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Aliases for HK2 Gene

Aliases for HK2 Gene

  • Hexokinase 2 2 3 5
  • Muscle Form Hexokinase 3 4
  • Hexokinase Type II 3 4
  • EC 2.7.1.1 4 63
  • HK II 3 4
  • Hexokinase-2, Muscle 3
  • EC 2.7.1 63
  • HKII 3
  • HXK2 3

External Ids for HK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HK2 Gene

  • GC02P075198
  • GC02P075018
  • GC02P075035
  • GC02P075034
  • GC02P074971
  • GC02P075059

Summaries for HK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HK2 Gene

  • Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. This gene encodes hexokinase 2, the predominant form found in skeletal muscle. It localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Expression of this gene is insulin-responsive, and studies in rat suggest that it is involved in the increased rate of glycolysis seen in rapidly growing cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

GeneCards Summary for HK2 Gene

HK2 (Hexokinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HK2 include pediatric osteosarcoma and chondroblastoma. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glycosaminoglycan metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor and fructokinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GCK.

Tocris Summary for HK2 Gene

  • Hexokinases catalyze the first essential step of glucose metabolism, the conversion of the substrate glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. This phosphorylation event directly couples extramitochondrial glycolysis to intramitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

Gene Wiki entry for HK2 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HK2 Gene

Genomics for HK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HK2 Gene

Genomic Location for HK2 Gene

Chromosome:
2
Start:
74,832,655 bp from pter
End:
74,893,359 bp from pter
Size:
60,705 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for HK2 Gene

Genes around HK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HK2 Gene

Proteins for HK2 Gene

  • Protein details for HK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P52789-HXK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Hexokinase-2
    Protein Accession:
    P52789
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D6W5J2
    • Q8WU87
    • Q9UN82

    Protein attributes for HK2 Gene

    Size:
    917 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    102380 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer (By similarity). Interacts with TIGAR; the interaction increases hexokinase HK2 activity in a hypoxia- and HIF1A-dependent manner (PubMed:23185017).
    Miscellaneous:
    • In vertebrates there are four major glucose-phosphorylating isoenzymes, designated hexokinase I, II, III and IV (glucokinase).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for HK2 Gene

Proteomics data for HK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HK2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 41, Lys 62, Lys 173, Lys 323, Lys 488, and Lys 899
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for HK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for HK2 (HK2)

Domains & Families for HK2 Gene

Protein Domains for HK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P52789

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

HXK2_HUMAN :
  • The N- and C-terminal halves of this hexokinase show extensive sequence similarity to each other. The catalytic activity is associated with the C-terminus while regulatory function is associated with the N-terminus. Each domain can bind a single glucose and Gluc-6-P molecule.
  • Belongs to the hexokinase family.
Domain:
  • The N- and C-terminal halves of this hexokinase show extensive sequence similarity to each other. The catalytic activity is associated with the C-terminus while regulatory function is associated with the N-terminus. Each domain can bind a single glucose and Gluc-6-P molecule.
  • Contains 2 hexokinase domains.
Family:
  • Belongs to the hexokinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HK2: view

No data available for Gene Families for HK2 Gene

Function for HK2 Gene

Molecular function for HK2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
hexokinase 2,108kDa,muscle and fat tissues,glycolysis,gluconeogenesis,energy pathways
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + D-hexose = ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Hexokinase is an allosteric enzyme inhibited by its product Glc-6-P.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HK2: view

Animal Models for HK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HK2:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HK2 Gene

Localization for HK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HK2 Gene

Mitochondrion outer membrane. Note=Its hydrophobic N-terminal sequence may be involved in membrane binding. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for HK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 2
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane IDA 18350175
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 19946888
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HK2: view

Pathways & Interactions for HK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HK2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P52789-HXK2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; hexose metabolism.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001678 cellular glucose homeostasis IBA --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process IEA,TAS 23962723
GO:0008645 hexose transport TAS --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HK2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HK2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HK2 Gene

(19) Drugs for HK2 Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, ApexBio, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Glucosamine Approved Nutra 53
2-deoxyglucose Experimental, Investigational Pharma Non-metabolizable glucose analog; hexokinase substrate 0
Glucose 6-phosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Beta-D-Glucose Experimental Pharma 0

(31) Additional Compounds for HK2 Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
Alpha-D-Glucose
  • a-D-Glucopyranose
  • a-D-Glucose
  • a-Dextrose
  • a-Glucose
  • alpha-D-Glucopyranose
492-62-6
Beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
  • beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
  • beta-D-Glucose 6-(dihydrogen phosphate)
  • beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
dADP
  • 2'-Deoxyadenosine-5'-diphosphate
  • dADP
  • Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
2793-06-8

(3) Tocris Compounds for HK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
2-Deoxy-D-glucose Non-metabolizable glucose analog; hexokinase substrate 154-17-6
GKA 50 Glucokinase activator 851884-87-2
Lonidamine Mitochondrial hexokinase inhibitor 50264-69-2

(1) ApexBio Compounds for HK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Lonidamine 50264-69-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HK2: view

Transcripts for HK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for HK2 Gene

Hexokinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
HK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
HK2

Expression for HK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x7.0), Muscle - Skeletal (x4.9), and Colon - Transverse (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (14.0), Retina (13.2), Bone (7.6), and Testis (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HK2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HK2 Gene Hs.406266

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HK2 Gene

P52789-HXK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Predominant hexokinase isozyme expressed in insulin-responsive tissues such as skeletal muscle.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HK2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for HK2 Gene

Orthologs for HK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for HK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HK2 35
  • 90.44 (n)
  • 95.42 (a)
HK2 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HK2 35
  • 90.1 (n)
  • 95.54 (a)
HK2 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hk2 35
  • 87.28 (n)
  • 94.22 (a)
Hk2 16
Hk2 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HK2 35
  • 99.49 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
HK2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hk2 35
  • 87.2 (n)
  • 94.44 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HK2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HK2 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HK2 35
  • 80.28 (n)
  • 86.03 (a)
HK2 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HK2 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100485269 35
  • 75.62 (n)
  • 84.83 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.10553 35
hk2 35
  • 72.93 (n)
  • 79.15 (a)
hk2 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Hex-A 37
  • 48 (a)
Hex-C 37
  • 45 (a)
Hex-t1 37
  • 30 (a)
Hex-t2 37
  • 43 (a)
Hex-A 36
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
Hex-C 36
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Hex-t2 36
  • 41 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F14B4.2 37
  • 48 (a)
H25P06.1 37
  • 39 (a)
Y77E11A.1 37
  • 34 (a)
F14B4.2 35
  • 54.12 (n)
  • 51.7 (a)
F14B4.2 36
  • 47 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes EMI2 36
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
GLK1 36
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
HXK1 36
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
HXK2 36
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0190400 35
  • 47.94 (n)
  • 39.76 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11095 36
  • 50 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for HK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for HK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for HK2 (if available)

Paralogs for HK2 Gene

Paralogs for HK2 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for HK2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for HK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HK2: view

Variants for HK2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HK2 Gene

P52789-HXK2_HUMAN
Although found in NIDDM patients, genetic variations of HK2 do not contribute to the disease (PubMed:7883122, PubMed:7883123).

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2229621 - 74,872,350(+) CTACA(A/T)ATCAA reference, missense
VAR_010577 -
VAR_010578 -
rs61748096 - 74,878,713(+) AGGCC(C/T)GTGAG reference, missense
rs145124653 - 74,880,489(+) GGAGC(A/G)AGGTC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv874292 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv518615 CNV Gain 19592680
esv2751900 CNV Gain 17911159
nsv874296 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv4168n71 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2677814 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2659874 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv519007 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv829465 CNV Loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for HK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 37.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 8.44; 85.68% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
HK2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
HK2

Disorders for HK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for HK2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pediatric osteosarcoma
  • childhood osteosarcoma
chondroblastoma
  • chondroblastoma of bone
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent
  • diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 2
hepatocellular carcinoma
  • hepatocellular carcinoma, somatic
maturity-onset diabetes of the young
  • mason-type diabetes
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HK2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for HK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
HK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
HK2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
HK2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HK2 Gene

Publications for HK2 Gene

  1. Amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II among patients with NIDDM. (PMID: 7883120) Laakso M. … Deeb S.S. (Diabetes 1995) 3 4 23 48 67
  2. Mitochondrial hexokinase II promotes neuronal survival and acts downstream of glycogen synthase kinase-3. (PMID: 19033437) Gimenez-Cassina A. … Diaz-Nido J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 23
  3. Voltage-dependent anion channel 1-based peptides interact with hexokinase to prevent its anti-apoptotic activity. (PMID: 19049977) Arzoine L. … Shoshan-Barmatz V. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 23
  4. Enzymatic properties of the N- and C-terminal halves of human hexokinase II. (PMID: 19558793) Ahn K.J. … Lee J.D. (BMB Rep 2009) 3 23
  5. Silencing hexokinase II gene sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil. (PMID: 19579598) Peng Q. … Liang H. (Hepatogastroenterology 2009) 3 23

Products for HK2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for HK2

Sources for HK2 Gene

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