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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

HK2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC02P075059

Hexokinase 2

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Hexokinase 21 2     HKII2
Hexokinase Type II2 3     HXK22
Muscle Form Hexokinase2 3     hexokinase-22
HK II2 3     Hexokinase-2, Muscle2
EC 2.7.1.13 8     EC 2.7.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 49231   Entrez Gene: 30992   Ensembl: ENSG000001593997   OMIM: 6011255   UniProtKB: P527893   

Export aliases for HK2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02P075198 GC02P075018 GC02P075035 GC02P075034 GC02P074971 GC02P074796


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for HK2 Gene:
Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism
pathways. This gene encodes hexokinase 2, the predominant form found in skeletal muscle. It localizes to the
outer membrane of mitochondria. Expression of this gene is insulin-responsive, and studies in rat suggest that it
is involved in the increased rate of glycolysis seen in rapidly growing cancer cells. (provided by RefSeq, Apr
2009)

GeneCards Summary for HK2 Gene: 
HK2 (hexokinase 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with HK2 include brain glioblastoma multiforme, and kcna5-related familial atrial fibrillation, and among its related super-pathways are Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map) and Galactose metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include fructokinase activity and glucose binding. An important paralog of this gene is HK3.

summary for HK2 Gene:
Mitochondrial Hexokinases catalyze the first essential step of glucose metabolism, the conversion of glucose
into glucose-6-phosphate. This directly couples extramitochondrial glycolysis to intramitochondrial
oxidative phosphorylation. There are two subtypes of mitochondrial hexokinases, HK1 and HK2, each of which
has four isozymes designated hexokinase I, II, III and IV. HK1 and HK2 are both localized to the outer
mitochondrial membrane, with HK1 being found in nervous tissue and HK2 in insulin-responsive tissues such as
skeletal muscle. Activation of mitochondrial hexokinases is regulated by Akt/PKB-mediated phosphorylation
and they are subject to inhibiton by their end product, glucose-6-phosphate. In addition to glucose
metabolism, mitochondrial hexokinases have been implicated in antiapoptotic and cell survival signaling.

Gene Wiki entry for HK2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.11  NT_022184.15  NC_018913.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the HK2 gene promoter:
         HOXA9   HOXA9B   Sox5   HOXA3   AML1a   Bach2   Evi-1   Zic1   Meis-1a   Meis-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): HK2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for HK2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat HK2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2p13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2p12   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2p13

HK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
HK2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02P075059:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
75,059,782 bp from pter      End:
75,120,486 bp from pter
Size:
60,705 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HXK2_HUMAN, P52789 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Hexokinase-2  
Size: 917 amino acids; 102380 Da
Subunit: Monomer (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Mitochondrion outer membrane (By similarity). Note=Its hydrophobic N-terminal sequence may
be involved in membrane binding (By similarity)
Miscellaneous: In vertebrates there are four major glucose-phosphorylating isoenzymes, designated hexokinase I,
II, III and IV (glucokinase)
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for HK2:
2NZT (3D)    
Secondary accessions: D6W5J2 Q8WU87 Q9UN82

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for HK2: NX_P52789

Explore proteomics data for HK2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P52789

  • 4/47 DME Specific Peptides for HK2 (P52789) (see all 47)
     DIRTEFD  PDGTEKG  EWGAFGD  TMMTCGY 

    HK2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    HK2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000180.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000290573   ENSP00000387140  
    Reactome Protein details: P52789
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for HK2: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for HK2
    OriGene MassSpec for HK2 
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    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for HK2
    Novus Biologicals HK2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals HK2 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for HK2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for HK2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ----
    GO:0005741mitochondrial outer membrane IDA18350175
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    HK2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    HK2 Antibody Products: 
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    Abcam antibodies for HK2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for HK2 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for HK2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for HK2 

    Assay Products for HK2: 
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    GenScript Custom Assay Services for HK2
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for HK2 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for HK2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR019807 Hexokinase_CS
     IPR001312 Hexokinase
     IPR022672 Hexokinase_N
     IPR022673 Hexokinase_C

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P52789

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P52789

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001312 Hexokinase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HXK2_HUMAN, P52789
    Domain: The N- and C-terminal halves of this hexokinase show extensive sequence similarity to each other. The
    catalytic activity is associated with the C-terminus while regulatory function is associated with the N-terminus.
    Each domain can bind a single glucose and Gluc-6-P molecule
    Similarity: Belongs to the hexokinase family


    HK2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: HXK2_HUMAN, P52789
    Catalytic activity: ATP + D-hexose = ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate
    Enzyme regulation: Hexokinase is an allosteric enzyme inhibited by its product Glc-6-P

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for HK2:
    hexokinase 2,108kDa,muscle and fat tissues,glycolysis,gluconeogenesis,energy pathways

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.1.11 2 EC 2.7.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/7 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004340glucokinase activity IBA--
    GO:0004396hexokinase activity TAS9278438
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
    GO:0005536glucose binding IEA--
    GO:0008865fructokinase activity IBA--
         
    HK2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for HK2:
     Increased HPV18 LCR reporter a  Increased Hepatitis C virus re 

         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Hk2):
     embryogenesis  growth/size  mortality/aging  normal 

    HK2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Hk2tm1Laak for HK2

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for HK2 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for HK2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for HK2 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for HK2 

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat HK2
    8/39 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate HK2 (see all 39):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-765 hsa-miR-10b* hsa-let-7g hsa-miR-9 hsa-let-7a hsa-miR-330-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidHK2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
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    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for HK2
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: HK2 (NM_000189)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for HK2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat HK2
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                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of HK2 

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for HK2


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for HK2 About   (see all 18)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)
    Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)0.60
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis0.46
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis0.60
    2Galactose metabolism
    Galactose metabolism0.46
    Glycogen metabolism0.40
    Galactose metabolism0.46
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.40
    Metabolic pathways0.40
    4Regulation of Glucokinase by Glucokinase Regulatory Protein
    Glucose transport0.87
    Hexose transport0.87
    5SLC-mediated transmembrane transport
    SLC-mediated transmembrane transport0.50
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules0.50

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    4 EMD Millipore Pathways for HK2
        Glycogen metabolism
    Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)
    Galactose metabolism
    Transcription CREM signaling in testis


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for HK2
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    4 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for HK2
        Galactose metabolism
    Glycogen metabolism
    Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)
    Transcription CREM signaling in testis

    2 BioSystems Pathways for HK2
        Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
    HIF-1-alpha transcription factor network

    5/6        Reactome Pathways for HK2 (see all 6)
        Metabolism of carbohydrates
    SLC-mediated transmembrane transport
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules
    Hexose transport
    Metabolism


    5/12         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for HK2) (see all 12):
        Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
    Fructose and mannose metabolism
    Galactose metabolism
    Starch and sucrose metabolism
    Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HXK2_HUMAN, P52789
    Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; hexose metabolism


    HK2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for HK2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/64 Interacting proteins for HK2 (P527892, 3 ENSP000002905734) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 64)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    UBQLN1Q9UMX02, 3, ENSP000003655764MINT-66168 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000365576
    UBQLN4Q9NRR52, 3, ENSP000003572924MINT-2859660 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000357292
    SLC2A4P146723, ENSP000003209354I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000320935
    PRKCEQ021563, ENSP000003061244I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000306124
    PTGDSP412223, ENSP000003606874I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000360687
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/13 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001678cellular glucose homeostasis IBA--
    GO:0005975carbohydrate metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process ----
    GO:0006096glycolysis IBA--
    GO:0007595lactation IEA--

    HK2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    HK2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    EMD Millipore small molecules for HK2:
    Small Molecule - inhibitor
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Compounds for HK2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    2-Deoxy-D-glucoseNon-metabolizable glucose analog; hexokinase substrate[154-17-6]
    LonidamineMitochondrial hexokinase inhibitor[50264-69-2]

    10/18 HMDB Compounds for HK2 (see all 18)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    Alpha-D-GlucoseHexopyranose (see all 11)492-62-6--
    Beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphatebeta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate (see all 2)----
    Beta-D-Glucoseb-D-Glucopyranose (see all 8)492-61-5--
    Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphatebeta-D-glucose 6-(dihydrogen phosphate) (see all 3)----
    D-Glucose(+)-Glucose (see all 23)50-99-7--
    D-MannoseDL-mannose (see all 13)3458-28-4--
    Glucosamine2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (see all 10)3416-24-8--
    Glucosamine 6-phosphate2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate (see all 14)3616-42-0--

    10/29 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for HK2 gene (see all 29)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    3-bromopyruvate 90.3 17 19285479 (3), 19067133 (2), 15710218 (1), 20392992 (1) (see all 5)
    glucose 6-phosphate 76.7 17 8567628 (1), 10442567 (1), 15752986 (1), 7883123 (1) (see all 14)
    glucose 73 190 17064576 (4), 7883123 (3), 8786021 (3), 18250992 (3) (see all 80)
    glycogen 69 26 9837860 (2), 15833942 (1), 16288047 (1), 11319725 (1) (see all 18)
    mannoheptulose 53.5 1 10680171 (1)
    18f fluorodeoxyglucose 46.9 7 15967114 (1), 18250992 (1)
    atp 46.2 13 16892090 (2), 15691486 (1), 15710218 (1), 19140804 (1) (see all 8)
    pyruvate 44.9 12 17785433 (2), 7589821 (1), 20394812 (1), 17352240 (1) (see all 7)
    2-deoxyglucose 31.8 3 15781061 (1), 18694801 (1), 8772513 (1)
    lactate 31.8 4 15752986 (1), 20137345 (1), 19690031 (1), 16782875 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about HK2 / HXK2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for HK2 gene: 
    NM_000189.4  

    Unigene Clusters for HK2:

    Hexokinase 2
    Hs.406266  [show with all ESTs], Hs.591588  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequences: AF086198, NM_000189
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000290573(uc002snd.3) ENST00000409174 ENST00000472302
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    8/39 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate HK2 (see all 39):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-765 hsa-miR-10b* hsa-let-7g hsa-miR-9 hsa-let-7a hsa-miR-330-3p
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: HK2 (NM_000189)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for HK2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat HK2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of HK2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of HK2 
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for HK2
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat HK2
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat HK2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF148513.1 AK290357.1 BC021116.1 BC064369.1 CR749202.1 

    13 DOTS entries:

    DT.100795595  DT.86837439  DT.304276  DT.91706939  DT.95180545  DT.100662368  DT.86849417  DT.97785770 
    DT.403480  DT.92025746  DT.100795592  DT.121317811  DT.40190736 

    24/216 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 216):

    AA135849 AA137163 AF148513 AI673124 AW029413 BC064369 AI085541 AI005515 
    AI918721 BM706373 CK300565 BF001822 AA470096 AA534934 CD742564 BF115343 
    AA774416 BE301965 BQ187231 BU172550 AI671884 BC021116 BE018347 BX112153 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    HK2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      HK2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCTTTGCTTT
    HK2 Expression
    About this image


    HK2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/10 selected tissues (see all 10) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
             brain/midbrain   
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Limb (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             limb/hindlimb   
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Thoracic Perivascular Adipose
     
     Peripheral Nervous System (Nervous System)
             spinal/ganglion/dorsal root ganglion   

    See HK2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for HK2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene clusters: Hs.406266 Hs.591588

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HXK2_HUMAN, P52789
    Tissue specificity: Predominant hexokinase isozyme expressed in insulin-responsive tissues such as skeletal muscle

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including HK2 (see all 8): 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Insulin Resistance in human mouse rat
              p53 Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Skeletal Muscle: Myogenesis & Myopathy in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for HK2 gene from 9/18 species (see all 18)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Hk21 , 5 hexokinase 21, 5 87.28(n)1
    94.22(a)1
      6 (35.94 cM)5
    152771  NM_013820.31  NP_038848.11 
     827250255 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves HK21 hexokinase 2 80.28(n)
    86.03(a)
      374044  NM_204212.1  NP_989543.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia HK26
    HK36
    Uncharacterized protein
    82(a)
    34(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    possible ortholog
    GL343662.1(151389-167406)
    GL343526.1(1010-12327)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia BX770213.12   -- 71.98(n)    BX770213.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.105532 Danio rerio mRNA similar to hexokinase 2 (cDNA clone MGC55926 IMAGE3819168), complete cds less 75.49(n)    BC045496.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Hex-A1 , 3 hexokinase3
    Hexokinase A1
    48(a)
    (best of 4)3
    56.77(n)1
    51.14(a)1
      1 8E103
    458751  NM_080109.31  NP_524848.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F14B4.21 , 3 hexokinase3
    Protein F14B4.21
    48(a)
    (best of 3)3
    54.35(n)1
    51.7(a)1
      I(9279949-9281838)3
    1727511  NM_001025936.21  NP_001021107.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GLK16
    HXK16
    (see all 4)
    Glucokinase, catalyzes the phosphorylation of gluc...
    Hexokinase isoenzyme 1, a cytosolic protein that c...
    (see all 4)
    34(a)
    31(a)
    (see all 4)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 4)
    III(50838-52340)
    VI(253592-255049)
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida NM_191156.12   -- 73.46(n)    NM_191156.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for HK2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for HK2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for HK2 gene
    HK32  HKDC12  HK12  GCK2  
    5 SIMAP similar genes for HK2 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     HXK2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp686M1669    HKDC1    HK1    GCK    HK3

    HK2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for HK2
    PGOHUM00000241413


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HXK2_HUMAN, P52789
    Polymorphism: Although found in NIDDM patients, genetic variations of HK2 do not contribute to the disease


    10/1660 SNPs in HK2 are shown (see all 1660)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0105804
    ----see VAR_0105802 R Q mis40--------
    VAR_0105774
    ----see VAR_0105772 L F mis40--------
    VAR_0105784
    ----see VAR_0105782 A V mis40--------
    rs283630551,2
    C,F--74985762(+) AGGATGGGG    
       GCC
    /-
    CTACA
    1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.16NS 180
    rs1843254321,2
    --75057801(+) CATGCA/GTCAGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1430966221,2
    C--75057870(+) AGCTTA/CTCATC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs744407721,2
    C,F--75057978(+) AAAGCC/GTGATG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.14WA 118
    rs1481930301,2
    --75058029(+) GACTCA/GGGACC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs771271061,2
    C,F--75058048(+) GATTAG/CAGTTC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.07WA 118
    rs1886746231,2
    --75058129(+) CTAGAA/CATTTC 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for HK2 (75059782 - 75120486 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 9 variations for HK2:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2677814CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2659874CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv829465CNV Loss20364138
    nsv519007CNV Loss19592680
    dgv4168n71CNV Gain21882294
    nsv874296CNV Gain21882294
    esv2751900CNV Gain17911159
    nsv874292CNV Gain21882294
    nsv518615CNV Gain19592680


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): HK2
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 601125    OMIM disorders: --

    20/42 diseases for HK2 (see all 42):    About MalaCards
    brain glioblastoma multiforme    kcna5-related familial atrial fibrillation    chondroblastoma    familial atrial fibrillation
    maturity-onset diabetes of the young    growth hormone deficiency    hodgkin's lymphoma    non-hodgkin lymphoma
    pancreatic cancer    gastric adenocarcinoma    giant cell tumor    insulin resistance
    diffuse large b-cell lymphoma    noma    glioblastoma    hepatocellular carcinoma
    b-cell lymphomas    esophageal cancer    hypoxia    intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for HK2:
    Diabetes mellitus

    HK2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    10/21 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for HK2 gene (see all 21)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    niddm 54.4 49 9519744 (5), 8675629 (5), 8786021 (4), 7883120 (4) (see all 12)
    insulin sensitivity 52.3 5 16763003 (2), 7883123 (1), 17088412 (1)
    insulin resistance 48.3 19 8786021 (2), 8834247 (2), 10656921 (2), 7589821 (1) (see all 12)
    cancer 42.3 47 18780167 (3), 18979289 (3), 16892090 (3), 12893819 (3) (see all 23)
    tumors 38.6 75 12871125 (4), 18982473 (4), 10946615 (3), 19690031 (3) (see all 30)
    hyperinsulinemia 37.2 9 11287353 (2), 17088412 (2), 7883122 (1), 10877213 (1)
    hepatocellular carcinoma 33.9 15 18357395 (2), 18250992 (2), 15710218 (1), 19690031 (1) (see all 7)
    pancreatic cancer 25 9 17530485 (3), 11688991 (1), 11850481 (1), 18347186 (1) (see all 6)
    necrosis 14.9 2 14672622 (1)
    glioma 12.8 2 15781061 (1), 16899068 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): HK2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: HK2 (36 documents)

    Export disorders for HK2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for HK2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 251):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with HK2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II among patients with NIDDM. (PubMed id 7883120)1, 2, 4, 9 Laakso M.... Deeb S.S. (1995)
    2. Analysis of the hexokinase II gene in subjects with insulin resistance and NIDDM and detection of a Gln142-->His substitution. (PubMed id 7883122)1, 2, 4, 9 Vidal-Puig A.... Moller D.E. (1995)
    3. Identification of four amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II and studies of relationships to NIDDM, glucose effectiveness, and insulin sensitivity. (PubMed id 7883123)1, 2, 4, 9 Echwald S.M.... Pedersen O. (1995)
    4. Human hexokinase II gene: exon-intron organization, mutation screening in NIDDM, and its relationship to muscle hexokinase activity. (PubMed id 8786021)1, 2, 9 Lehto M.... Groop L.C. (1995)
    5. Human hexokinase II: sequence and homology to other hexokinases. (PubMed id 8250948)1, 2, 9 Deeb S.S.... Laakso M. (1993)
    6. Steady state transcript levels of the type II hexokinase and type 1 glucose transporter in human tumor cell lines. (PubMed id 7518342)1, 2, 9 Shinohara Y.... Terada H. (1994)
    7. Bivariate genome-wide association analyses of femoral neck bone geometry and appendicular lean mass. (PubMed id 22087292)1, 4 Sun L....Deng H.W. (2011)
    8. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gen es influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (2010)
    9. Glucose metabolism gene polymorphisms and clinical ou tcome in pancreatic cancer. (PubMed id 20845477)1, 4 Dong X....Li D. (2010)
    10. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 3099 HGNC: 4923 AceView: HK2 Ensembl:ENSG00000159399 euGenes: HUgn3099
    ECgene: HK2 Kegg: 3099 H-InvDB: HK2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for HK2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for HK2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/hk2/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexokinase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for HK2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving HK2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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