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Aliases for HMGB2 Gene

Aliases for HMGB2 Gene

  • High Mobility Group Box 2 2 3 5
  • High-Mobility Group (Nonhistone Chromosomal) Protein 2 2 3
  • High Mobility Group Protein 2 3 4
  • HMG-2 3 4
  • HMG2 3 4
  • High Mobility Group Protein B2 3
  • High-Mobility Group Box 2 2

External Ids for HMGB2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HMGB2 Gene

  • HMG2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HMGB2 Gene

  • GC04M175172
  • GC04M174790
  • GC04M174948
  • GC04M174627
  • GC04M174489
  • GC04M174252
  • GC04M170000

Summaries for HMGB2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HMGB2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the non-histone chromosomal high mobility group protein family. The proteins of this family are chromatin-associated and ubiquitously distributed in the nucleus of higher eukaryotic cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated that this protein is able to efficiently bend DNA and form DNA circles. These studies suggest a role in facilitating cooperative interactions between cis-acting proteins by promoting DNA flexibility. This protein was also reported to be involved in the final ligation step in DNA end-joining processes of DNA double-strand breaks repair and V(D)J recombination. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for HMGB2 Gene

HMGB2 (High Mobility Group Box 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HMGB2 include Rheumatoid Arthritis, Systemic Juvenile. Among its related pathways are Ectoderm Differentiation and Apoptosis induced DNA fragmentation. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is HMGB1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HMGB2 Gene

  • Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes. Binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity (PubMed:7797075, PubMed:11909973, PubMed:19522541, PubMed:18413230, PubMed:19965638, PubMed:20123072). Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS) (By similarity). Proposed to be involved in the innate immune response to nucleic acids by acting as a promiscuous immunogenic DNA/RNA sensor which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors (By similarity). In the extracellular compartment acts as a chemokine. Promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells implicating AGER/RAGE (PubMed:19811285). Has antimicrobial activity in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues (PubMed:23877675). Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity (By similarity). Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation (By similarity). Involved in articular cartilage surface maintenance implicating LEF1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for HMGB2 Gene

Additional gene information for HMGB2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HMGB2 Gene

Genomics for HMGB2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HMGB2 Gene

Enhancers for HMGB2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH04H173369 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 13.1 -36.0 -35980 4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 CEP44 HMGB2 ENSG00000248774 SCRG1 FBXO8 LOC105377540 LOC101928383
GH04H173414 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.3 -81.1 -81076 2 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT YBX1 ZNF2 TCF12 ZNF207 ZNF143 ATF7 MCM3 CEP44 ENSG00000261646 HMGB2 HAND2-AS1 SAP30 RPL5P11 LOC101928383
GH04H174120 1.2 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 -785.5 -785540 0 ATF1 ARNT ZSCAN4 ZNF2 RAD21 EGR1 ZNF366 ZNF143 RCOR1 CREM CEP44 HMGB2 ENSG00000261646 HAND2-AS1 GC04P174110 ENSG00000250957
GH04H173366 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 13.6 -32.5 -32541 1 JUN JUNB DPF2 BATF ZNF217 FOSL1 SCRT2 HMBOX1 ZNF24 RUNX3 HMGB2 ENSG00000248774 SCRG1 RNU6-1096P CEP44 FBXO8 SAP30 GC04P173358
GH04H173374 0.4 Ensembl 13.1 -39.0 -38976 0 ZEB2 HMGB2 ENSG00000248774 SCRG1 FBXO8 CEP44 LOC105377540 LOC101928383
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around HMGB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for HMGB2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000176225 1025 3801 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1

Genomic Location for HMGB2 Gene

Chromosome:
4
Start:
173,331,376 bp from pter
End:
173,335,125 bp from pter
Size:
3,750 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for HMGB2 Gene

Genes around HMGB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HMGB2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HMGB2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HMGB2 Gene

Proteins for HMGB2 Gene

  • Protein details for HMGB2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P26583-HMGB2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    High mobility group protein B2
    Protein Accession:
    P26583
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R4K8
    • D3DP37
    • Q5U072

    Protein attributes for HMGB2 Gene

    Size:
    209 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24034 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with POU2F2, POU2F1 and POU3F1 (By similarity). Component of the RAG complex composed of core components RAG1 and RAG2, and associated component HMGB1 or HMGB2 (By similarity). Component of the SET complex, composed of at least ANP32A, APEX1, HMGB2, NME1, SET and TREX1. Directly interacts with SET (PubMed:11909973). Interacts with LEF1 (By similarity).

neXtProt entry for HMGB2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for HMGB2 Gene

  • Acetylation enhances nucleosome binding and chromation remodeling activity.
  • Reduction/oxidation of cysteine residues Cys-23, Cys-45 and Cys-106 and a possible intramolecular disulfide bond involving Cys-23 and Cys-45 give rise to different redox forms with specific functional activities in various cellular compartments: 1- fully reduced HMGB2 (HMGB2C23hC45hC106h), 2- disulfide HMGB2 (HMGB2C23-C45C106h) and 3- sulfonyl HMGB2 (HMGB2C23soC45soC106so).
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=147147
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for HMGB2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for HMGB2 (HMGB2)
  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for HMGB2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HMGB2 Gene

Domains & Families for HMGB2 Gene

Gene Families for HMGB2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for HMGB2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HMGB2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P26583

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

HMGB2_HUMAN :
  • Both, HMG box 1 and HMG box 2, show antimicrobial activity.
  • Belongs to the HMGB family.
Domain:
  • Both, HMG box 1 and HMG box 2, show antimicrobial activity.
Family:
  • Belongs to the HMGB family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HMGB2: view

Function for HMGB2 Gene

Molecular function for HMGB2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes. Binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity (PubMed:7797075, PubMed:11909973, PubMed:19522541, PubMed:18413230, PubMed:19965638, PubMed:20123072). Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS) (By similarity). Proposed to be involved in the innate immune response to nucleic acids by acting as a promiscuous immunogenic DNA/RNA sensor which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors (By similarity). In the extracellular compartment acts as a chemokine. Promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells implicating AGER/RAGE (PubMed:19811285). Has antimicrobial activity in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues (PubMed:23877675). Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity (By similarity). Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation (By similarity). Involved in articular cartilage surface maintenance implicating LEF1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HMGB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000400 four-way junction DNA binding ISS --
GO:0001158 enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding ISS --
GO:0003677 DNA binding IMP,IEA 11909973
GO:0003684 damaged DNA binding IDA 8226934
GO:0003690 double-stranded DNA binding ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HMGB2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HMGB2: view

Animal Models for HMGB2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HMGB2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for HMGB2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HMGB2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for HMGB2
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HMGB2 Gene

Localization for HMGB2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HMGB2 Gene

Nucleus. Chromosome. Cytoplasm. Secreted. Note=In basal state predominantly nuclear. {ECO:0000305}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HMGB2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
endoplasmic reticulum 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleus (3)
  • Nucleoli (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HMGB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000790 nuclear chromatin ISS --
GO:0000793 condensed chromosome IDA 12925773
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 19811285
GO:0005623 cell IDA 15496585
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HMGB2: view

Pathways & Interactions for HMGB2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HMGB2: view

Pathways by source for HMGB2 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for HMGB2 Gene
2 BioSystems pathways for HMGB2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HMGB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001938 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA 19811285
GO:0002376 immune system process IEA --
GO:0002437 inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus ISS --
GO:0006265 DNA topological change ISS --
GO:0006309 apoptotic DNA fragmentation TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HMGB2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HMGB2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HMGB2 Gene

(3) Drugs for HMGB2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HMGB2: view

Transcripts for HMGB2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for HMGB2 Gene

High mobility group box 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for HMGB2
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HMGB2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d · 3e ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -
SP9:
SP10: - - - -

Relevant External Links for HMGB2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
HMGB2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
HMGB2

Expression for HMGB2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for HMGB2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HMGB2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for HMGB2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for HMGB2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HMGB2 Gene:

HMGB2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HMGB2 Gene:

Hs.434953

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HMGB2 Gene:

P26583-HMGB2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in gastric and intestinal tissues (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for HMGB2 Gene

  • Liver(4.6)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Nervous system(4.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.8)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Eye(2.4)
  • Lymph node(2.3)
  • Bone(2.2)
  • Lung(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.1)
  • Intestine(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HMGB2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for HMGB2 Gene

Orthologs for HMGB2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for HMGB2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HMGB2 33 34
  • 99.84 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 95 (a)
OneToMany
HMGB2 33 34
  • 91.07 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HMGB2 33 34
  • 94.65 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HMGB2 34
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hmgb2 33 16 34
  • 90.55 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HMGB2 34
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HMGB2 33 34
  • 83.96 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HMGB2 34
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hmgb2a 33 34
  • 76.06 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000005 33
  • 59.24 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Dsp1 33
  • 58.54 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea hmg-1.2 33
  • 51.1 (n)
Species where no ortholog for HMGB2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HMGB2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for HMGB2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for HMGB2 (if available)

Paralogs for HMGB2 Gene

Variants for HMGB2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HMGB2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000939790 -- 173,333,755(+) TCCGC(C/T)TCCCG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1002221210 -- 173,333,246(+) ATACA(A/G)CAAAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1002310680 -- 173,331,972(+) GTACA(A/G)TTTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1002492482 -- 173,333,443(+) AAGGC(C/T)CTCCT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1002897949 -- 173,334,437(+) GGGCC(A/G)CATCC nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HMGB2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv4610 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for HMGB2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 44.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.92; 19.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HMGB2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
HMGB2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HMGB2 Gene

Disorders for HMGB2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for HMGB2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile
  • juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HMGB2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for HMGB2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
HMGB2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
HMGB2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
HMGB2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HMGB2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HMGB2 Gene

Publications for HMGB2 Gene

  1. Sequence of human HMG2 cDNA. (PMID: 1754403) Majumdar A … Seidman MM (Nucleic acids research 1991) 2 3 4 60
  2. Antimicrobial activity of high-mobility-group box 2: a new function to a well-known protein. (PMID: 23877675) Küchler R … Wehkamp J (Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 2013) 3 4 60
  3. High-mobility group protein HMGB2 regulates human erythroid differentiation through trans-activation of GFI1B transcription. (PMID: 19965638) Laurent B … Duménil D (Blood 2010) 3 4 60
  4. High mobility group B2 is secreted by myeloid cells and has mitogenic and chemoattractant activities similar to high mobility group B1. (PMID: 19811285) Pusterla T … Bianchi ME (Autoimmunity 2009) 3 4 60
  5. Identification of potentially damaging amino acid substitutions leading to human male infertility. (PMID: 19369647) Kuzmin A … Varmuza S (Biology of reproduction 2009) 3 45 60

Products for HMGB2 Gene

Sources for HMGB2 Gene

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