Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for HCAR2 Gene

Aliases for HCAR2 Gene

  • Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • Niacin Receptor 1 2 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor HM74A 3 4
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109A 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 109A 3 4
  • Nicotinic Acid Receptor 3 4
  • GPR109A 3 4
  • NIACR1 3 4
  • HM74a 3 4
  • HCA2 3 4
  • Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 2 3
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor HM74a 3
  • Puma-G 3
  • HM74b 3
  • PUMAG 3

External Ids for HCAR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HCAR2 Gene

  • GPR109A

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HCAR2 Gene

  • GC12M123187

Summaries for HCAR2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for HCAR2 Gene

HCAR2 (Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HCAR2 include hypercalciuria, absorptive. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and cAMP signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and nicotinic acid receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

  • Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosis in mature neutrophils. Receptor activation by nicotinic acid results in reduced cAMP levels which may affect activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and phosphorylation of target proteins, leading to neutrophil apoptosis. The rank order of potency for the displacement of nicotinic acid binding is 5-methyl pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid = pyridine-3-acetic acid > acifran > 5-methyl nicotinic acid = acipimox >> nicotinuric acid = nicotinamide.

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HCAR2 Gene

Genomics for HCAR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HCAR2 Gene

Promoters for HCAR2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around HCAR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HCAR2 Gene

Chromosome:
12
Start:
122,701,293 bp from pter
End:
122,703,357 bp from pter
Size:
2,065 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for HCAR2 Gene

Genes around HCAR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HCAR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HCAR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HCAR2 Gene

Proteins for HCAR2 Gene

  • Protein details for HCAR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q8TDS4-HCAR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q8TDS4
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0PJL5
    • A7LGG3

    Protein attributes for HCAR2 Gene

    Size:
    363 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41850 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for HCAR2 Gene

Proteomics data for HCAR2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HCAR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for HCAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HCAR2 Gene

Domains & Families for HCAR2 Gene

Gene Families for HCAR2 Gene

Protein Domains for HCAR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HCAR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q8TDS4

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

HCAR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HCAR2: view

Function for HCAR2 Gene

Molecular function for HCAR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosis in mature neutrophils. Receptor activation by nicotinic acid results in reduced cAMP levels which may affect activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and phosphorylation of target proteins, leading to neutrophil apoptosis. The rank order of potency for the displacement of nicotinic acid binding is 5-methyl pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid = pyridine-3-acetic acid > acifran > 5-methyl nicotinic acid = acipimox >> nicotinuric acid = nicotinamide.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HCAR2: view

Animal Models for HCAR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HCAR2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for HCAR2

CRISPR Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HCAR2 Gene

Localization for HCAR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for HCAR2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HCAR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
peroxisome 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HCAR2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HCAR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HCAR2: view

Pathways by source for HCAR2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for HCAR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HCAR2 Gene

None

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HCAR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HCAR2 Gene

(26) Drugs for HCAR2 Gene - From: Novoseek, IUPHAR, DGIdb, DrugBank, HMDB, Tocris, and ApexBio

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Niacin Approved, Investigational Nutra Unknown, Agonist, Target, agonist 361,361
Mepenzolate Approved Pharma antagonist 0
para-coumaric acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
Acifran Pharma Full agonist, Agonist Hypolipidemic agent; agonist for the GPR109A (HM74A) and GPR109B receptors 0
MK 1903 Pharma Full agonist, Agonist Potent and selective GPR109A (HCA2) agonist 0

(5) Additional Compounds for HCAR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
beta-D-hydroxybutyric acid
Full agonist, Agonist
3,5-DHBA
99-10-5
MMF
2756-87-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HCAR2: view

Transcripts for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HCAR2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(68) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HCAR2 Gene

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HCAR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HCAR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
HCAR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
HCAR2

Expression for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HCAR2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HCAR2 Gene Hs.524812

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HCAR2 Gene

Q8TDS4-HCAR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expression largely restricted to adipose tissue and spleen. Expressed on mature neutrophils but not on immature neutrophils or eosinophils.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HCAR2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for HCAR2 Gene

Orthologs for HCAR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HCAR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR109A 35
  • 99.45 (n)
  • 99.72 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hcar2 16
Niacr1 35
  • 82.58 (n)
  • 82.87 (a)
Niacr1 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Niacr1 35
  • 82.77 (n)
  • 83.71 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hcar1-2 36
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for HCAR2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HCAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for HCAR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for HCAR2 (if available)

Paralogs for HCAR2 Gene

Paralogs for HCAR2 Gene

(14) SIMAP similar genes for HCAR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HCAR2: view

Variants for HCAR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HCAR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs7314976 - 122,702,353(+) GCAGC(A/C/G)GTTGA reference, missense
VAR_038714 -
rs676770 - 122,702,724(-) CTTCC(A/G/T)GTGGC reference, missense
rs676823 - 122,702,692(-) AGTTC(C/T)TCCTG reference, missense
rs2549 -- 122,701,668(+) TAAAG(A/C)TTGTC utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HCAR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv26589 CNV Gain 19812545
esv2746500 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv8843 CNV Loss 19470904
esv8582 CNV Loss 19470904

Variation tolerance for HCAR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 56.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.42; 27.89% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HCAR2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
HCAR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

Disorders for HCAR2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for HCAR2 Gene - From: OMIM

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hypercalciuria, absorptive
  • hypercalciuria, absorptive, susceptibility to
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HCAR2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for HCAR2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
HCAR2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HCAR2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HCAR2 Gene

Publications for HCAR2 Gene

  1. Molecular identification of nicotinic acid receptor. (PMID: 12646212) Soga T. … Furuichi K. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003) 2 3 23 25 26
  2. International union of basic and clinical pharmacology. LXXXII: nomenclature and classification of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B). (PMID: 21454438) Offermanns S. … Ijzerman A.P. (Pharmacol. Rev. 2011) 2 3 4 67
  3. Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A. (PMID: 16018973) Zhang Y. … Cao G. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005) 3 23 25 26
  4. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. (PMID: 12522134) Wise A. … Pike N.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 2 3 25 26
  5. Variations in human HM74 (GPR109B) and HM74A (GPR109A) niacin receptors. (PMID: 15580557) Zellner C. … Kane J.P. (Hum. Mutat. 2005) 23 25 26

Products for HCAR2 Gene

Sources for HCAR2 Gene

Back to Top

Content