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HINT2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 53
GCID: GC09M035812

Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 2

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 21 2     HIT-172
HINT-22 3     Histidine Triad Nucleotide-Binding Protein 2, Mitochondrial2
HINT-32 3     Protein Kinase C Inhibitor-22
HIT-17kDa2 3     EC 3.-.-.-3
PKCI-1-Related HIT Protein2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 183441   Entrez Gene: 846812   Ensembl: ENSG000001371337   OMIM: 6099975   UniProtKB: Q9BX683   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for HINT2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC09M036125 GC09M035982 GC09M035802


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for HINT2 Gene:
Histidine triad proteins, such as HINT2, are nucleotide hydrolases and transferases that act on the
alpha-phosphate of ribonucleotides (Brenner, 2002 (PubMed 12119013)).(supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008)

GeneCards Summary for HINT2 Gene:
HINT2 (histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with HINT2 include pneumonia, and tuberculosis. GO annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and nucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is HINT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HINT2_HUMAN, Q9BX68
Function: Hydrolase probably involved in steroid biosynthesis. May play a role in apoptosis. Has adenosine
phosphoramidase activity




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000009.12  NT_008413.19  NC_018920.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the HINT2 gene promoter:
         Oct-B1   Egr-3   oct-B3   oct-B2   Lmo2   Evi-1   HNF-1A   AREB6   HNF-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidHINT2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for HINT2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat HINT2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 9p13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  9p13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 9p11.2

HINT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
HINT2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 9         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC09M035812:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
35,812,957 bp from pter      End:
35,815,351 bp from pter
Size:
2,395 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HINT2_HUMAN, Q9BX68 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 163 amino acids; 17162 Da
6 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for HINT2:
4INC (3D)        4INI (3D)        4NJX (3D)        4NJY (3D)        4NJZ (3D)        4NK0 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q5TCW3

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for HINT2: NX_Q9BX68

Explore proteomics data for HINT2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See HINT2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_115982.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000259667  

    HINT2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001310 Histidine_triad_HIT
     IPR019808 Histidine_triad_CS
     IPR011146 HIT-like

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9BX68

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9BX68

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001310 Histidine triad (HIT) protein

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HINT2_HUMAN, Q9BX68
    Similarity: Belongs to the HINT family
    Similarity: Contains 1 HIT domain


    HINT2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: HINT2_HUMAN, Q9BX68
    Function: Hydrolase probably involved in steroid biosynthesis. May play a role in apoptosis. Has adenosine
    phosphoramidase activity
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=128 uM for adenosine 5'-O-p-nitrophenylphosphoramidate;

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.-.-.-1

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000166nucleotide binding IEA--
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0016787hydrolase activity IEA--
         
    HINT2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for HINT2
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for HINT2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for HINT2

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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target HINT2:
    hsa-mir-1 (MIRT023774)

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    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    HINT2_HUMAN, Q9BX68: Mitochondrion
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    cytosol2
    extracellular1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ISS--

    HINT2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for HINT2
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for HINT2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 24)

    Selected Interacting proteins for HINT2 (ENSP000002596674) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 24)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TIMM21ENSP000001695514STRING: ENSP00000169551
    AMD1ENSP000003578804STRING: ENSP00000357880
    CDK20ENSP000003223434STRING: ENSP00000322343
    CDK7ENSP000002564434STRING: ENSP00000256443
    CCNHENSP000002568974STRING: ENSP00000256897
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    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006694steroid biosynthetic process IEA--
    GO:0006915apoptotic process IEA--

    HINT2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for HINT2



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for HINT2 gene: 
    NM_032593.2  

    Unigene Cluster for HINT2:

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2
    Hs.70573  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC033538
    7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000490578 ENST00000472085 ENST00000259667 ENST00000474908(uc003zyh.3)
    ENST00000474848 ENST00000471774 ENST00000461169
    miRNA
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat HINT2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF085236.1 AF356515.1 AF356875.1 AK222582.1 AK309795.1 AY033094.1 BC033538.1 BC047737.2 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.100779858  DT.114875  DT.101981509  DT.100779857  DT.100779855  DT.121165159  DT.100010162  DT.100779856 
    DT.95167360 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 112):

    AI817457 AI913023 AA563798 BU623621 T78708 BQ050545 BE905154 NM_032593 
    BC047737 AF356515 AF356875 AI591234 CA391314 BM764627 CR594233 AY033094 
    BF968540 CD675786 CD722582 AI204057 BM987450 AI083659 AI800955 AA599349 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HINT2 (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e
    SP1:                          -     -                             -                           
    SP2:                                                              -                           
    SP3:                                                                                          
    SP4:                                            -                 -                           
    SP5:                                                                                          


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for HINT2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    HINT2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TACTTGGGGG
    HINT2 Expression
    About this image

    HINT2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    HINT2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.70573

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HINT2_HUMAN, Q9BX68
    Tissue specificity: High expression in liver and pancreas. Expression is significantly down-regulated in
    hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for HINT2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for HINT2 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Hint21 , 5 histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 21, 5 85.55(n)1
    86.71(a)1
      4 (23.05 cM)5
    689171  NM_026871.11  NP_081147.11 
     436542275 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LOC1008591121 histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2, mitochondrial-like 68.14(n)
    72.79(a)
      100859112  XM_003642973.2  XP_003643021.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia HINT26
    histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2
    72(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    AAWZ02039281(21-4029)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.165482 Transcribed sequence with moderate similarity to protein more 71.69(n)    BI709975.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG28623 nucleotidase 60(a)   23A5   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F21C3.33 protein kinae C inhibitor 1 like 55(a)   I(7287754-7288702)   --
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons HINT 21 HINT 2 57.72(n)
    53.66(a)
      840001  NM_102854.4  NP_174401.1 
    corn
    (Zea mays)
    Liliopsida Zm.23132 Zea mays CL29192_1 mRNA sequence 78.63(n)    AY110377.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for HINT2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for HINT2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for HINT2 gene
    HINT12  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for HINT2 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     HINT2_HUMAN:
    HINT1    LOC346521

    HINT2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for HINT2
    PGOHUM00000237924


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for HINT2 (see all 42)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 9 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs455579331,2
    C--35814270(+) TTTAAA/GTTTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1471023171,2
    --35814297(+) TGACAC/GTAGTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1152210661,2
    C,F--35814488(+) TTCTCT/CGACCT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.06WA 118
    rs577391961,2
    C,F--35814520(+) CAGAAG/AAGAGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1423260351,2
    C--35814583(+) GCTCC-/AAGAAGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1869102741,2
    --35814649(+) AGAAGA/GCGGCA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1439624191,2
    --35814815(+) CGGCTC/TTGCGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1929487631,2
    --35815042(+) GGTGGA/GGACTC 1 -- ut510--------
    rs1506742521,2
    --35815222(+) TTCGTC/GTTCTA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1397593191,2
    --35815286(+) AGAAAC/TTTCCA 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for HINT2 (35812957 - 35815351 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for HINT2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv8168n71CNV Gain21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing HINT2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for HINT2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 609997    OMIM disorders: --

    4 diseases for HINT2:    
    About MalaCards
    pneumonia    tuberculosis    hepatocellular carcinoma    alzheimer's disease


    HINT2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): HINT2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: HINT2 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for HINT2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for HINT2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 18):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with HINT2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    2. Hint2 is expressed in the mitochondria of H295R cells and is involved in steroidogenesis. (PubMed id 18653718)1, 2 Lenglet S.... Rossier M.F. (Endocrinology 2008)
    3. Hint2, a mitochondrial apoptotic sensitizer down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 16762638)1, 2 Martin J.... Dufour J.-F. (Gastroenterology 2006)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Structural characterization of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2, a member of the histidine triad superfamily. (PubMed id 23659632)1 Maize K.M....Finzel B.C. (FEBS J. 2013)
    6. Progesterone enhances calcitriol antitumor activity by upregulating vitamin D receptor expression and promoting apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells. (PubMed id 23682076)1 Lee L.R....Syed V. (Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2013)
    7. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    8. Interactions of pathological hallmark proteins: tubulin polymerization promoting protein/p25, beta-amyloid, and alpha-synuclein. (PubMed id 21832049)1 OlA!h J....OvA!di J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2011)
    9. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    10. Genetic analysis of Alzheimer's disease in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. (PubMed id 19141999)4 Giedraitis V....Glaser A. (Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 84681 HGNC: 18344 AceView: HINT2 Ensembl:ENSG00000137133 euGenes: HUgn84681
    ECgene: HINT2 H-InvDB: HINT2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for HINT2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for HINT2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving HINT2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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