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Aliases for HCAR2 Gene

Aliases for HCAR2 Gene

  • Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 2 2 3
  • Niacin Receptor 1 2 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor HM74A 3 4
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109A 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 109A 3 4
  • Nicotinic Acid Receptor 3 4
  • GPR109A 3 4
  • NIACR1 3 4
  • HM74a 3 4
  • HCA2 3 4
  • Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 2 3
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor HM74a 3
  • Puma-G 3
  • HM74b 3
  • PUMAG 3

External Ids for HCAR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HCAR2 Gene

  • GPR109A

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HCAR2 Gene

  • GC12M123187

Summaries for HCAR2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for HCAR2 Gene

HCAR2 (Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and cAMP signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and nicotinic acid receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

  • Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosis in mature neutrophils. Receptor activation by nicotinic acid results in reduced cAMP levels which may affect activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and phosphorylation of target proteins, leading to neutrophil apoptosis. The rank order of potency for the displacement of nicotinic acid binding is 5-methyl pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid = pyridine-3-acetic acid > acifran > 5-methyl nicotinic acid = acipimox >> nicotinuric acid = nicotinamide.

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HCAR2 Gene

Genomics for HCAR2 Gene

Genomic Location for HCAR2 Gene

Chromosome:
12
Start:
122,701,293 bp from pter
End:
122,703,357 bp from pter
Size:
2,065 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for HCAR2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for HCAR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HCAR2 Gene

No data available for Regulatory Elements for HCAR2 Gene

Proteins for HCAR2 Gene

  • Protein details for HCAR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q8TDS4-HCAR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q8TDS4
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0PJL5
    • A7LGG3

    Protein attributes for HCAR2 Gene

    Size:
    363 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41850 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for HCAR2 Gene

Proteomics data for HCAR2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HCAR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for HCAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HCAR2 Gene

Domains & Families for HCAR2 Gene

Gene Families for HCAR2 Gene

Protein Domains for HCAR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HCAR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q8TDS4

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

HCAR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HCAR2: view

Function for HCAR2 Gene

Molecular function for HCAR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosis in mature neutrophils. Receptor activation by nicotinic acid results in reduced cAMP levels which may affect activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and phosphorylation of target proteins, leading to neutrophil apoptosis. The rank order of potency for the displacement of nicotinic acid binding is 5-methyl pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid = pyridine-3-acetic acid > acifran > 5-methyl nicotinic acid = acipimox >> nicotinuric acid = nicotinamide.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HCAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0070553 nicotinic acid receptor activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR2: view

Phenotypes for HCAR2 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for HCAR2:
inferred from 1 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for HCAR2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HCAR2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HCAR2 Gene

Localization for HCAR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for HCAR2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HCAR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HCAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for HCAR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HCAR2: view

Pathways by source for HCAR2 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Interacting Proteins for HCAR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HCAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001781 neutrophil apoptotic process IDA 17932499
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0033031 positive regulation of neutrophil apoptotic process IDA 17932499
GO:0050995 negative regulation of lipid catabolic process ISS --
GO:0070165 positive regulation of adiponectin secretion ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HCAR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HCAR2 Gene

(26) Drugs for HCAR2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, IUPHAR, DGIdb, HMDB, DrugBank, Tocris, and ApexBio

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Niacin Approved, Investigational Nutra Unknown, Agonist, Target, agonist 340,340
Mepenzolate Approved Pharma antagonist 0
para-coumaric acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
Acifran Pharma Full agonist, Agonist Hypolipidemic agent; agonist for the GPR109A (HM74A) and GPR109B receptors 0
MK 1903 Pharma Full agonist, Agonist Potent and selective GPR109A (HCA2) agonist 0

(5) Additional Compounds for HCAR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR, Tocris, and NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
beta-D-hydroxybutyric acid
Full agonist, Agonist
3,5-DHBA
99-10-5
LUF 6283
92933-48-7
PGD2
Prostaglandin
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HCAR2: view

Transcripts for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HCAR2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(68) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HCAR2 Gene

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HCAR2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HCAR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HCAR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
HCAR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
HCAR2

Expression for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HCAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HCAR2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HCAR2 Gene Hs.524812

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HCAR2 Gene

Q8TDS4-HCAR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expression largely restricted to adipose tissue and spleen. Expressed on mature neutrophils but not on immature neutrophils or eosinophils.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HCAR2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for HCAR2 Gene

Orthologs for HCAR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HCAR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Niacr1 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
Niacr1 16
Niacr1 35
  • 82.58 (n)
  • 82.87 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Niacr1 35
  • 82.77 (n)
  • 83.71 (a)
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR109A 35
  • 99.45 (n)
  • 99.72 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hcar1-2 36
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for HCAR2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HCAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for HCAR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for HCAR2 (if available)

Paralogs for HCAR2 Gene

Paralogs for HCAR2 Gene

(14) SIMAP similar genes for HCAR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HCAR2: view

Variants for HCAR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HCAR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2549 -- 122,701,668(+) TAAAG(A/C)TTGTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs470923 -- 122,702,711(-) GAAGC(C/T)ATGTT reference, synonymous-codon
rs470939 -- 122,702,183(-) ACCAT(G/T)CCAAG utr-variant-3-prime
rs488391 -- 122,705,131(-) CCTGG(A/G)CGACA upstream-variant-2KB
rs492699 -- 122,701,834(-) ACTGG(A/G)GGGGG utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HCAR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv26589 CNV Gain 19812545
esv2746500 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv8843 CNV Loss 19470904
esv8582 CNV Loss 19470904

Variation tolerance for HCAR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 56.82% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.42; 27.89% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HCAR2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
HCAR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR2 Gene

Disorders for HCAR2 Gene

Relevant External Links for HCAR2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
HCAR2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HCAR2: view

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HCAR2 Gene

Publications for HCAR2 Gene

  1. Molecular identification of nicotinic acid receptor. (PMID: 12646212) Soga T. … Furuichi K. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003) 2 23 25 26 67
  2. Variations in human HM74 (GPR109B) and HM74A (GPR109A) niacin receptors. (PMID: 15580557) Zellner C. … Kane J.P. (Hum. Mutat. 2005) 23 25 26 67
  3. Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A. (PMID: 16018973) Zhang Y. … Cao G. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005) 23 25 26 67
  4. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. (PMID: 12522134) Wise A. … Pike N.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 2 25 26 67
  5. Structure-activity relationships of trans-substituted-propenoic acid derivatives on the nicotinic acid receptor HCA2 (GPR109A). (PMID: 21167710) van Veldhoven J.P. … Ijzerman A.P. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2011) 2 67

Products for HCAR2 Gene

Sources for HCAR2 Gene

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