Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for HARS Gene

Aliases for HARS Gene

  • Histidyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • EC 4 63
  • HisRS 3 4
  • HRS 3 4
  • Histidine TRNA Ligase 1 2
  • Histidine Translase 3
  • Cytoplasmic 2
  • CMT2W 3
  • USH3B 3

External Ids for HARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HARS Gene

  • GC05M139869
  • GC05M140036
  • GC05M140081
  • GC05M140034
  • GC05M135198

Summaries for HARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a class of enzymes that charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic enzyme which belongs to the class II family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of histidyl-transfer RNA, which is essential for the incorporation of histidine into proteins. The gene is located in a head-to-head orientation with HARSL on chromosome five, where the homologous genes share a bidirectional promoter. The gene product is a frequent target of autoantibodies in the human autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

GeneCards Summary for HARS Gene

HARS (Histidyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HARS include Usher Syndrome Type 3B and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Axonal, Type 2W. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and histidine-tRNA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HARS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HARS Gene

  • Cytoplasmic histidine--tRNA ligase (Probable). Plays a role in axon guidance.

Gene Wiki entry for HARS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HARS Gene

Genomics for HARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for HARS Gene

Enhancers for HARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around HARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for HARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around HARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HARS Gene

140,673,173 bp from pter
140,692,024 bp from pter
18,852 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HARS Gene

Genes around HARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HARS Gene

Proteins for HARS Gene

  • Protein details for HARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Histidine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DHQ1
    • B4DY73
    • D6REN6
    • J3KNE5

    Protein attributes for HARS Gene

    509 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    57411 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=CAA28956.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for HARS Gene


neXtProt entry for HARS Gene

Proteomics data for HARS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 75 and Lys 230
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for HARS

Domains & Families for HARS Gene

Gene Families for HARS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 WHEP-TRS domain.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Contains 1 WHEP-TRS domain.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HARS: view

Function for HARS Gene

Molecular function for HARS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
histidyl-tRNA synthetase,target autoantibodies in the immune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-histidine + tRNA(His) = AMP + diphosphate + L-histidyl-tRNA(His).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Cytoplasmic histidine--tRNA ligase (Probable). Plays a role in axon guidance.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HARS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for HARS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HARS Gene

Localization for HARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HARS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HARS: view

Pathways by source for HARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for HARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS 7755634
GO:0006427 histidyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HARS Gene

(5) Drugs for HARS Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Histidine Approved Nutra Target 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Hormones Pharma 13269

(1) Additional Compounds for HARS Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HARS: view

Transcripts for HARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for HARS Gene

Histidyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: - - -
SP8: -

ExUns: 11b · 11c ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b
SP1: -

Relevant External Links for HARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (11.7) and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HARS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HARS Gene Hs.528050

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HARS Gene

Tissue specificity: Brain, heart, liver and kidney.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HARS: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for HARS Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for HARS Gene

Orthologs for HARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for HARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HARS 35
  • 90.83 (n)
  • 96.07 (a)
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HARS 35
  • 90.7 (n)
  • 95.87 (a)
  • 96 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hars 35
  • 88.34 (n)
  • 94.89 (a)
Hars 16
Hars 36
  • 95 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HARS 35
  • 99.74 (n)
  • 99.8 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hars 35
  • 88.85 (n)
  • 94.69 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HARS 36
  • 90 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 74 (a)
-- 36
  • 58 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HARS 35
  • 77.29 (n)
  • 83.77 (a)
  • 76 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 73 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100489846 35
  • 67.92 (n)
  • 67.68 (a)
Str.5457 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.4161 35
hars 35
  • 73.22 (n)
  • 78.93 (a)
hars 36
  • 73 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10028 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG6335 37
  • 63 (a)
Aats-his 35
  • 62.65 (n)
  • 65.86 (a)
Aats-his 36
  • 57 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000735 35
  • 61.18 (n)
  • 61.65 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea hrs-1 37
  • 53 (a)
hars-1 35
  • 57.59 (n)
  • 56.91 (a)
hars-1 36
  • 51 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR187W 35
  • 56.76 (n)
  • 55.43 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E06381g 35
  • 54.91 (n)
  • 55.84 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes HTS1 35
  • 54.34 (n)
  • 55.25 (a)
HTS1 36
  • 45 (a)
HTS1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT3G02760 35
  • 58.18 (n)
  • 58.41 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os05g0150900 35
  • 58.12 (n)
  • 56.12 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3858 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06914 35
  • 58.47 (n)
  • 54.67 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes hrs1 35
  • 55.15 (n)
  • 55.69 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8844 36
  • 63 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HARS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HARS Gene

Gene Tree for HARS (if available)
Gene Tree for HARS (if available)

Paralogs for HARS Gene

Paralogs for HARS Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for HARS Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HARS: view

Variants for HARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_061908 -
VAR_067918 Usher syndrome 3B (USH3B)
VAR_069021 -
rs191391414 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2W (CMT2W) 140,679,114(+) AATAC(C/T)GAGCA intron-variant, reference, missense
rs147288996 - 140,677,924(+) AGTCG(C/T)CTATC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830508 CNV Loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for HARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 43.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.77; 47.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HARS Gene

Disorders for HARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for HARS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
usher syndrome type 3b
  • usher syndrome 3b
charcot-marie-tooth disease, axonal, type 2w
  • charcot-marie-tooth disease 2w
dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy
  • dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy
usher syndrome, type 3a
  • usher syndrome type 3
  • pm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2W (CMT2W) [MIM:616625]: An autosomal dominant, axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy, initially of the peroneal muscles and later of the distal muscles of the arms. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is classified in two main groups on the basis of electrophysiologic properties and histopathology: primary peripheral demyelinating neuropathies (designated CMT1 when they are dominantly inherited) and primary peripheral axonal neuropathies (CMT2). Neuropathies of the CMT2 group are characterized by signs of axonal degeneration in the absence of obvious myelin alterations, normal or slightly reduced nerve conduction velocities, and progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy. CMT2W patients manifest a peripheral neuropathy mainly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in gait difficulties and distal sensory impairment. Most patients also have upper limb involvement. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22930593, ECO:0000269 PubMed:26072516}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Usher syndrome 3B (USH3B) [MIM:614504]: A syndrome characterized by progressive vision and hearing loss during early childhood. Some patients have the so-called Charles Bonnet syndrome, involving decreased visual acuity and vivid visual hallucinations. USH is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by the association of retinitis pigmentosa with sensorineural deafness. Age at onset and differences in auditory and vestibular function distinguish Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1), Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) and Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3). USH3 is characterized by postlingual, progressive hearing loss, variable vestibular dysfunction, and onset of retinitis pigmentosa symptoms, including nyctalopia, constriction of the visual fields, and loss of central visual acuity, usually by the second decade of life. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22279524}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for HARS

Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for HARS Gene

Publications for HARS Gene

  1. A novel gene oriented in a head-to-head configuration with the human histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HRS) gene encodes an mRNA that predicts a polypeptide homologous to HRS. (PMID: 7755634) O'Hanlon T.P. … Miller F.W. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1995) 3 4 23 67
  2. Novel conformation of histidyl-transfer RNA synthetase in the lung: the target tissue in Jo-1 autoantibody-associated myositis. (PMID: 17665459) Levine S.M. … Casciola-Rosen L.A. (Arthritis Rheum. 2007) 3 23
  3. Evolutionary conservation of a functionally important backbone phosphate group critical for aminoacylation of histidine tRNAs. (PMID: 16741232) Rosen A.E. … Musier-Forsyth K. (RNA 2006) 25 26
  4. Molecular recognition of histidine tRNA by histidyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. (PMID: 17150756) Nagatoyo Y. … Hasegawa T. (Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf) 2005) 25 26
  5. Transcriptional analyses of the gene region that encodes human histidyl-tRNA synthetase: identification of a novel bidirectional regulatory element. (PMID: 8406012) Tsui H.W. … Tsui F.W.L. (Gene 1993) 3 23

Products for HARS Gene

Sources for HARS Gene