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HCAR2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 49
GCID: GC12M123187

Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 2

(Previous name: G protein-coupled receptor 109A)
(Previous symbol: GPR109A)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 21 2     G-Protein Coupled Receptor HM74A2 3
GPR109A1 2 3 5     HM74A3 5
Niacin Receptor 11 2 3     HM74a2
G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109A1 2     HM74b2
Nicotinic Acid Receptor2 3     PUMAG2
HCA22 3     Puma-g2
NIACR12 3     G Protein-Coupled Receptor HM74a2
G-Protein Coupled Receptor 109A2 3     Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 22

External Ids:    HGNC: 248271   Entrez Gene: 3384422   Ensembl: ENSG000001827827   OMIM: 6091635   UniProtKB: Q8TDS43   

Export aliases for HCAR2 gene to outside databases


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for HCAR2 Gene:
HCAR2 (hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include nicotinic acid receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HCAR2_HUMAN, Q8TDS4
Function: Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and
(D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through
G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses
that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosis in mature
neutrophils. Receptor activation by nicotinic acid results in reduced cAMP levels which may affect activity of
cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and phosphorylation of target proteins, leading to neutrophil apoptosis. The rank
order of potency for the displacement of nicotinic acid binding is 5-methyl pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid =
pyridine-3-acetic acid > acifran > 5-methyl nicotinic acid = acipimox >> nicotinuric acid = nicotinamide

summary for HCAR2 Gene:
Nicotinic acid receptors are a group of Gi/Go protein-coupled receptors that are currently divided into
GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B subtypes. GPR109B receptors originated from a gene duplication of GPR109A and
have > 95% homology. All subtypes are widely expressed throughout adipose tissue and are found at lower
levels on macrophages, neutrophils, Langerhans cells and in the spleen. Nicotinic acid receptors are
involved in the inhibition of lipolysis. The human genes encoding these receptors are located on chromosome
12 (12q24.3).

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR2 (Niacin receptor 1) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NC_018923.2  NT_029419.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for HCAR2
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for HCAR2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat HCAR2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q24.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q24.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q24.31

HCAR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
HCAR2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12M123187:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
123,185,840 bp from pter      End:
123,187,904 bp from pter
Size:
2,065 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HCAR2_HUMAN, Q8TDS4 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2  
Size: 363 amino acids; 41850 Da
Developmental stage: Expression in neutrophils occurs in the late terminal differentiation phase
Secondary accessions: A0PJL5 A7LGG3

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for HCAR2: NX_Q8TDS4

Explore proteomics data for HCAR2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See HCAR2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_808219.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000375066  
    Reactome Protein details: Q8TDS4

    HCAR2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    HCAR: GPCR / Class A : Hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: HCA2 receptor
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
     IPR028017 HCAR2/3_rcpt
     IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8TDS4

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8TDS4

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HCAR2_HUMAN, Q8TDS4
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family


    Find genes that share domains with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: HCAR2_HUMAN, Q8TDS4
    Function: Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and
    (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through
    G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses
    that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosis in mature
    neutrophils. Receptor activation by nicotinic acid results in reduced cAMP levels which may affect activity of
    cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and phosphorylation of target proteins, leading to neutrophil apoptosis. The rank
    order of potency for the displacement of nicotinic acid binding is 5-methyl pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid =
    pyridine-3-acetic acid > acifran > 5-methyl nicotinic acid = acipimox >> nicotinuric acid = nicotinamide

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity ----
    GO:0070553nicotinic acid receptor activity ISS--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 MGI mutant phenotype (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Niacr1):
     homeostasis/metabolism 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Niacr1tm1Lex for HCAR2

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for HCAR2

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    hsa-miR-203 hsa-miR-767-3p hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-520a-5p hsa-miR-211 hsa-miR-146a* hsa-miR-141 hsa-miR-525-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidHCAR2 3' UTR sequence
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    HCAR2_HUMAN, Q8TDS4: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for HCAR2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    2Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    3Hydroxycarboxylic acid-binding receptors
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid-binding receptors


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    3 Reactome Pathways for HCAR2
        G alpha (i) signalling events
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid-binding receptors


        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including HCAR2: 
              G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for HCAR2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for HCAR2 (ENSP000003750664) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 143)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ACKR3ENSP000002729284STRING: ENSP00000272928
    ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
    ADORA1ENSP000003085494STRING: ENSP00000308549
    ADRA2AENSP000002801554STRING: ENSP00000280155
    APLNRENSP000002572544STRING: ENSP00000257254
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001781neutrophil apoptotic process IDA17932499
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0033031positive regulation of neutrophil apoptotic process IDA17932499
    GO:0050995negative regulation of lipid catabolic process ISS--
    GO:0070165positive regulation of adiponectin secretion ISS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for HCAR2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    AcifranHypolipidemic agent; agonist for the GPR109A (HM74A) and GPR109B receptors[72420-38-3]
    IBC 293Selective agonist for the GPR109B (HM74) receptor. Antilipolytic[306935-41-1]

    Selected IUPHAR Ligands for HCAR2 (HCA2 receptor) (see all 21)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    MK 6892
    AgonistFull agonist8.420184326
    compound 21 [PMID:21185185]
    AgonistFull agonist7.9221185185
    compound 2g [PMID:19309152]
    AgonistFull agonist7.8919309152
    MK 1903
    AgonistFull agonist7.5622435740
    compound (+)17a [PMID:20363624]
    AgonistFull agonist7.3520363624
    (+)-5-(5-bromothiophen-3-yl)-5-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-furan-2-carboxylic acid
    AgonistFull agonist7.317358052 15929991
    [3H]nicotinic acid
    AgonistFull agonist7 - 7.312563315 12646212 12522134
    nicotinic acid
    AgonistFull agonist6 - 7.212563315 12646212 12522134
    compound 1q [PMID:18029181]
    AgonistPartial agonist6.8518029181
    compound 9n [PMID:18752940]
    Allosteric regulatorPositive6.7718752940

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for HCAR2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    acifran 96.2 4 17358052 (2), 17008871 (1)
    niacin 90.6 72 16386710 (4), 12563315 (4), 17238156 (3), 17008871 (3) (see all 24)
    pgd2 67 10 17008871 (3), 19691622 (1)
    prostaglandin 42.6 2 16386710 (1), 17124637 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for HCAR2 gene: 
    NM_177551.3  

    Unigene Cluster for HCAR2:

    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2
    Hs.524812  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC027965
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000328880(uc001ucx.1)
    miRNA
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK290915.1 AY148884.1 BC027965.1 BC056419.1 BC063461.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.410471  DT.100787462  DT.100729027 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 68):

    NM_177551 BM980688 AL545172 AW081241 AW449521 BM008116 N62053 AL546894 
    CD364466 AI676166 CB265428 CD364498 AL572062 BV205726 BI820995 CD742681 
    BU146785 AW088065 BI837965 BF221877 BC056419 CD370595 BV205728 AL545140 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    HCAR2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAGCCCCTCT
    HCAR2 Expression
    About this image

    HCAR2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    HCAR2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.524812

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HCAR2_HUMAN, Q8TDS4
    Tissue specificity: Expression largely restricted to adipose tissue and spleen. Expressed on mature neutrophils
    but not on immature neutrophils or eosinophils

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including HCAR2: 
              G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for HCAR2 gene from Selected species (see all 7)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Niacr11 , 5 niacin receptor 11, 5 82.58(n)1
    82.87(a)1
      5 (63.24 cM)5
    808851  NM_030701.31  NP_109626.11 
     1238635705 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii hcar1-26
    hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1-2
    40(a)
    many ↔ many
    10(45668000-45669510) ENSDARG00000079958


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for HCAR2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for HCAR2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for HCAR2 gene
    HCAR12  OXER12  GPR312  HCAR32  
    14 SIMAP similar genes for HCAR2 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     HCAR2_HUMAN:
    HCAR3    HCAR1    OXER1    GPR31    LPAR4    LPAR6
    CYSLTR1    CYSLTR2    GPR35    KPG_007    KPG_011    GPR17
    P2RY1    OXGR1

    Find genes that share paralogs with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for HCAR2 (see all 239)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1883204801,2
    --123185407(+) TTTTAC/GTAGAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1391808101,2
    --123185423(+) GTTTCA/GCCATG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1810617931,2
    --123185428(+) GCCATG/TTTGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs5973651,2
    C,F--123185538(-) TTAAAC/AAGGGA 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- A:0.38NA WA 8
    rs5973431,2
    H--123185554(-) TCTTAG/ATATTT 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NS NA 228
    rs1464789191,2
    --123185563(+) GAGCAA/GTATTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs5865731,2
    C,F,A,H--123185601(-) AGGATC/TGCAAG 1 -- int19Minor allele frequency- T:0.49NA WA EA 256
    rs1386198681,2
    --123185759(+) GGACAG/TAGTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1999838351,2
    C--123185864(+) TTGAAA/GTGGTA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1512197891,2
    C--123185891(+) AGAAAC/TACAAG 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for HCAR2 (123185840 - 123187904 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for HCAR2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2746500CNV Deletion23290073
    esv8843CNV Loss19470904
    esv8582CNV Loss19470904
    esv26589CNV Gain19812545

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 609163    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with HCAR2           About GenesLikeMe

    1 Novoseek inferred disease relationship for HCAR2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    atherosclerosis 36.5 1 17358052 (1)


    Export disorders for HCAR2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for HCAR2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 50):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with HCAR2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. International union of basic and clinical pharmacology. LXXXII: nomenclature and classification of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B). (PubMed id 21454438)1, 2, 3 Offermanns S....Ijzerman A.P. (Pharmacol. Rev. 2011)
    2. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. (PubMed id 12522134)1, 2, 3 Wise A.... Pike N.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    3. Neutrophil apoptosis mediated by nicotinic acid receptors (GPR109A). (PubMed id 17932499)1, 2, 9 Kostylina G.... Simon H.U. (Cell Death Differ. 2008)
    4. Molecular identification of nicotinic acid receptor. (PubMed id 12646212)1, 3, 9 Soga T....Furuichi K. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
    5. Structure-activity relationships of trans-substituted-propenoic acid derivatives on the nicotinic acid receptor HCA2 (GPR109A). (PubMed id 21167710)1, 3 van Veldhoven J.P....Ijzerman A.P. (amp 2011)
    6. Niacin stimulates adiponectin secretion through the GPR109A receptor. (PubMed id 19141678)1, 3 Plaisance E.P....Judd R.L. (Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009)
    7. Nicotinic acid receptor agonists. (PubMed id 18983141)1, 3 Boatman P.D....Semple G. (J. Med. Chem. 2008)
    8. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    9. Identification of G protein-coupled receptor genes from the human genome sequence. (PubMed id 12044878)1, 2 Takeda S.... Mitaku S. (FEBS Lett. 2002)
    10. The high-affinity niacin receptor HM74A is decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 18639743)1, 9 Miller C.L. and Dulay J.R. (Brain Res. Bull. 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 338442 HGNC: 24827 AceView: GPR109A Ensembl:ENSG00000182782 euGenes: HUgn338442
    ECgene: HCAR2 H-InvDB: HCAR2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for HCAR2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/gpr109a/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for HCAR2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving HCAR2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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