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Aliases for HCAR2 Gene

Aliases for HCAR2 Gene

  • Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • Niacin Receptor 1 2 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor HM74A 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 109A 3 4
  • Nicotinic Acid Receptor 3 4
  • GPR109A 3 4
  • NIACR1 3 4
  • HM74a 3 4
  • HCA2 3 4
  • Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 2 3
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor HM74a 3
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109A 2
  • Puma-G 3
  • HM74b 3
  • PUMAG 3

External Ids for HCAR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HCAR2 Gene

  • GPR109A

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HCAR2 Gene

  • GC12M123187

Summaries for HCAR2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for HCAR2 Gene

HCAR2 (Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and cAMP signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and nicotinic acid receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

  • Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosis in mature neutrophils. Receptor activation by nicotinic acid results in reduced cAMP levels which may affect activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and phosphorylation of target proteins, leading to neutrophil apoptosis. The rank order of potency for the displacement of nicotinic acid binding is 5-methyl pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid = pyridine-3-acetic acid > acifran > 5-methyl nicotinic acid = acipimox >> nicotinuric acid = nicotinamide.

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR2 Gene

Additional gene information for HCAR2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HCAR2 Gene

Genomics for HCAR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HCAR2 Gene

Enhancers for HCAR2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH12H122646 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 23.3 +56.3 56322 1 HDAC1 PKNOX1 TBL1XR1 BMI1 BATF FOS ATF7 ETV6 RUNX3 CREM HCAR2 HCAR3 CCDC150P1 ZCCHC8 CLIP1-AS1 VPS37B CLIP1 RSRC2 ENSG00000274191 ENSG00000256249
GH12H122732 0.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl 36.7 -29.0 -29005 0 KDM1A RUNX3 SPI1 HCAR3 HCAR2 CLIP1 VPS37B HCAR1 ENSG00000256044
GH12H122733 0.7 FANTOM5 32.1 -30.3 -30323 0 SOX6 TARDBP IKZF1 NBN ATF7 IKZF2 HCAR3 HCAR2 VPS37B CLIP1 RSRC2 C12orf65 HCAR1 ENSG00000256044
GH12H122942 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 13.3 -241.9 -241855 6 SIN3A ZNF121 GLIS2 FOS RUNX3 SP3 YY2 JUNB REST MIER3 CDK2AP1 HCAR3 HCAR2 PITPNM2 ENSG00000256092 ARL6IP4 VPS37B RILPL2 OGFOD2
GH12H122699 1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.3 +1.6 1557 4 CEBPA HLF CEBPB ZNF384 HCAR3 HCAR2 HCAR1 ENSG00000256044 DENR LOC101927415 ENSG00000256249
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around HCAR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HCAR2 Gene

Chromosome:
12
Start:
122,701,293 bp from pter
End:
122,703,357 bp from pter
Size:
2,065 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for HCAR2 Gene

Genes around HCAR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HCAR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HCAR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HCAR2 Gene

Proteins for HCAR2 Gene

  • Protein details for HCAR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q8TDS4-HCAR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q8TDS4
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0PJL5
    • A7LGG3

    Protein attributes for HCAR2 Gene

    Size:
    363 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41850 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for HCAR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for HCAR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for HCAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for HCAR2 (HM74A/PUMA-G/GPR109A)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HCAR2 Gene

Domains & Families for HCAR2 Gene

Gene Families for HCAR2 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for HCAR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HCAR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q8TDS4

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

HCAR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HCAR2: view

Function for HCAR2 Gene

Molecular function for HCAR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosis in mature neutrophils. Receptor activation by nicotinic acid results in reduced cAMP levels which may affect activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and phosphorylation of target proteins, leading to neutrophil apoptosis. The rank order of potency for the displacement of nicotinic acid binding is 5-methyl pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid = pyridine-3-acetic acid > acifran > 5-methyl nicotinic acid = acipimox >> nicotinuric acid = nicotinamide.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for HCAR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HCAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0070553 nicotinic acid receptor activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HCAR2: view

Animal Models for HCAR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HCAR2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for HCAR2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for HCAR2
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for HCAR2
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more
  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for HCAR2 (HM74A/PUMA-G/GPR109A)

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HCAR2 Gene

Localization for HCAR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HCAR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cell Junctions (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HCAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030054 cell junction IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for HCAR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HCAR2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HCAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001781 neutrophil apoptotic process IDA 17932499
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0033031 positive regulation of neutrophil apoptotic process IDA 17932499
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HCAR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HCAR2 Gene

(30) Drugs for HCAR2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Niacin Approved, Investigational Nutra Unknown, Agonist, Target, agonist 941,941
Acipimox Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 19
Mepenzolate Approved Pharma antagonist 0
para-coumaric acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
Inositol nicotinate Withdrawn Pharma Target, agonist 0

(3) Additional Compounds for HCAR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
beta-D-hydroxybutyric acid
Full agonist, Agonist

(5) Tocris Compounds for HCAR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
3,5-DHBA Selective HCA1 agonist 99-10-5
Acifran Hypolipidemic agent; agonist for the GPR109A (HM74A) and GPR109B receptors 72420-38-3
IBC 293 Selective agonist for the GPR109B (HM74) receptor. Antilipolytic 306935-41-1
LUF 6283 HCA2 (GPR109A) partial agonist 92933-48-7
MK 1903 Potent and selective GPR109A (HCA2) agonist 1268882-43-4

(7) ApexBio Compounds for HCAR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
3,5-DHBA 1999-10-5
Acifran 72420-38-3
IBC 293 306935-41-1
LUF 6283 92933-48-7
MK 1903 1268882-43-4
MK-6892 Highly potential GPR109A agonist 917910-45-3
PF-05212384 (PKI-587) PI3Kα, PI3Kγ and mTOR inhibitor 1197160-78-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HCAR2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HCAR2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(68) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HCAR2 Gene

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for HCAR2
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for HCAR2
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more
  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for HCAR2 (HM74A/PUMA-G/GPR109A)

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HCAR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HCAR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
HCAR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
HCAR2

Expression for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HCAR2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HCAR2 Gene:

HCAR2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HCAR2 Gene:

Hs.524812

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HCAR2 Gene:

Q8TDS4-HCAR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expression largely restricted to adipose tissue and spleen. Expressed on mature neutrophils but not on immature neutrophils or eosinophils.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for HCAR2 Gene

  • Pancreas(4.1)
  • Blood(3.7)
  • Spleen(2.4)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Lung(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HCAR2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for HCAR2 Gene

Orthologs for HCAR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HCAR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR109A 33
  • 99.45 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Niacr1 33
  • 82.77 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Niacr1 34 33
  • 82.58 (n)
OneToMany
Hcar2 16
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 77 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hcar1-2 34
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for HCAR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HCAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for HCAR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for HCAR2 (if available)

Paralogs for HCAR2 Gene

Paralogs for HCAR2 Gene

(14) SIMAP similar genes for HCAR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HCAR2: view

Variants for HCAR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HCAR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000041315 -- 122,701,481(+) CTTAG(A/T)TTACT intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1003056847 -- 122,705,165(+) GGCTC(A/C)CTGCA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1003487264 -- 122,704,314(+) AGCCC(A/G)GGAAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1006507857 -- 122,704,849(+) CAAAG(A/C)CCCCA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1007307432 -- 122,701,583(+) TTCTG(G/T)GGCTA intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HCAR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv308e214 CNV loss 21293372
esv26589 CNV gain 19812545
esv2746500 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3630980 CNV gain 21293372
esv8582 CNV loss 19470904
esv8843 CNV loss 19470904
nsv973132 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for HCAR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 56.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.42; 27.89% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HCAR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
HCAR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

Disorders for HCAR2 Gene

Relevant External Links for HCAR2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
HCAR2

No disorders were found for HCAR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HCAR2 Gene

Publications for HCAR2 Gene

  1. Molecular identification of nicotinic acid receptor. (PMID: 12646212) Soga T … Furuichi K (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003) 2 3 22 25 60
  2. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. (PMID: 12522134) Wise A … Pike NB (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 2 3 4 25 60
  3. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B). (PMID: 21454438) Offermanns S … IJzerman AP (Pharmacological reviews 2011) 2 3 4 60
  4. Neutrophil apoptosis mediated by nicotinic acid receptors (GPR109A). (PMID: 17932499) Kostylina G … Simon HU (Cell death and differentiation 2008) 3 4 22 60
  5. Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A. (PMID: 16018973) Zhang Y … Cao G (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005) 3 22 25 60

Products for HCAR2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for HCAR2

Sources for HCAR2 Gene

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