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Aliases for HBG2 Gene

Aliases for HBG2 Gene

  • Hemoglobin Subunit Gamma 2 2 3 5
  • Hemoglobin Gamma-2 Chain 3 4
  • Hemoglobin Gamma-G Chain 3 4
  • Hemoglobin, Gamma G 2 3
  • Gamma-2-Globin 3 4
  • Hb F Ggamma 3 4
  • Hemoglobin Subunit Gamma-2 3
  • G-Gamma Globin Paulinia 3
  • Abnormal Hemoglobin 3
  • Methemoglobin 3
  • HBG-T1 3
  • TNCY 3

External Ids for HBG2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HBG2 Gene

  • GC11M006018
  • GC11M005572
  • GC11M005229
  • GC11M005216
  • GC11M005235
  • GC11M005230
  • GC11M005274
  • GC11M004934

Summaries for HBG2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HBG2 Gene

  • The gamma globin genes (HBG1 and HBG2) are normally expressed in the fetal liver, spleen and bone marrow. Two gamma chains together with two alpha chains constitute fetal hemoglobin (HbF) which is normally replaced by adult hemoglobin (HbA) at birth. In some beta-thalassemias and related conditions, gamma chain production continues into adulthood. The two types of gamma chains differ at residue 136 where glycine is found in the G-gamma product (HBG2) and alanine is found in the A-gamma product (HBG1). The former is predominant at birth. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is: 5'- epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for HBG2 Gene

HBG2 (Hemoglobin Subunit Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HBG2 include Cyanosis, Transient Neonatal and Fetal Hemoglobin Quantitative Trait Locus 1. Among its related pathways are Factors involved in megakaryocyte development and platelet production and IL-2 Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and oxygen binding. An important paralog of this gene is HBG1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HBG2 Gene

  • Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.

Gene Wiki entry for HBG2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HBG2 Gene

Genomics for HBG2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HBG2 Gene

Enhancers for HBG2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH11F005287 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE 76.2 +357.0 357048 3.2 YBX3 TBP HDAC1 CBX3 ATF1 ARNT TBL1XR1 GATA2 FOS CREM HBD HBG2 HBG1 ENSG00000224091 HBBP1 HBB OR51V1 ENSG00000221031 OR52A4P OR51M1
GH11F005274 1 FANTOM5 ENCODE 69 +370.2 370248 2.2 TBP HDAC1 CBX3 ATF1 ARNT TBL1XR1 CHAMP1 GATA2 CREM ZBTB2 HBD HBG2 HBB HBG1 HBBP1 ENSG00000221031 OR51V1 OR51B4 GC11M005280 ENSG00000279346
GH11F005279 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 52 +364.8 364764 2.6 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT CREB3L1 ELK1 GATA2 FOS DEK JUNB NCOA1 HBG2 HBD HBB TRIM68 ENSG00000221031 OR51B4 HBG1 GC11M005280 GC11M005283
GH11F005278 0.4 FANTOM5 35.5 +366.9 366875 0.2 NFYB HBD HBG2 HBG1 HBB ENSG00000221031 HBBP1 OR51B4 GC11M005280 ENSG00000279346
GH11F005242 0.2 Ensembl 14.8 +401.5 401493 3.4 HDAC1 CBX3 PKNOX1 ZBTB40 CHAMP1 GATA2 SIRT6 CREM SMARCA5 SMAD5 HBG2 HBG1 GC11M005252 HBBP1
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around HBG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HBG2 Gene

5,248,274 bp from pter
5,645,789 bp from pter
397,516 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HBG2 Gene

Genes around HBG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HBG2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HBG2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HBG2 Gene

Proteins for HBG2 Gene

  • Protein details for HBG2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Hemoglobin subunit gamma-2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MZE0
    • P02096
    • P62027
    • Q14491
    • Q68NH9
    • Q96FH6
    • Q96FH7

    Protein attributes for HBG2 Gene

    147 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16126 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer of two alpha chains and two gamma chains in fetal hemoglobin (Hb F).
    • Sequence=AAB50159.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HBG2 Gene

neXtProt entry for HBG2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for HBG2 Gene

  • Acetylation of Gly-2 converts Hb F to the minor Hb F1.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for HBG2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HBG2 Gene

Domains & Families for HBG2 Gene

Gene Families for HBG2 Gene

Protein Domains for HBG2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the globin family.
  • Belongs to the globin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HBG2: view

Function for HBG2 Gene

Molecular function for HBG2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
globin,gamma G,fetal (G 136)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HBG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005344 oxygen transporter activity IEA --
GO:0005506 iron ion binding IEA --
GO:0019825 oxygen binding IEA --
GO:0020037 heme binding IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HBG2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HBG2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for HBG2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for HBG2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HBG2:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HBG2 Gene

Localization for HBG2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HBG2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HBG2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HBG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005833 hemoglobin complex IEA --
GO:0072562 blood microparticle IDA 22516433
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HBG2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HBG2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HBG2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HBG2: view

Pathways by source for HBG2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HBG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006810 transport IEA --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
GO:0015671 oxygen transport IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HBG2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HBG2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HBG2 Gene

(41) Drugs for HBG2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
heme Pharma Agonist 0

(64) Additional Compounds for HBG2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HBG2: view

Transcripts for HBG2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for HBG2 Gene

Hemoglobin, gamma G:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HBG2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HBG2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HBG2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HBG2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HBG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x49.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HBG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal Liver (15.1), Placenta (14.5), Fetal heart (9.6), Fetal gut (8.8), and Fetal testis (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for HBG2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for HBG2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HBG2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HBG2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HBG2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Red blood cells.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HBG2: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for HBG2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HBG2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HBG2 34 35
  • 99.32 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HBE1 34
  • 84.35 (n)
-- 35
  • 75 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HBE1 34
  • 84.13 (n)
HBE4 35
  • 74 (a)
HBE2 35
  • 71 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hbb-y 34 16
  • 80.73 (n)
Hbb-bh1 35
  • 76 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hbe1 34
  • 80.05 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 76 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 62 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HBB 35
  • 70 (a)
HBE1 35
  • 69 (a)
HBG1 35
  • 67 (a)
HBE 35
  • 66 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 62 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100037901 34
  • 63.27 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hbaa1 35 35
  • 42 (a)
hbae3 35
  • 41 (a)
hbz 35
  • 41 (a)
si:ch211-5k11.6 35
  • 40 (a)
hbae1 35 35
  • 38 (a)
si:ch211-5k11.2 35
  • 38 (a)
Species where no ortholog for HBG2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HBG2 Gene

Gene Tree for HBG2 (if available)
Gene Tree for HBG2 (if available)

Paralogs for HBG2 Gene

Paralogs for HBG2 Gene Pseudogenes for HBG2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HBG2: view

Variants for HBG2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HBG2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs34474104 Pathogenic, Cyanosis transient neonatal (TNCY) [MIM:613977] 5,254,417(-) AGGCA(C/T)ATGGC reference, missense
rs34878913 Pathogenic, Cyanosis transient neonatal (TNCY) [MIM:613977] 5,254,482(-) GAGGT(C/T)CTTTG reference, missense
rs35103459 Cyanosis transient neonatal (TNCY) [MIM:613977], Pathogenic 5,254,330(-) AACTG(C/T)ACTGT reference, missense
rs587776864 Cyanosis transient neonatal (TNCY) [MIM:613977], Pathogenic 5,254,405(+) CAGCA(C/T)CTTCT reference, missense
VAR_025336 Cyanosis transient neonatal (TNCY) [MIM:613977]

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HBG2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1597n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv194n67 CNV gain 20364138
esv2648523 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2671356 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2744059 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3547249 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3625218 CNV loss 21293372
esv3625219 CNV loss 21293372
esv3625220 CNV gain 21293372
esv5471 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1036997 CNV gain 25217958
nsv553229 CNV gain 21841781
nsv982977 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv983203 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for HBG2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.42; 9.27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HBG2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HBG2 Gene

Disorders for HBG2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(22) MalaCards diseases for HBG2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
cyanosis, transient neonatal
  • tncy
fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus 1
  • hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin
hemoglobinopathy toms river
  • transient neonatal cyanosis and anemia due to toms river hemoglobin
hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin-beta-thalassemia syndrome
  • hpfh-beta-thalassemia syndrome
hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin-sickle cell disease syndrome
  • hpfh-sickle cell disease syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HBG2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Cyanosis transient neonatal (TNCY) [MIM:613977]: A disorder characterized by cyanosis in the fetus and neonate, due to a defect in the fetal hemoglobin chain which has reduced affinity for oxygen. Some patients develop anemia resulting from increased destruction of red cells containing abnormal or unstable hemoglobin. The cyanosis resolves spontaneously by 5 to 6 months of age or earlier, as the adult beta-globin chain is produced and replaces the fetal gamma-globin chain. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19065339, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21561349, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24502349, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2470017, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2483933, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7741137}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for HBG2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HBG2: view

No data available for Genatlas for HBG2 Gene

Publications for HBG2 Gene

  1. A new (G)I^-globin variant causing low oxygen affinity: Hb F-Brugine/Feldkirch [(G)I^105(G7)Leua89His; HBG2: c.317T>A]. (PMID: 24502349) Saller E. … Frischknecht H. (Hemoglobin 2014) 3 4 64
  2. A hemoglobin variant associated with neonatal cyanosis and anemia. (PMID: 21561349) Crowley M.A. … Weiss M.J. (N. Engl. J. Med. 2011) 3 4 64
  3. The XmnI (G)gamma polymorphism influences hemoglobin F synthesis contrary to BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB SNPs in a cohort of 57 beta-thalassemia intermedia patients. (PMID: 20472475) Nguyen T.K. … Francina A. (Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2010) 3 46 64
  4. Molecular, hematological and clinical aspects of thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia associated with Hb E-beta-thalassemia in Northeast Thailand. (PMID: 18951049) Nuntakarn L. … Wiangnon S. (Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2009) 3 46 64
  5. The Hellenic type of nondeletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin results from a novel mutation (g.-109G>T) in the HBG2 gene promoter. (PMID: 19050890) Chassanidis C. … Kollia P. (Ann. Hematol. 2009) 3 22 64

Products for HBG2 Gene

Sources for HBG2 Gene

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