Aliases for HK2 Gene
External Ids for HK2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HK2 Gene
Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. This gene encodes hexokinase 2, the predominant form found in skeletal muscle. It localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Expression of this gene is insulin-responsive, and studies in rat suggest that it is involved in the increased rate of glycolysis seen in rapidly growing cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
GeneCards Summary for HK2 Gene
HK2 (Hexokinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HK2 include chondroblastoma and pancreatic cancer. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include glucose binding and fructokinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GCK.
Mitochondrial Hexokinases catalyze the first essential step of glucose metabolism, the conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. This directly couples extramitochondrial glycolysis to intramitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. There are two subtypes of mitochondrial hexokinases, HK1 and HK2, each of which has four isozymes designated hexokinase I, II, III and IV. HK1 and HK2 are both localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, with HK1 being found in nervous tissue and HK2 in insulin-responsive tissues such as skeletal muscle. Activation of mitochondrial hexokinases is regulated by Akt/PKB-mediated phosphorylation and they are subject to inhibiton by their end product, glucose-6-phosphate. In addition to glucose metabolism, mitochondrial hexokinases have been implicated in antiapoptotic and cell survival signaling.