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Aliases for HK2 Gene

Aliases for HK2 Gene

  • Hexokinase 2 2 3
  • Muscle Form Hexokinase 3 4
  • Hexokinase Type II 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • HK II 3 4
  • Hexokinase-2, Muscle 3
  • Hexokinase-2 3
  • EC 2.7.1 63
  • HKII 3
  • HXK2 3

External Ids for HK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HK2 Gene

  • GC02P075198
  • GC02P075018
  • GC02P075035
  • GC02P075034
  • GC02P074971
  • GC02P075059

Summaries for HK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HK2 Gene

  • Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. This gene encodes hexokinase 2, the predominant form found in skeletal muscle. It localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Expression of this gene is insulin-responsive, and studies in rat suggest that it is involved in the increased rate of glycolysis seen in rapidly growing cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

GeneCards Summary for HK2 Gene

HK2 (Hexokinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HK2 include chondroblastoma and pancreatic cancer. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include glucose binding and fructokinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GCK.

Tocris Summary for HK2 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Hexokinases catalyze the first essential step of glucose metabolism, the conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. This directly couples extramitochondrial glycolysis to intramitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. There are two subtypes of mitochondrial hexokinases, HK1 and HK2, each of which has four isozymes designated hexokinase I, II, III and IV. HK1 and HK2 are both localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, with HK1 being found in nervous tissue and HK2 in insulin-responsive tissues such as skeletal muscle. Activation of mitochondrial hexokinases is regulated by Akt/PKB-mediated phosphorylation and they are subject to inhibiton by their end product, glucose-6-phosphate. In addition to glucose metabolism, mitochondrial hexokinases have been implicated in antiapoptotic and cell survival signaling.

Gene Wiki entry for HK2 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HK2 Gene

Genomics for HK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HK2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for HK2 Gene

74,832,655 bp from pter
74,893,359 bp from pter
60,705 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for HK2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for HK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HK2 Gene

Proteins for HK2 Gene

  • Protein details for HK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D6W5J2
    • Q8WU87
    • Q9UN82

    Protein attributes for HK2 Gene

    917 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    102380 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • In vertebrates there are four major glucose-phosphorylating isoenzymes, designated hexokinase I, II, III and IV (glucokinase)

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for HK2 Gene

Proteomics data for HK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HK2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys41, Lys62, Lys173, Lys323, Lys488, and Lys899
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for HK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for HK2 (HK2)

Domains for HK2 Gene

Protein Domains for HK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P52789
  • The N- and C-terminal halves of this hexokinase show extensive sequence similarity to each other. The catalytic activity is associated with the C-terminus while regulatory function is associated with the N-terminus. Each domain can bind a single glucose and Gluc-6-P molecule
  • Contains 2 hexokinase domains.
  • Belongs to the hexokinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HK2: view

No data available for Gene Families for HK2 Gene

Function for HK2 Gene

Molecular function for HK2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
hexokinase 2,108kDa,muscle and fat tissues,glycolysis,gluconeogenesis,energy pathways
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + D-hexose = ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Hexokinase is an allosteric enzyme inhibited by its product Glc-6-P

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004340 glucokinase activity IBA --
GO:0004396 hexokinase activity TAS 9278438
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0005536 glucose binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HK2: view

Animal Models for HK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HK2:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HK2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for HK2 Gene

Localization for HK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HK2 Gene

Mitochondrion outer membrane. Note=Its hydrophobic N-terminal sequence may be involved in membrane binding. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 2
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion --
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane IDA 18350175
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 19946888
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HK2: view

Pathways for HK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HK2: view

PCR Array Products

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P52789-HXK2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; hexose metabolism

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001678 cellular glucose homeostasis IBA --
GO:0002931 response to ischemia IEA --
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HK2: view

Compounds for HK2 Gene

(1) Tocris Compounds for HK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
GKA 50 Glucokinase activator [851884-87-2]

(1) ApexBio Compounds for HK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Lonidamine [50264-69-2]

(18) HMDB Compounds for HK2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Hexopyranose
Beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
  • beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
Not Available
  • b-D-Glucopyranose

(29) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for HK2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
3-bromopyruvate 90.3 8
glucose 6-phosphate 76.7 14
glucose 73 118
glycogen 69 19
mannoheptulose 53.5 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HK2: view

Transcripts for HK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for HK2 Gene

Hexokinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HK2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (7.0), Muscle - Skeletal (4.9), and Colon - Transverse (4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for HK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (14.0), Retina (13.2), Bone (7.6), and Testis (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HK2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HK2 Gene Hs.406266

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HK2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Predominant hexokinase isozyme expressed in insulin-responsive tissues such as skeletal muscle
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with HK2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Expression partners for HK2 Gene

Orthologs for HK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for HK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HK2 35
  • 90.44 (n)
  • 95.42 (a)
HK2 36
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HK2 35
  • 90.1 (n)
  • 95.54 (a)
HK2 36
  • 96 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hk2 35
  • 87.28 (n)
  • 94.22 (a)
Hk2 16
Hk2 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HK2 35
  • 99.49 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
HK2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hk2 35
  • 87.2 (n)
  • 94.44 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HK2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HK2 36
  • 67 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HK2 35
  • 80.28 (n)
  • 86.03 (a)
HK2 36
  • 84 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HK2 36
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100485269 35
  • 75.62 (n)
  • 84.83 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.10553 35
hk2 35
  • 72.93 (n)
  • 79.15 (a)
hk2 36
  • 78 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Hex-A 37
  • 48 (a)
Hex-C 37
  • 45 (a)
Hex-t1 37
  • 30 (a)
Hex-t2 37
  • 43 (a)
Hex-A 36
  • 42 (a)
Hex-C 36
  • 44 (a)
Hex-t2 36
  • 41 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F14B4.2 37
  • 48 (a)
H25P06.1 37
  • 39 (a)
Y77E11A.1 37
  • 34 (a)
F14B4.2 35
  • 54.12 (n)
  • 51.7 (a)
F14B4.2 36
  • 47 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes EMI2 36
  • 32 (a)
GLK1 36
  • 34 (a)
HXK1 36
  • 34 (a)
HXK2 36
  • 32 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0190400 35
  • 47.94 (n)
  • 39.76 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11095 36
  • 50 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HK2 Gene

Gene Tree for HK2 (if available)
Gene Tree for HK2 (if available)

Paralogs for HK2 Gene

Paralogs for HK2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for HK2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins: Pseudogenes for HK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HK2: view

Variants for HK2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HK2 Gene

Although found in NIDDM patients, genetic variations of HK2 do not contribute to the disease

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs943 -- 74,891,203(+) AAAAT(G/T)ATCTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs600578 -- 74,837,821(+) CAGGC(A/G)TGCGC intron-variant
rs602898 -- 74,838,346(+) TAGGC(C/T)AAAGG intron-variant
rs603743 -- 74,838,523(+) GAGAT(A/G)GAAGA intron-variant
rs604112 -- 74,878,671(+) ATGCT(A/G)TCTTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv874292 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv518615 CNV Gain 19592680
esv2751900 CNV Gain 17911159
nsv874296 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv4168n71 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2677814 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2659874 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv519007 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv829465 CNV Loss 20364138

Relevant External Links for HK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for HK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for HK2 Gene in MalaCards »

(2) Diseases for HK2 Gene including...

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for HK2 Gene

(21) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for HK2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
niddm 54.4 33
insulin sensitivity 52.3 4
insulin resistance 48.3 15
cancer 42.3 35
tumors 38.6 47

Relevant External Links for HK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HK2: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HK2 Gene

Publications for HK2 Gene

  1. Amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II among patients with NIDDM. (PMID: 7883120) Laakso M. … Deeb S.S. (Diabetes 1995) 3 4 23 48
  2. Analysis of the hexokinase II gene in subjects with insulin resistance and NIDDM and detection of a Gln142-->His substitution. (PMID: 7883122) Vidal-Puig A. … Moller D.E. (Diabetes 1995) 3 4 23 48
  3. Identification of four amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II and studies of relationships to NIDDM, glucose effectiveness, and insulin sensitivity. (PMID: 7883123) Echwald S.M. … Pedersen O. (Diabetes 1995) 3 4 23 48
  4. Steady state transcript levels of the type II hexokinase and type 1 glucose transporter in human tumor cell lines. (PMID: 7518342) Shinohara Y. … Terada H. (Cancer Lett. 1994) 3 4 23
  5. Human hexokinase II: sequence and homology to other hexokinases. (PMID: 8250948) Deeb S.S. … Laakso M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1993) 3 4 23

Products for HK2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for HK2

Sources for HK2 Gene

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