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Aliases for HCAR1 Gene

Aliases for HCAR1 Gene

  • Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 1 2 3 5
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 104 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 104 3 4
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 81 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 81 3 4
  • Lactate Receptor 1 2 3
  • GPR104 3 4
  • GPR81 3 4
  • HCA1 3 4
  • T-Cell Activation G Protein-Coupled Receptor 3
  • Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 1 3
  • TA-GPCR 3
  • FKSG80 3
  • TAGPCR 3
  • LACR1 3

External Ids for HCAR1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HCAR1 Gene

  • GPR104
  • GPR81

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HCAR1 Gene

  • GC12M123104

Summaries for HCAR1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HCAR1 Gene

  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs), such as GPR81, contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2005]

GeneCards Summary for HCAR1 Gene

HCAR1 (Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and cAMP signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

  • Acts as a receptor for L-lactate and mediates its anti-lipolytic effect through a G(i)-protein-mediated pathway.

Tocris Summary for HCAR1 Gene

  • Orphan 7-TM receptors (orphan GPCRs) are receptors for which there are no defined ligands. Traditionally, receptors are characterized by specific ligands and stimuli; the search for ligands of orphan receptors is therefore akin to reverse-engineering this process.

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HCAR1 Gene

Genomics for HCAR1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HCAR1 Gene

Enhancers for HCAR1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around HCAR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for HCAR1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around HCAR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HCAR1 Gene

122,726,076 bp from pter
122,730,843 bp from pter
4,768 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HCAR1 Gene

Genes around HCAR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HCAR1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HCAR1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HCAR1 Gene

Proteins for HCAR1 Gene

  • Protein details for HCAR1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9X4
    • Q3Y5J3
    • Q4VBN1
    • Q6NXU5

    Protein attributes for HCAR1 Gene

    346 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39295 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for HCAR1 Gene

Proteomics data for HCAR1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HCAR1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 3
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for HCAR1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HCAR1 Gene

Domains & Families for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Families for HCAR1 Gene

Protein Domains for HCAR1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HCAR1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HCAR1: view

Function for HCAR1 Gene

Molecular function for HCAR1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acts as a receptor for L-lactate and mediates its anti-lipolytic effect through a G(i)-protein-mediated pathway.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HCAR1: view

Animal Models for HCAR1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HCAR1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for HCAR1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HCAR1 Gene

Localization for HCAR1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HCAR1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HCAR1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HCAR1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HCAR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HCAR1: view

Pathways by source for HCAR1 Gene

Interacting Proteins for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HCAR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0098779 mitophagy in response to mitochondrial depolarization IGI 22020285
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HCAR1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HCAR1 Gene

(5) Drugs for HCAR1 Gene - From: DGIdb and IUPHAR

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Niacin Approved, Investigational Nutra Unknown, Agonist 854,854
3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
L-lactic acid Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(7) Additional Compounds for HCAR1 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
D-lactic ?aeacid
Partial agonist, Agonist
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid
Full agonist, Agonist
Grifolic acid
PF9 tetrasodium salt
Prosaptide TX14(A)

(5) Tocris Compounds for HCAR1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Grifolic acid Selective partial FFA4 (GPR120) agonist 80557-12-6
PF9 tetrasodium salt Potent GPR17 agonist 851265-78-6
Prosaptide TX14(A) Potent GPR37 and GPR37L1 agonist 196391-82-9
TC-O 9311 Potent and selective GPR139 agonist 444932-31-4
TUG 891 Potent and selective FFA4 (GPR120) agonist 1374516-07-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HCAR1: view

Transcripts for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HCAR1 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(11) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HCAR1 Gene

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HCAR1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HCAR1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HCAR1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast - Mammary Tissue (x12.0), Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x7.9), and Bladder (x4.1).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HCAR1 Gene Hs.610873

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HCAR1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed abundantly in brown and white fat. It also detectable at lower levels in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain and pituitary. Not detected in frontal, temporal and occipital lobes of the cortex, basal forebrain, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HCAR1: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for HCAR1 Gene

Orthologs for HCAR1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HCAR1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HCAR1 35
  • 83.38 (n)
  • 81.19 (a)
GPR81 36
  • 81 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HCAR1 35
  • 84.76 (n)
  • 84.37 (a)
GPR81 36
  • 79 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr81 35
  • 81.48 (n)
  • 80.7 (a)
Hcar1 16
Gpr81 36
  • 79 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HCAR1 35
  • 99.23 (n)
  • 98.84 (a)
HCAR1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr81 35
  • 81.85 (n)
  • 81.66 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HCAR1 36
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HCAR1 36
  • 78 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hcar1-1 36
  • 39 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HCAR1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Tree for HCAR1 (if available)
Gene Tree for HCAR1 (if available)

Paralogs for HCAR1 Gene

Paralogs for HCAR1 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for HCAR1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HCAR1: view

Variants for HCAR1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HCAR1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs35292336 - 122,730,211(-) TTCCA(C/G)ATGAA reference, missense
VAR_025152 -
rs36124671 - 122,729,583(-) CCTGC(A/C/G)ATCCC reference, missense
rs496911 -- 122,731,922(-) ctggc(C/T)TCCAC upstream-variant-2KB
rs513567 -- 122,728,689(-) GTGCC(C/T)GGCCT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HCAR1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv913 CNV Insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for HCAR1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.34; 53.62% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HCAR1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

Disorders for HCAR1 Gene

Relevant External Links for HCAR1

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for HCAR1 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HCAR1 Gene

Publications for HCAR1 Gene

  1. International union of basic and clinical pharmacology. LXXXII: nomenclature and classification of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B). (PMID: 21454438) Offermanns S. … Ijzerman A.P. (Pharmacol. Rev. 2011) 2 3 4 67
  2. Lactate inhibits lipolysis in fat cells through activation of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR81. (PMID: 19047060) Liu C. … Lovenberg T.W. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 2 3
  3. Role of GPR81 in lactate-mediated reduction of adipose lipolysis. (PMID: 18952058) Cai T.Q. … Waters M.G. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2008) 2 3
  4. Discovery and mapping of ten novel G protein-coupled receptor genes. (PMID: 11574155) Lee D.K. … O'Dowd B.F. (Gene 2001) 2 3
  5. L- and D-lactate enhance DNA repair and modulate the resistance of cervical carcinoma cells to anticancer drugs via histone deacetylase inhibition and hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 activation. (PMID: 26208712) Wagner W. … Kania K.D. (Cell Commun. Signal 2015) 3

Products for HCAR1 Gene

Sources for HCAR1 Gene