC100419741
GH04H174582 0.3 FANTOM5 52 -59.8 -59846 0.2 HPGD LOC105377549 LOC100419741
GH04H174569 0.3 FANTOM5 32 -46.3 -46349 0.2 HPGD LOC100419741 LOC105377549
GH04H174382 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 10.4 +139.6 139569 1.6 L3MBTL2 ZNF740 USF2 MNT DPF2 RELA ZNF592 IRF9 MEF2D CTBP1 HPGD CEP44 ENSG00000249875 MIR4276
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around HPGD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for HPGD Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000176325 454 1401 PKNOX1 ATF1 ZNF133 SIN3A FEZF1 BMI1 ZBTB40 RAD21 GLIS2 SCRT2
ENSR00000313195 1454 201 EZH2

Genomic Locations for HPGD Gene

Genomic Locations for HPGD Gene
32,978 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HPGD Gene

Genes around HPGD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HPGD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HPGD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HPGD Gene

Proteins for HPGD Gene

  • Protein details for HPGD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase [NAD(+)]
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DTA4
    • B4DU74
    • B4DV57
    • D3DP43
    • E7EV11
    • O00749
    • Q06F08
    • Q12998

    Protein attributes for HPGD Gene

    266 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28977 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HPGD Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for HPGD Gene


neXtProt entry for HPGD Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for HPGD Gene


Post-translational modifications for HPGD Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for HPGD Gene

Gene Families for HPGD Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family.
  • Belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HPGD: view

Function for HPGD Gene

Molecular function for HPGD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=3.4 uM for prostaglandin E2 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16828555}; KM=38 uM for NAD {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16828555};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(5Z,13E,15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-5,13-dienoate + NAD(+) = (5Z,13E)-11-alpha-hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprost-5,13-dienoate + NADH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Prostaglandin inactivation. Contributes to the regulation of events that are under the control of prostaglandin levels. Catalyzes the NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of lipoxin A4 to form 15-oxo-lipoxin A4. Inhibits in vivo proliferation of colon cancer cells.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Down-regulated by cortisol, dexamethasone and betamethasone. Down-regulated in colon cancer. Up-regulated by TGFB1.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HPGD Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for HPGD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HPGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IDA 2025296
GO:0004957 prostaglandin E receptor activity IDA 10198228
GO:0016404 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity TAS --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity TAS 2025296
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HPGD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HPGD: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for HPGD Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for HPGD Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HPGD:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for HPGD

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HPGD Gene

Localization for HPGD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HPGD Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HPGD gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HPGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016323 basolateral plasma membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HPGD: view

Pathways & Interactions for HPGD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HPGD: view

Pathways by source for HPGD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HPGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001822 kidney development IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process IDA,IEA 16828555
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IDA 15574495
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HPGD: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HPGD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HPGD Gene

(27) Drugs for HPGD Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Dinoprost Investigational Pharma 11
NADH Nutra Target 0
NAD Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
Prostaglandin E2 Pharma activates the PGE2 receptor 0

(16) Additional Compounds for HPGD Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
15-Keto-prostaglandin F2a
  • 15-Keto-PGF2a
  • 15-Keto-PGF2alpha
  • 15-Keto-prostaglandin F2a
  • 15-Keto-prostaglandin F2alpha
  • 15-Ketoprostaglandin F2alpha
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HPGD: view

Transcripts for HPGD Gene

Unigene Clusters for HPGD Gene

Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for HPGD

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HPGD Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c
SP1: - - - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for HPGD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HPGD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for HPGD Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HPGD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bladder (x5.1), Vagina (x4.9), Whole Blood (x4.8), Liver (x4.5), and Esophagus - Mucosa (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HPGD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (14.4), Placenta (8.9), Cardia (8.3), and Stomach (8.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for HPGD Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HPGD Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HPGD Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HPGD Gene:

Tissue specificity: Detected in colon epithelium (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for HPGD Gene

  • Intestine(4.8)
  • Pancreas(4.3)
  • Lung(3.8)
  • Nervous system(3.5)
  • Skin(3.1)
  • Stomach(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Liver(2.5)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for HPGD Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • scalp
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • heart
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • pelvis
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • nail
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • bone marrow
  • hair
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HPGD: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Protein tissue co-expression partners for HPGD Gene

Orthologs for HPGD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for HPGD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HPGD 33 34
  • 99.87 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HPGD 33 34
  • 92.36 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HPGD 33 34
  • 90.23 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hpgd 33 16 34
  • 88.13 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hpgd 33
  • 87.88 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 84 (a)
-- 34
  • 82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HPGD 34
  • 83 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HPGD 33 34
  • 75.13 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HPGD 34
  • 61 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia hpgd 33
  • 69.79 (n)
Str.8168 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC565975 33
  • 62.84 (n)
CU928070.1 34
  • 57 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.6946 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001753 33
  • 49.18 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4842 35 34
  • 36 (a)
Pdh 35 34
  • 36 (a)
CG18814 34
  • 27 (a)
Fbp2 34
  • 25 (a)
Adhr 34
  • 24 (a)
Adh 34
  • 23 (a)
Species where no ortholog for HPGD was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HPGD Gene

Gene Tree for HPGD (if available)
Gene Tree for HPGD (if available)

Paralogs for HPGD Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for HPGD Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HPGD: view

Variants for HPGD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HPGD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121434480 Pathogenic, Cranioosteoarthropathy (COA) [MIM:259100] 174,508,699(-) CTTTA(C/G)CAGGT intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs121434481 Pathogenic, Isolated congenital nail clubbing (ICNC) [MIM:119900] 174,493,236(-) TTGAA(C/T)CAATT intron-variant, reference, missense
rs548208942 Pathogenic 174,521,985(+) TGAAC(-/AG)AGTCT nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, reference, frameshift-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs577045722 Pathogenic 174,522,451(+) GTGCA(A/C/T)GGTGC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs587776676 Pathogenic 174,518,054(+) AAAGT(GGTCTACAAC/TG)TTTTC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, frameshift-variant, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HPGD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv525487 CNV gain 19592680
nsv509946 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
dgv1043e214 CNV loss 21293372

Variation tolerance for HPGD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 58.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.62; 31.10% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HPGD Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HPGD Gene

Disorders for HPGD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for HPGD Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary, autosomal recessive 1
digital clubbing, isolated congenital
  • isolated congenital digital clubbing
primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
  • pachydermoperiostosis of nail
patent ductus arteriosus
  • ductus arteriosus, patent
apocrine adenocarcinoma
  • apocrine carcinoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HPGD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Cranioosteoarthropathy (COA) [MIM:259100]: A form of osteoarthropathy characterized by swelling of the joints, digital clubbing, hyperhidrosis, delayed closure of the fontanels, periostosis, and variable patent ductus arteriosus. Pachydermia is not a prominent feature. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18500342}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary, autosomal recessive, 1 (PHOAR1) [MIM:259100]: A disease characterized by digital clubbing, periostosis, acroosteolysis, painful joint enlargement, and variable features of pachydermia that include thickened facial skin and a thickened scalp. Other developmental anomalies include delayed closure of the cranial sutures and congenital heart disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18500342}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Isolated congenital nail clubbing (ICNC) [MIM:119900]: A rare genodermatosis characterized by enlargement of the nail plate and terminal segments of the fingers and toes, resulting from proliferation of the connective tissues between the nail matrix and the distal phalanx. It is usually symmetrical and bilateral (in some cases unilateral). In nail clubbing usually the distal end of the nail matrix is relatively high compared to the proximal end, while the nail plate is complete but its dimensions and diameter more or less vary in comparison to normal. There may be different fingers and toes involved to varying degrees. Some fingers or toes are spared, but the thumbs are almost always involved. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18805827}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for HPGD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HPGD: view

No data available for Genatlas for HPGD Gene

Publications for HPGD Gene

  1. Genetic variation in prostaglandin E2 synthesis and signaling, prostaglandin dehydrogenase, and the risk of colorectal adenoma. (PMID: 20086108) Poole EM … Ulrich CM (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 22 45 60
  2. Mutation in the HPGD gene encoding NAD+ dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase underlies isolated congenital nail clubbing (ICNC). (PMID: 18805827) Tariq M … Ahmad W (Journal of medical genetics 2009) 3 4 22 60
  3. Mutations in 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase cause primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. (PMID: 18500342) Uppal S … Bonthron DT (Nature genetics 2008) 3 4 22 60
  4. Role of glutamine 148 of human 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in catalytic oxidation of prostaglandin E2. (PMID: 16828555) Cho H … Tai HH (Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 2006) 3 4 22 60
  5. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, a COX-2 oncogene antagonist, is a TGF-beta-induced suppressor of human gastrointestinal cancers. (PMID: 15574495) Yan M … Markowitz SD (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004) 3 4 22 60

Products for HPGD Gene

Sources for HPGD Gene

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