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Aliases for HCAR1 Gene

Aliases for HCAR1 Gene

  • Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 1 2 3
  • GPR81 3 4 6
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 104 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 104 3 4
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 81 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 81 3 4
  • Lactate Receptor 1 2 3
  • GPR104 3 4
  • HCA1 3 4
  • T-Cell Activation G Protein-Coupled Receptor 3
  • Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 1 3
  • TA-GPCR 3
  • FKSG80 3
  • TAGPCR 3
  • LACR1 3

External Ids for HCAR1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HCAR1 Gene

  • GPR104
  • GPR81

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HCAR1 Gene

  • GC12M123104

Summaries for HCAR1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HCAR1 Gene

  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs), such as GPR81, contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2005]

GeneCards Summary for HCAR1 Gene

HCAR1 (Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

  • Acts as a receptor for L-lactate and mediates its anti-lipolytic effect through a G(i)-protein-mediated pathway.

Tocris Summary for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HCAR1 Gene

Genomics for HCAR1 Gene

Genomic Location for HCAR1 Gene

122,726,076 bp from pter
122,730,843 bp from pter
4,768 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HCAR1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for HCAR1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HCAR1 Gene

No data available for Regulatory Elements for HCAR1 Gene

Proteins for HCAR1 Gene

  • Protein details for HCAR1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9X4
    • Q3Y5J3
    • Q4VBN1
    • Q6NXU5

    Protein attributes for HCAR1 Gene

    346 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39295 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for HCAR1 Gene

Proteomics data for HCAR1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HCAR1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn3
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for HCAR1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HCAR1 Gene

Domains for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Families for HCAR1 Gene

  • HCAR :GPCR / Class A : Hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors

Protein Domains for HCAR1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HCAR1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9BXC0
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HCAR1: view

Function for HCAR1 Gene

Molecular function for HCAR1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Acts as a receptor for L-lactate and mediates its anti-lipolytic effect through a G(i)-protein-mediated pathway.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HCAR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR1: view

Phenotypes for HCAR1 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for HCAR1:
inferred from 1 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for HCAR1:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HCAR1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for HCAR1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HCAR1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for HCAR1 Gene

Localization for HCAR1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HCAR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS for HCAR1 Gene

Pathways for HCAR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HCAR1: view

Pathways by source for HCAR1 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Interacting Proteins for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HCAR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002230 positive regulation of defense response to virus by host IMP 22020285
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0032355 response to estradiol IDA 15831516
GO:0098779 activation of mitophagy in response to mitochondrial depolarization IMP 22020285
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR1: view

Compounds for HCAR1 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for HCAR1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Grifolic acid Selective partial FFA4 (GPR120) agonist [80557-12-6]
GSK 137647 Potent and selective FFA4 (GPR120) agonist [349085-82-1]
PF9 tetrasodium salt Potent GPR17 agonist [851265-78-6]
Prosaptide TX14(A) Potent GPR37 and GPR37L1 agonist [196391-82-9]
TUG 891 Potent and selective FFA4 (GPR120) agonist [1374516-07-0]

(5) IUPHAR Ligand for HCAR1 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid Agonist Full agonist 3.72
L-lactic acid Agonist Full agonist 2.89
D-lactic ?aeacid Agonist Partial agonist 2.52
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid Agonist Full agonist 1.82
nicotinic acid Agonist Unknown
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HCAR1: view

Transcripts for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HCAR1 Gene

(11) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HCAR1 Gene

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HCAR1

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HCAR1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HCAR1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HCAR1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast - Mammary Tissue (12.0), Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (7.9), and Bladder (4.1).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HCAR1 Gene Hs.610873

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HCAR1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed abundantly in brown and white fat. It also detectable at lower levels in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain and pituitary. Not detected in frontal, temporal and occipital lobes of the cortex, basal forebrain, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with HCAR1: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Protein expression for HCAR1 Gene

Orthologs for HCAR1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HCAR1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HCAR1 35
  • 99.23 (n)
  • 98.84 (a)
HCAR1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPR81 36
  • 81 (a)
HCAR1 35
  • 83.38 (n)
  • 81.19 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPR81 36
  • 79 (a)
HCAR1 35
  • 84.76 (n)
  • 84.37 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr81 35
  • 81.48 (n)
  • 80.7 (a)
Gpr81 16
Gpr81 36
  • 79 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HCAR1 36
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HCAR1 36
  • 78 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr81 35
  • 81.85 (n)
  • 81.66 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hcar1-1 36
  • 39 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HCAR1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Tree for HCAR1 (if available)
Gene Tree for HCAR1 (if available)

Paralogs for HCAR1 Gene

Paralogs for HCAR1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for HCAR1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HCAR1: view

Variants for HCAR1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HCAR1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs496911 -- 122,731,922(-) ctggc(C/T)TCCAC upstream-variant-2KB
rs513567 -- 122,728,689(-) GTGCC(C/T)GGCCT utr-variant-3-prime
rs525017 -- 122,731,187(-) GCTTC(A/G)GATCT upstream-variant-2KB
rs527902 -- 122,730,863(-) GCAGG(A/G)GCCCA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1696348 -- 122,727,270(-) AATCT(C/T)GCTCT downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HCAR1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv913 CNV Insertion 18451855

Relevant External Links for HCAR1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

Disorders for HCAR1 Gene

No disorders were found for HCAR1 Gene.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

Publications for HCAR1 Gene

  1. Discovery and mapping of ten novel G protein-coupled receptor genes. (PMID: 11574155) Lee D.K. … O'Dowd B.F. (Gene 2001) 2 3 4
  2. International union of basic and clinical pharmacology. LXXXII: nomenclature and classification of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B). (PMID: 21454438) Offermanns S. … Ijzerman A.P. (Pharmacol. Rev. 2011) 2 3 4
  3. Lactate inhibits lipolysis in fat cells through activation of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR81. (PMID: 19047060) Liu C. … Lovenberg T.W. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 2 3 4
  4. Identification of G protein-coupled receptor genes from the human genome sequence. (PMID: 12044878) Takeda S. … Mitaku S. (FEBS Lett. 2002) 3 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4

Products for HCAR1 Gene

Sources for HCAR1 Gene

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