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HCAR3 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 46
GCID: GC12M123200

Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 3

(Previous name: G protein-coupled receptor 109B)
(Previous symbol: GPR109B)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 31 2     HM742 5
GPR109B1 2 3 5     PUMAG2 5
G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109B1 2     Puma-g2
Niacin Receptor 22 3     GTP-Binding Protein2
Nicotinic Acid Receptor 22 3     Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 32
HCA32 3     Putative Chemokine Receptor2
G-Protein Coupled Receptor 109B2 3     HM74B3
G-Protein Coupled Receptor HM742 3     NIACR23
G-Protein Coupled Receptor HM74B2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 168241   Entrez Gene: 88432   Ensembl: ENSG000002553987   OMIM: 6060395   UniProtKB: P490193   

Export aliases for HCAR3 gene to outside databases


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for HCAR3 Gene:
HCAR3 (hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with HCAR3 include distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type ii, and distal hereditary motor neuropathy. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HCAR3_HUMAN, P49019
Function: Receptor for 3-OH-octanoid acid mediates a negative feedback regulation of adipocyte lipolysis to
counteract prolipolytic influences under conditions of physiological or pathological increases in beta-oxidation
rates. Acts as a low affinity receptor for nicotinic acid. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid
doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet

summary for HCAR3 Gene:
Nicotinic acid receptors are a group of Gi/Go protein-coupled receptors that are currently divided into
GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B subtypes. GPR109B receptors originated from a gene duplication of GPR109A and
have > 95% homology. All subtypes are widely expressed throughout adipose tissue and are found at lower
levels on macrophages, neutrophils, Langerhans cells and in the spleen. Nicotinic acid receptors are
involved in the inhibition of lipolysis. The human genes encoding these receptors are located on chromosome
12 (12q24.3).

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR3 (Niacin receptor 2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000012.12  NC_018923.2  NT_029419.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for HCAR3
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidHCAR3 promoter sequence
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Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat HCAR3


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q24.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q24.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q24.31

HCAR3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
HCAR3 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12M123200:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
123,199,303 bp from pter      End:
123,201,439 bp from pter
Size:
2,137 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HCAR3_HUMAN, P49019 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3  
Size: 387 amino acids; 44478 Da
Secondary accessions: A8K4G5 B2R830 E9PI97 Q8NGE4

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for HCAR3: NX_P49019

REFSEQ proteins: NP_006009.2  
ENSEMBL proteins: 
 ENSP00000436714  
Reactome Protein details: P49019

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(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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HGNC Gene Families:
HCAR: GPCR / Class A : Hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors

IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: HCA3 receptor
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors

3 InterPro protein domains:
 IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
 IPR028017 HCAR2/3_rcpt
 IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P49019

ProtoNet protein and cluster: P49019

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HCAR3_HUMAN, P49019
Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family


HCAR3 for domains           About GeneDecksing


(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Molecular Function:

     UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: HCAR3_HUMAN, P49019
Function: Receptor for 3-OH-octanoid acid mediates a negative feedback regulation of adipocyte lipolysis to
counteract prolipolytic influences under conditions of physiological or pathological increases in beta-oxidation
rates. Acts as a low affinity receptor for nicotinic acid. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid
doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet

     Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA--
     
HCAR3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


Animal Models:
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6 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate HCAR3:
hsa-miR-203 hsa-miR-141 hsa-miR-204 hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-1208 hsa-miR-211
SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidHCAR3 3' UTR sequence
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(According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
HCAR3_HUMAN, P49019: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein

Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane TAS7505609
GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----

HCAR3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


(SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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SuperPaths for HCAR3 About    
See pathways by source

SuperPathContained pathways About
1Peptide ligand-binding receptors
Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
GPCR ligand binding0.71
GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like0.43
2Signaling by GPCR
Signaling by GPCR0.90
Signal Transduction0.58
GPCR downstream signaling0.90
3Hydroxycarboxylic acid-binding receptors
Hydroxycarboxylic acid-binding receptors

Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
Show all pathways


1 BioSystems Pathway for HCAR3
    GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like

2 Reactome Pathways for HCAR3
    G alpha (i) signalling events
Hydroxycarboxylic acid-binding receptors



HCAR3 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for HCAR3
Interactions:

    Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for HCAR3

Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS7505609

HCAR3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
   Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
  Browse compounds at ApexBio 

Compounds for HCAR3 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
CompoundAction CAS #
AcifranHypolipidemic agent; agonist for the GPR109A (HM74A) and GPR109B receptors[72420-38-3]
IBC 293Selective agonist for the GPR109B (HM74) receptor. Antilipolytic[306935-41-1]

Selected IUPHAR Ligands for HCAR3 (HCA3 receptor) (see all 12)    About this table
LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
compound 6o [PMID:19524438]
AgonistFull agonist8.5219524438
4-(n-propyl)amino-3-nitrobenzoic acid
AgonistFull agonist7.5217931863
5-methyl-?ae5-(5-meth?aeylthiophe?aen-3-yl)-4?ae-oxo-4,5-?aedihydrofu?aeran-2-car?aeboxylic a?aecid
AgonistFull agonist6.717358052
nicotinic acid
AgonistFull agonist4 - 6.5212522134
1-isopropylbenzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid
AgonistFull agonist6.416480258
D-kynurenine
AgonistFull agonist5.5819237584
2-hydroxyoctanoic acid
AgonistFull agonist5.419561068
5-ethyl-4-oxo-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-furan-2-carboxylic acid
AgonistFull agonist5.317358052
acifran
AgonistFull agonist4.7 - 5.215929991 12522134 16389067 17358052
3-hydroxyoctanoic acid
AgonistFull agonist5.119561068

1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for HCAR3 gene    About this table
Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
niacin 84.6 19 16386710 (4), 12563315 (3), 15580557 (2), 19237584 (2) (see all 7)



HCAR3 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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REFSEQ mRNAs for HCAR3 gene: 
NM_006018.2  

Unigene Cluster for HCAR3:

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3
Hs.458425  [show with all ESTs]
Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_006018
1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
ENST00000528880(uc001ucy.4)
miRNA
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6 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate HCAR3:
hsa-miR-203 hsa-miR-141 hsa-miR-204 hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-1208 hsa-miR-211
SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidHCAR3 3' UTR sequence
Inhib. RNA
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Primer
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  QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat HCAR3
  QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat HCAR3

Additional mRNA sequence: 

AK290930.1 AK313212.1 BC038955.1 BC047891.1 D10923.1 

2 DOTS entries:

DT.410471  DT.100787462 

Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 68):

AW449521 AW081241 BM008116 AL545172 CD364466 N62053 BM980688 AL546894 
NM_177551 BX382582 AW088065 BE718299 CD364498 BM918711 BV205727 AL545140 
BF221877 BI820995 CB265428 AW264883 BG677418 AL698846 BU146785 CD370595 

GeneLoc Exon Structure


(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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HCAR3 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
CGAP TAG: CTGGACCCCG
HCAR3 Expression
About this image

HCAR3 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3 --

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.458425

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HCAR3_HUMAN, P49019
Tissue specificity: Expression largely restricted to adipose tissue and spleen

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In Situ
Assay Products:
 

 
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(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HCAR3 gene from Selected species (see all 8)    About this table
Organism Taxonomic
classification
Gene Description Human
Similarity
Orthology
Type
Details
tropical clawed frog
(Xenopus tropicalis)
Amphibia hcar21 hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 60.23(n)
49.84(a)
  100491947  XM_004910517.1  XP_004910574.1 
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hcar1-31 hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1-3 53.01(n)
43.34(a)
  100148539  XM_001921202.4  XP_001921237.2 
        Species with no ortholog for HCAR3

ENSEMBL Gene Tree for HCAR3 (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for HCAR3 (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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Paralogs for HCAR3 gene
HCAR12  OXER12  GPR312  HCAR22  
15 SIMAP similar genes for HCAR3 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     HCAR3_HUMAN:
HCAR2    HCAR1    OXER1    GPR31    CMKLR1    LPAR6
LPAR4    CYSLTR1    CYSLTR2    GPR35    KPG_011    GPR17
KPG_007    P2RY1    OXGR1

HCAR3 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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Selected SNPs for HCAR3 (see all 180)    About this table    
Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
SNP IDValidClinical
significance
Chr 12 posSequence#AA
Chg
TypeMore#Allele
freq
PopTotal
sample
More
----------
rs557760991,2
C,F--123198832(+) CAAGCA/GGCCGC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.25NA 4
rs22621941,2
C,F,A--123198921(-) CCTGAA/CGTAAG 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- C:0.33NA 6
rs22569361,2
C,F,A--123198936(-) AAGGCA/GGGCAG 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- G:0.30NA WA 10
rs1394128121,2
C--123199222(+) GGACAA/TAGTTA 1 -- int10--------
rs6312561,2
C,F,A,H--123199327(-) TACCAC/TTTCAA 1 -- ut313Minor allele frequency- T:0.33NA 6
rs1402888391,2
C--123199342(+) TTTGGC/TAAGTA 1 -- ut310--------
rs1503627891,2
C--123199392(+) CTCTAA/CCCGTG 1 -- ut310--------
rs1925529221,2
C--123199393(+) TCTACC/GCGTGG 1 -- ut310--------
rs29367721,2
C--123199394(-) CCCACA/GGGTAG 1 -- ut310--------
rs1495462731,2
--123199395(+) TACCCA/GTGGGG 1 -- ut310--------

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for HCAR3 (123199303 - 123201439 bp)

Structural Variations
     Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for HCAR3:    About this table    
Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
nsv913CNV Insertion18451855
esv8582CNV Loss19470904
esv26589CNV Gain19812545

Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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OMIM gene information: 606039    OMIM disorders: --

5 diseases for HCAR3:    
About MalaCards
distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type ii    distal hereditary motor neuropathy    neuropathy    schizophrenia
bipolar disorder


HCAR3 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


Export disorders for HCAR3 gene to outside databases

(in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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PubMed articles for HCAR3 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 29):
(articles sorted by number of sources associating them with HCAR3)
    Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
world of online information

  1. International union of basic and clinical pharmacology. LXXXII: nomenclature and classification of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B). (PubMed id 21454438)1, 2, 3 Offermanns S....Ijzerman A.P. (Pharmacol. Rev. 2011)
  2. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding a LD78 receptor and putative leukocyte chemotactic peptide receptors. (PubMed id 7505609)1, 2, 3 Nomura H.... Matsushima K. (Int. Immunol. 1993)
  3. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. (PubMed id 12522134)1, 2, 9 Wise A.... Pike N.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
  4. Deorphanization of GPR109B as a receptor for the beta-oxidation intermediate 3-OH-octanoic acid and its role in the regulation of lipolysis. (PubMed id 19561068)1, 2 Ahmed K.... Offermanns S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
  5. Nicotinic acid receptor agonists. (PubMed id 18983141)1, 3 Boatman P.D....Semple G. (J. Med. Chem. 2008)
  6. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
  7. Isolation and chromosomal localization of GPR31, a human gene encoding a putative G protein-coupled receptor. (PubMed id 9205127)1, 3 Zingoni A....Napolitano M. (Genomics 1997)
  8. Aromatic D-amino acids act as chemoattractant factors for human leukocytes through a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR109B. (PubMed id 19237584)1, 9 Irukayama-Tomobe Y....Sakurai T. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009)
  9. PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect. (PubMed id 12563315)1, 9 Tunaru S....Offermanns S. (Nat. Med. 2003)
  10. Activated human hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor-3 signals to MAP kinase cascades via the PLC-dependent PKC and MMP-mediated EGFR pathways. (PubMed id 22289163)1 Zhou Q....Zhou N.M. (Br. J. Pharmacol. 2012)

(in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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(According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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Entrez Gene: 8843 HGNC: 16824 AceView: GPR109A Ensembl:ENSG00000255398 euGenes: HUgn8843
ECgene: HCAR3 H-InvDB: HCAR3

(According to HUGE)
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  --

(According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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NameDescription
PharmGKB entry for HCAR3 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/gpr109b/

(Patent information from GeneIP,
Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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Patent Information for HCAR3 gene:
Search GeneIP for patents involving HCAR3

GeneCards and IP:
Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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