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Aliases for HGD Gene

Aliases for HGD Gene

  • Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase 2 3 5
  • Homogentisic Acid Oxidase 3 4
  • Homogentisate Oxygenase 3 4
  • Homogentisate Oxidase 2 3
  • Homogentisicase 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • HGO 3 4
  • Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase (Homogentisate Oxidase) 2
  • AKU 3

External Ids for HGD Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HGD Gene

  • AKU

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HGD Gene

  • GC03M116980
  • GC03M119987
  • GC03M121628
  • GC03M121667
  • GC03M121829
  • GC03P9I0013
  • GC03M120347
  • GC03M117720

Summaries for HGD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HGD Gene

  • This gene encodes the enzyme homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase. This enzyme is involved in the catabolism of the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. Mutations in this gene are the cause of the autosomal recessive metabolism disorder alkaptonuria.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GeneCards Summary for HGD Gene

HGD (Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HGD include Alkaptonuria and Ochronosis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, proline and tryptophan catabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HGD Gene

Genomics for HGD Gene

Regulatory Elements for HGD Gene

Enhancers for HGD Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH03F120566 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 +114.4 114443 2.9 TBP CTCF ZNF384 RAD21 GTF3C2 ZNF664 ZNF316 POLR3A SCRT2 SMC3 RPL7AP11 HGD GSK3B ADPRH NDUFB4 RPL34P9
GH03F120719 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 11.1 -37.2 -37166 1.2 ZNF687 RFX1 FOXA3 BHLHE40 SIN3A MNT ZNF592 MTA3 GATA3 FOXK2 GPR156 HGD STXBP5L MTCO1P29
GH03F120691 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 7.1 -10.7 -10747 3.0 ELF3 TBP ARID4B ZBTB40 RARA YY1 FOS MIXL1 CEBPB REST HGD GTF2E1 MTCO1P29
GH03F120647 0.5 ENCODE 11.5 +35.3 35269 0.2 ZNF316 MAFG NFE2 EMSY HGD PIR48626
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around HGD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HGD Gene

120,628,168 bp from pter
120,682,571 bp from pter
54,404 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HGD Gene

Genes around HGD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HGD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HGD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HGD Gene

Proteins for HGD Gene

  • Protein details for HGD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K417
    • B2R8Z0

    Protein attributes for HGD Gene

    445 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49964 Da
    Name=Fe cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:24875;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homohexamer arranged as a dimer of trimers.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HGD Gene

neXtProt entry for HGD Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for HGD Gene


Post-translational modifications for HGD Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for HGD

Domains & Families for HGD Gene

Protein Domains for HGD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HGD Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the homogentisate dioxygenase family.
  • Belongs to the homogentisate dioxygenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HGD: view

No data available for Gene Families for HGD Gene

Function for HGD Gene

Molecular function for HGD Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (49kDa),catalyzing the third step of tyrosine catabolism
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Homogentisate + O(2) = 4-maleylacetoacetate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HGD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004411 homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity EXP 8782815
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21044950
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HGD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HGD: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for HGD Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

miRNA for HGD Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HGD

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HGD Gene

Localization for HGD Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HGD gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HGD: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HGD Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HGD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HGD: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q93099-HGD_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-phenylalanine degradation; acetoacetate and fumarate from L-phenylalanine: step 4/6.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HGD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006559 L-phenylalanine catabolic process IEA,TAS --
GO:0006570 tyrosine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006572 tyrosine catabolic process IEA,TAS --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HGD: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HGD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HGD Gene

(13) Drugs for HGD Gene - From: ClinicalTrials, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Pharma VEGF antagonist, Therapeutic Antibodies, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 1968
acetic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 107
Vitamin A Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 468
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Adjuvants, Immunologic Pharma 2484

(5) Additional Compounds for HGD Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Armco iron
  • Carbonyl iron
  • FE
  • Ferrovac e
  • Hematite
Homogentisic acid
  • (2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-Acetate
  • (2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-Acetic acid
  • 2,5-Dihydroxy-a-toluate
  • 2,5-Dihydroxy-a-toluic acid
  • 2,5-Dihydroxy-alpha-toluate
Maleylacetoacetic acid
  • 4-Maleylacetoacetate
  • 4-Maleylacetoacetic acid
  • Maleylacetoacetate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HGD: view

Transcripts for HGD Gene

Unigene Clusters for HGD Gene

Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HGD Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for HGD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HGD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for HGD Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HGD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x31.7) and Kidney - Cortex (x8.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HGD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (41.0) and Liver (11.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for HGD Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HGD Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HGD Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HGD Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highest expression in the prostate, small intestine, colon, kidney and liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HGD: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Protein tissue co-expression partners for HGD Gene

Orthologs for HGD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for HGD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HGD 34 35
  • 99.78 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HGD 34 35
  • 91.24 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HGD 34 35
  • 91.16 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HGD 35
  • 90 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hgd 34 16 35
  • 88.44 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hgd 34
  • 88.44 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HGD 35
  • 76 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HGD 34 35
  • 76.92 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HGD 35
  • 75 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia hgd 34
  • 72.95 (n)
Str.8815 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hgd 34 35
  • 72.54 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta hgo 36 34 35
  • 65.59 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009609 34
  • 61.03 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea hgo-1 34 35
  • 61.83 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons HGO 34
  • 60.27 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.12262 34
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os06g0103300 34
  • 58.14 (n)
Os.11622 34
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.8867 34
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.6319 34
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.8772 34
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 66 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU05499 34
  • 55.27 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14034 34
Species where no ortholog for HGD was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for HGD Gene

Gene Tree for HGD (if available)
Gene Tree for HGD (if available)

Paralogs for HGD Gene

No data available for Paralogs for HGD Gene

Variants for HGD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HGD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs120074170 Alkaptonuria (AKU) [MIM:203500], Pathogenic 120,638,562(-) CACAG(G/T)ATTGA intron-variant, reference, missense
rs120074171 Alkaptonuria (AKU) [MIM:203500], Pathogenic 120,638,471(-) TTCAG(G/T)CCTCC intron-variant, reference, missense
rs120074172 Alkaptonuria (AKU) [MIM:203500], Pathogenic 120,633,223(-) CCCCC(A/G)TGGAC downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense
rs120074173 Alkaptonuria (AKU) [MIM:203500], Pathogenic 120,633,233(-) GCACA(A/G)TGACC downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense
rs120074174 Alkaptonuria (AKU) [MIM:203500], Pathogenic 120,641,660(-) GGCAC(A/G)GGAAT reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HGD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv829699 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for HGD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 21.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.13; 51.38% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HGD Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HGD Gene

Disorders for HGD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for HGD Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • alcaptonuria
  • ankylosis of ankle and foot joint
prostate calculus
  • calculus of prostate
lower urinary tract calculus
  • calculus of lower urinary tract
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HGD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Alkaptonuria (AKU) [MIM:203500]: An autosomal recessive error of metabolism characterized by an increase in the level of homogentisic acid. The clinical manifestations are urine that turns dark on standing and alkalinization, black ochronotic pigmentation of cartilage and collagenous tissues, and spine arthritis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10205262, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10340975, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10482952, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10594001, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19862842, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21437689, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23353776, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23430897, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25681086, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8782815, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9154114, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9529363, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9630082}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for HGD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HGD: view

No data available for Genatlas for HGD Gene

Publications for HGD Gene

  1. Mutation spectrum of homogentisic acid oxidase (HGD) in alkaptonuria. (PMID: 19862842) Vilboux T. … Gahl W.A. (Hum. Mutat. 2009) 3 4 22 64
  2. Crystal structure of human homogentisate dioxygenase. (PMID: 10876237) Titus G.P. … Timm D.E. (Nat. Struct. Biol. 2000) 3 4 22 64
  3. Analysis of alkaptonuria (AKU) mutations and polymorphisms reveals that the CCC sequence motif is a mutational hot spot in the homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase gene (HGO). (PMID: 10205262) Beltran-Valero de Bernabe D. … Rodriguez de Cordoba S. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1999) 3 4 22 64
  4. Ocular ochronosis in alkaptonuria patients carrying mutations in the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene. (PMID: 10340975) Felbor U. … Kress W. (Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1999) 3 4 22 64
  5. Allelic heterogeneity of alkaptonuria in Central Europe. (PMID: 10482952) Mueller C.R. … Kress W. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 1999) 3 4 22 64

Products for HGD Gene

Sources for HGD Gene

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