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Aliases for HP Gene

Aliases for HP Gene

  • Haptoglobin 2 3
  • Zonulin 3 4
  • Haptoglobin, Alpha Polypeptide 3
  • Haptoglobin, Beta Polypeptide 3
  • Haptoglobin Alpha(2FS)-Beta 3
  • Haptoglobin Alpha(1S)-Beta 3
  • Binding Peptide 3
  • HP2ALPHA2 3
  • HPA1S 3
  • BP 3

External Ids for HP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HP Gene

  • GC16P062982
  • GC16P072811
  • GC16P071824
  • GC16P071864
  • GC16P070646
  • GC16P057856

Summaries for HP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HP Gene

  • This gene encodes a preproprotein, which is processed to yield both alpha and beta chains, which subsequently combine as a tetramer to produce haptoglobin. Haptoglobin functions to bind free plasma hemoglobin, which allows degradative enzymes to gain access to the hemoglobin, while at the same time preventing loss of iron through the kidneys and protecting the kidneys from damage by hemoglobin. Mutations in this gene and/or its regulatory regions cause ahaptoglobinemia or hypohaptoglobinemia. This gene has also been linked to diabetic nephropathy, the incidence of coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes, Crohn's disease, inflammatory disease behavior, primary sclerosing cholangitis, susceptibility to idiopathic Parkinson's disease, and a reduced incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The protein encoded also exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria. A similar duplicated gene is located next to this gene on chromosome 16. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

GeneCards Summary for HP Gene

HP (Haptoglobin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HP include anhaptoglobinemia and mastitis. Among its related pathways are amb2 Integrin signaling and Binding and Uptake of Ligands by Scavenger Receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include antioxidant activity and hemoglobin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PROC.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HP Gene

  • As a result of hemolysis, hemoglobin is found to accumulate in the kidney and is secreted in the urine. Haptoglobin captures, and combines with free plasma hemoglobin to allow hepatic recycling of heme iron and to prevent kidney damage. Haptoglobin also acts as an Antimicrobial; Antioxidant, has antibacterial activity and plays a role in modulating many aspects of the acute phase response. Hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes are rapidely cleared by the macrophage CD163 scavenger receptor expressed on the surface of liver Kupfer cells through an endocytic lysosomal degradation pathway.

  • Uncleaved haptoglogin, also known as zonulin, plays a role in intestinal permeability, allowing intercellular tight junction disassembly, and controlling the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens.

Gene Wiki entry for HP Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HP Gene

Genomics for HP Gene

Regulatory Elements for HP Gene

Genomic Location for HP Gene

Start:
72,054,566 bp from pter
End:
72,061,056 bp from pter
Size:
6,491 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for HP Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for HP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HP Gene

Proteins for HP Gene

  • Protein details for HP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P00738-HPT_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Haptoglobin
    Protein Accession:
    P00738
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0AZL5
    • P00737
    • Q0VAC4
    • Q0VAC5
    • Q2PP15
    • Q3B7J0
    • Q6LBY9
    • Q9UC67

    Protein attributes for HP Gene

    Size:
    406 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45205 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Tetramer of two alpha and two beta chains; disufide-linked. The Hemoglobin/haptoglobin complex is composed of a haptoglobin dimer bound to two hemoglobin alpha-beta dimers. Interacts with CD163

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HP Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for HP Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for HP Gene

Proteomics data for HP Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HP Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn184, Asn207, Asn211, and Asn241
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HP Gene

Domains for HP Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HP Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P00738

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

HPT_HUMAN :
  • P00738
Domain:
  • Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.
  • Contains 2 Sushi (CCP/SCR) domains.
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HP: view

No data available for Gene Families for HP Gene

Function for HP Gene

Molecular function for HP Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: haptoglobin,expressed in liver
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: As a result of hemolysis, hemoglobin is found to accumulate in the kidney and is secreted in the urine. Haptoglobin captures, and combines with free plasma hemoglobin to allow hepatic recycling of heme iron and to prevent kidney damage. Haptoglobin also acts as an Antimicrobial; Antioxidant, has antibacterial activity and plays a role in modulating many aspects of the acute phase response. Hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes are rapidely cleared by the macrophage CD163 scavenger receptor expressed on the surface of liver Kupfer cells through an endocytic lysosomal degradation pathway.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Uncleaved haptoglogin, also known as zonulin, plays a role in intestinal permeability, allowing intercellular tight junction disassembly, and controlling the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19758344
GO:0016209 antioxidant activity IEA --
GO:0030492 hemoglobin binding IDA 19740759
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HP: view

Animal Models for HP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HP:
  • Hp tm1Skl

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HP

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for HP Gene

Localization for HP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HP Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for HP Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HP gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 16502470
GO:0031838 haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex IDA 19740759
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
GO:0071682 endocytic vesicle lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HP: view

Pathways for HP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HP: view

Pathways by source for HP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002376 immune system process IEA --
GO:0006508 proteolysis --
GO:0006898 receptor-mediated endocytosis TAS --
GO:0006952 defense response TAS 7036344
GO:0006953 acute-phase response IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HP: view

Compounds for HP Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for HP Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Iron
  • Armco iron
7439-89-6

(104) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for HP Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
fibrinogen 76.2 148
alpha 2 macroglobulin 63.7 2
iron 59.1 108
polyacrylamide 52.5 32
urobilinogen 47.8 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HP: view

Transcripts for HP Gene

Unigene Clusters for HP Gene

Haptoglobin:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HP

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
HP
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
HP

Expression for HP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (51.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HP Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HP Gene Hs.513711

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HP Gene

P00738-HPT_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with HP: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for HP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HP 35
  • 98.85 (n)
  • 98.85 (a)
HPR 36
  • 91 (a)
ManyToMany
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HP 35
  • 81.17 (n)
  • 77.52 (a)
HP 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HP 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
LOC479668 35
  • 84.73 (n)
  • 80.98 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hp 35
  • 79.35 (n)
  • 79.83 (a)
Hp 16
Hp 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 4 (a)
ManyToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hp 35
  • 78.39 (n)
  • 79.54 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hp 36
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 10 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 11 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 1 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 16 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.10613 36
  • 15 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for HP:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HP Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for HP (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for HP (if available)

Paralogs for HP Gene

Paralogs for HP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HP: view

Variants for HP Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HP Gene

P00738-HPT_HUMAN
In the human populations there are two major allelic forms, alpha-1 (1-1) with 83 residues and alpha-2 (2-2) with 142 residues. These alleles determine 3 possible genotypes, homozygous (1-1 or 2-2) and heterozygous (2-1), and 3 major phenotypes HP*1F/HP*1S and HP*2FS. The two main alleles of HP*1 are called HP*1F (fast) and HP*1S (slow). The alleles exhibit different oligomerization properties. In healthy males, but not in females, the Hp 2-2 phenotype is associated with higher serum iron, decreased Antimicrobial; Antioxidant capability, and less efficient clearance from the circulation, than Hp 1-1 and 2-1

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
VAR_005294 -
VAR_017113 -
VAR_017114 -
VAR_066214 Anhaptoglobinemia (AHP)

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7285 OTHER Inversion 18451855
nsv833273 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv898e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv428329 CNV Gain 18775914
esv2714683 CNV Deletion 23290073
dgv2909n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv504e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv827729 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv9456 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495
esv2422047 CNV Duplication 20811451
nsv817737 CNV Loss 17921354
esv23639 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
esv2215660 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2478287 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2714685 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv514812 CNV Complex 21397061
nsv514813 CNV Gain 21397061

Relevant External Links for HP Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
HP
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
HP

Disorders for HP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (38) Diseases for HP Gene including...

Search for HP Gene in MalaCards »

(1) OMIM Diseases for HP Gene (140100)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

HPT_HUMAN
  • Anhaptoglobinemia (AHP) [MIM:614081]: A condition characterized by the absence of the serum glycoprotein haptoglobin. Serum levels of haptoglobin vary among normal persons: levels are low in the neonatal period and in the elderly, differ by population, and can be influenced by environmental factors, such as infection. Secondary hypohaptoglobinemia can occur as a consequence of hemolysis, during which haptoglobin binds to free hemoglobin. Congenital haptoglobin deficiency is a risk factor for anaphylactic non-hemolytic transfusion reactions. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14999562}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(95) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for HP Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hemolysis intravascular 84.5 21
response acute phase 84 33
hemolysis 83.2 105
anemia hemolytic 70.2 16
hemoglobinemia 62.6 1

Genatlas disease for HP Gene

haptoglobinemia,Hp0 phenotype (HP deletion)

Relevant External Links for HP

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
HP
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
HP
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HP: view

Publications for HP Gene

  1. Biological functions of haptoglobin--new pieces to an old puzzle. (PMID: 9352226) Dobryszycka W. (Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1997) 2 3 23
  2. Haptoglobin: function and polymorphism. (PMID: 11109501) Wassell J. (Clin. Lab. 2000) 2 3 23
  3. Association between Cys282Tyr missense mutation and haptoglobin phenotype polymorphism in patients with chronic hepatitis C. (PMID: 11564959) Van Vlierberghe H. … Leroux-Roels G. (Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001) 3 23 48
  4. Haptoglobin phenotype and diabetic nephropathy. (PMID: 11380078) Nakhoul F.M. … Levy A.P. (Diabetologia 2001) 3 23 48
  5. Haptoglobin phenotype and the risk of restenosis after coronary artery stent implantation. (PMID: 11909563) Roguin A. … Levy A.P. (Am. J. Cardiol. 2002) 3 23 48

Products for HP Gene

Sources for HP Gene

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