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Aliases for HIST1H2AD Gene

Aliases for HIST1H2AD Gene

  • Histone Cluster 1, H2ad 2 3 5
  • H2A Histone Family, Member G 2 3
  • Histone 1, H2ad 2 3
  • Histone H2A.3 3 4
  • Histone H2A/G 3 4
  • H2AFG 3 4
  • Histone H2AD 3
  • H2A.3 3
  • H2A/G 3

External Ids for HIST1H2AD Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HIST1H2AD Gene

  • H2AFG

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HIST1H2AD Gene

  • GC06M026256
  • GC06M026309
  • GC06M026311
  • GC06M026313
  • GC06M026315
  • GC06M026199
  • GC06M026142

Summaries for HIST1H2AD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HIST1H2AD Gene

  • Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. This structure consists of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a nucleosome, an octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a replication-dependent histone that is a member of the histone H2A family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails; instead, they contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015]

GeneCards Summary for HIST1H2AD Gene

HIST1H2AD (Histone Cluster 1, H2ad) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Chromatin organization and Packaging Of Telomere Ends. GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is HIST1H2AM.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HIST1H2AD Gene

  • Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.

Gene Wiki entry for HIST1H2AD Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HIST1H2AD Gene

Genomics for HIST1H2AD Gene

Regulatory Elements for HIST1H2AD Gene

Promoters for HIST1H2AD Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around HIST1H2AD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HIST1H2AD Gene

26,198,784 bp from pter
26,199,293 bp from pter
510 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HIST1H2AD Gene

Genes around HIST1H2AD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HIST1H2AD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HIST1H2AD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HIST1H2AD Gene

Proteins for HIST1H2AD Gene

  • Protein details for HIST1H2AD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Histone H2A type 1-D
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0PK91
    • P57754
    • Q6FGY6

    Protein attributes for HIST1H2AD Gene

    130 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    14107 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA.

neXtProt entry for HIST1H2AD Gene

Proteomics data for HIST1H2AD Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HIST1H2AD Gene

  • Crotonylation (Kcr) is specifically present in male germ cells and marks testis-specific genes in post-meiotic cells, including X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. Crotonylation marks active promoters and enhancers and confers resistance to transcriptional repressors. It is also associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes.
  • Deiminated on Arg-4 in granulocytes upon calcium entry.
  • Glutamine methylation at Gln-105 (H2AQ104me) by FBL is specifically dedicated to polymerase I. It is present at 35S ribosomal DNA locus and impairs binding of the FACT complex (PubMed:24352239).
  • Monoubiquitination of Lys-120 (H2AK119Ub) by RING1, TRIM27 and RNF2/RING2 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression and participates in X chromosome inactivation of female mammals. It is involved in the initiation of both imprinted and random X inactivation. Ubiquitinated H2A is enriched in inactive X chromosome chromatin. Ubiquitination of H2A functions downstream of methylation of Lys-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me). H2AK119Ub by RNF2/RING2 can also be induced by ultraviolet and may be involved in DNA repair. Monoubiquitination of Lys-120 (H2AK119Ub) by TRIM27 may promote transformation of cells in a number of breast cancers (PubMed:25470042). Following DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), it is ubiquitinated through Lys-63 linkage of ubiquitin moieties by the E2 ligase UBE2N and the E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168, leading to the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Ubiquitination at Lys-14 and Lys-16 (H2AK13Ub and H2AK15Ub, respectively) in response to DNA damage is initiated by RNF168 that mediates monoubiquitination at these 2 sites, and Lys-63-linked ubiquitin are then conjugated to monoubiquitin; RNF8 is able to extend Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains in vitro. H2AK119Ub and ionizing radiation-induced Lys-63-linked ubiquitination (H2AK13Ub and H2AK15Ub) are distinct events.
  • Phosphorylation on Ser-2 (H2AS1ph) is enhanced during mitosis. Phosphorylation on Ser-2 by RPS6KA5/MSK1 directly represses transcription. Acetylation of H3 inhibits Ser-2 phosphorylation by RPS6KA5/MSK1. Phosphorylation at Thr-121 (H2AT120ph) by VPRBP is present in the regulatory region of many tumor suppresor genes and down-regulates their transcription.
  • Symmetric dimethylation on Arg-4 by the PRDM1/PRMT5 complex may play a crucial role in the germ-cell lineage.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 14 and Lys 16
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for HIST1H2AD Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HIST1H2AD Gene

Domains & Families for HIST1H2AD Gene

Gene Families for HIST1H2AD Gene

Protein Domains for HIST1H2AD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HIST1H2AD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the histone H2A family.
  • Belongs to the histone H2A family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HIST1H2AD: view

Function for HIST1H2AD Gene

Molecular function for HIST1H2AD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HIST1H2AD: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HIST1H2AD Gene

Localization for HIST1H2AD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HIST1H2AD Gene

Nucleus. Chromosome.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HIST1H2AD Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HIST1H2AD gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HIST1H2AD Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HIST1H2AD Gene

SuperPathways for HIST1H2AD Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3
2 Cellular Senescence
3 Chromosome Maintenance
4 Packaging Of Telomere Ends
5 Cell Cycle, Mitotic
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HIST1H2AD: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HIST1H2AD Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HIST1H2AD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HIST1H2AD Gene

(1) Drugs for HIST1H2AD Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
calcium Nutra 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HIST1H2AD: view

Transcripts for HIST1H2AD Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HIST1H2AD Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(30) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HIST1H2AD Gene

Histone cluster 1, H2ad:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HIST1H2AD Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HIST1H2AD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HIST1H2AD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HIST1H2AD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HIST1H2AD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Blymphocyte (27.2), Tlymphocyte (16.0), Liver, secretome (8.0), and Monocytes (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HIST1H2AD Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HIST1H2AD Gene Hs.626666

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HIST1H2AD: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for HIST1H2AD Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HIST1H2AD Gene

Orthologs for HIST1H2AD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HIST1H2AD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC100848734 35
  • 88.46 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC100856200 35
  • 88.72 (n)
  • 99.23 (a)
-- 36
  • 98 (a)
-- 36
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hist1h2ab 35
  • 87.44 (n)
  • 99.23 (a)
Hist1h2ab 16
Hist1h2ad 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100360754 35
  • 85.64 (n)
  • 99.23 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 93 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 91 (a)
-- 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HIST1H2AD 36
  • 100 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 98 (a)
-- 36
  • 98 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HIST1H2AD:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for HIST1H2AD Gene

Gene Tree for HIST1H2AD (if available)
Gene Tree for HIST1H2AD (if available)

Paralogs for HIST1H2AD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HIST1H2AD: view

Variants for HIST1H2AD Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HIST1H2AD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv428137 CNV Loss 18775914
dgv375n21 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv883490 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for HIST1H2AD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 23.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.26; 5.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar and Relevant External Links for HIST1H2AD Gene

Disorders for HIST1H2AD Gene

Relevant External Links for HIST1H2AD

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for HIST1H2AD Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HIST1H2AD Gene

Publications for HIST1H2AD Gene

  1. The human and mouse replication-dependent histone genes. (PMID: 12408966) Marzluff W.F. … Maltais L.J. (Genomics 2002) 2 3 4 67
  2. Human histone gene organization: nonregular arrangement within a large cluster. (PMID: 9119399) Albig W. … Doenecke D. (Genomics 1997) 2 3
  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of adult height in East Asians identifies 17 novel loci. (PMID: 25429064) He M. … Qi L. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2015) 3
  4. Proteomic analyses reveal distinct chromatin-associated and soluble transcription factor complexes. (PMID: 25609649) Li X. … Chen J. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2015) 3
  5. Luzp4 defines a new mRNA export pathway in cancer cells. (PMID: 25662211) Viphakone N. … Wilson S.A. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2015) 3

Products for HIST1H2AD Gene

Sources for HIST1H2AD Gene