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Aliases for HBG2 Gene

Aliases for HBG2 Gene

  • Hemoglobin Subunit Gamma 2 2 3 5
  • Hemoglobin Gamma-2 Chain 3 4
  • Hemoglobin Gamma-G Chain 3 4
  • Hemoglobin, Gamma G 2 3
  • Gamma-2-Globin 3 4
  • Hb F Ggamma 3 4
  • G-Gamma Globin Paulinia 3
  • Abnormal Hemoglobin 3
  • Methemoglobin 3
  • HBG-T1 3
  • TNCY 3

External Ids for HBG2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HBG2 Gene

  • GC11M006018
  • GC11M005572
  • GC11M005229
  • GC11M005216
  • GC11M005235
  • GC11M005230
  • GC11M005274
  • GC11M004934

Summaries for HBG2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HBG2 Gene

  • The gamma globin genes (HBG1 and HBG2) are normally expressed in the fetal liver, spleen and bone marrow. Two gamma chains together with two alpha chains constitute fetal hemoglobin (HbF) which is normally replaced by adult hemoglobin (HbA) at birth. In some beta-thalassemias and related conditions, gamma chain production continues into adulthood. The two types of gamma chains differ at residue 136 where glycine is found in the G-gamma product (HBG2) and alanine is found in the A-gamma product (HBG1). The former is predominant at birth. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is: 5'- epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for HBG2 Gene

HBG2 (Hemoglobin Subunit Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HBG2 include Cyanosis, Transient Neonatal and Fetal Hemoglobin Quantitative Trait Locus 1. Among its related pathways are p70S6K Signaling and Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation. GO annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and oxygen binding. An important paralog of this gene is HBA2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HBG2 Gene

  • Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.

Gene Wiki entry for HBG2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HBG2 Gene

Genomics for HBG2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HBG2 Gene

Enhancers for HBG2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around HBG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HBG2 Gene

5,248,274 bp from pter
5,645,789 bp from pter
397,516 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HBG2 Gene

Genes around HBG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HBG2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HBG2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HBG2 Gene

Proteins for HBG2 Gene

  • Protein details for HBG2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Hemoglobin subunit gamma-2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MZE0
    • P02096
    • P62027
    • Q14491
    • Q68NH9
    • Q96FH6
    • Q96FH7

    Protein attributes for HBG2 Gene

    147 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16126 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer of two alpha chains and two gamma chains in fetal hemoglobin (Hb F).
    • Sequence=AAB50159.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HBG2 Gene

neXtProt entry for HBG2 Gene

Proteomics data for HBG2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HBG2 Gene

  • Acetylation of Gly-2 converts Hb F to the minor Hb F1.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for HBG2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HBG2 Gene

Domains & Families for HBG2 Gene

Gene Families for HBG2 Gene

Protein Domains for HBG2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the globin family.
  • Belongs to the globin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HBG2: view

Function for HBG2 Gene

Molecular function for HBG2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
globin,gamma G,fetal (G 136)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HBG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005344 oxygen transporter activity IEA --
GO:0019825 oxygen binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HBG2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HBG2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for HBG2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for HBG2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HBG2:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HBG2 Gene

Localization for HBG2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HBG2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HBG2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HBG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005833 hemoglobin complex IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HBG2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HBG2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HBG2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HBG2: view

Pathways by source for HBG2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HBG2 Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HBG2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HBG2 Gene

(39) Drugs for HBG2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
heme Pharma Agonist 0

(66) Additional Compounds for HBG2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Dioxygen
  • Molecular oxygen
  • O2
  • Oxygen
  • Oxygen molecule
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HBG2: view

Transcripts for HBG2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for HBG2 Gene

Hemoglobin, gamma G:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HBG2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HBG2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HBG2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HBG2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HBG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x49.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HBG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal Liver (15.1), Placenta (14.5), Fetal heart (9.6), Fetal gut (8.8), and Fetal testis (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HBG2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HBG2 Gene Hs.302145

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HBG2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Red blood cells.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HBG2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for HBG2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

Orthologs for HBG2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HBG2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HBE1 35
  • 84.13 (n)
  • 81.63 (a)
HBE2 36
  • 71 (a)
HBE4 36
  • 74 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HBE1 35
  • 84.35 (n)
  • 82.99 (a)
-- 36
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hbb-y 35
  • 80.73 (n)
  • 76.19 (a)
Hbb-y 16
Hbb-bh1 36
  • 76 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HBG2 35
  • 99.32 (n)
  • 100 (a)
HBG2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hbe1 35
  • 80.05 (n)
  • 77.55 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 62 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 76 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HBB 36
  • 70 (a)
HBE 36
  • 66 (a)
HBE1 36
  • 69 (a)
HBG1 36
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 62 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100037901 35
  • 63.27 (n)
  • 61.22 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hbaa1 36
  • 42 (a)
hbaa1 36
  • 42 (a)
hbae1 36
  • 38 (a)
hbae1 36
  • 35 (a)
hbae3 36
  • 41 (a)
hbz 36
  • 41 (a)
si:ch211-5k11.2 36
  • 38 (a)
si:ch211-5k11.6 36
  • 40 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HBG2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HBG2 Gene

Gene Tree for HBG2 (if available)
Gene Tree for HBG2 (if available)

Paralogs for HBG2 Gene

Paralogs for HBG2 Gene Pseudogenes for HBG2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HBG2: view

Variants for HBG2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HBG2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_003123 -
VAR_003126 -
VAR_003129 -
VAR_003131 -
VAR_003132 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HBG2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv194n67 CNV Gain 20364138
esv5471 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2744059 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv896930 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2671356 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2648523 CNV Deletion 19546169

Variation tolerance for HBG2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.42; 9.27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HBG2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HBG2 Gene

Disorders for HBG2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(27) MalaCards diseases for HBG2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
cyanosis, transient neonatal
  • tncy
fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus 1
  • hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin
hemoglobinopathy toms river
  • transient neonatal cyanosis and anemia due to toms river hemoglobin
hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin-beta-thalassemia syndrome
  • hpfh-beta-thalassemia syndrome
hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin-sickle cell disease syndrome
  • hpfh-sickle cell disease syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HBG2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Cyanosis transient neonatal (TNCY) [MIM:613977]: A disorder characterized by cyanosis in the fetus and neonate, due to a defect in the fetal hemoglobin chain which has reduced affinity for oxygen. Some patients develop anemia resulting from increased destruction of red cells containing abnormal or unstable hemoglobin. The cyanosis resolves spontaneously by 5 to 6 months of age or earlier, as the adult beta-globin chain is produced and replaces the fetal gamma-globin chain. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19065339, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21561349, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24502349, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2470017, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2483933, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7741137}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for HBG2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HBG2: view

No data available for Genatlas for HBG2 Gene

Publications for HBG2 Gene

  1. A new (G)I^-globin variant causing low oxygen affinity: Hb F-Brugine/Feldkirch [(G)I^105(G7)Leua89His; HBG2: c.317T>A]. (PMID: 24502349) Saller E. … Frischknecht H. (Hemoglobin 2014) 3 4 67
  2. The Hellenic type of nondeletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin results from a novel mutation (g.-109G>T) in the HBG2 gene promoter. (PMID: 19050890) Chassanidis C. … Kollia P. (Ann. Hematol. 2009) 3 23
  3. A review of the molecular genetics of the human alpha-globin gene cluster. (PMID: 2649166) Higgs D.R. … Weatherall D.J. (Blood 1989) 2 3
  4. Polymorphic variations influencing fetal hemoglobin levels: Association study in beta-thalassemia carriers and in normal individuals of Portuguese origin. (PMID: 25842369) Pereira C. … Manco L. (Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2015) 3
  5. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Dynamic Interactions of the Minichromosome Maintenance Complex (MCM) in the Cellular Response to Etoposide Induced DNA Damage. (PMID: 25963833) Drissi R. … Boisvert F.M. (Mol. Cell Proteomics 2015) 3

Products for HBG2 Gene

Sources for HBG2 Gene