Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for HAL Gene

Aliases for HAL Gene

  • Histidine Ammonia-Lyase 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • Histidase 3 4
  • HSTD 3 6
  • HIS 3 4
  • EC 4.3.1 63

External Ids for HAL Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HAL Gene

  • HIS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HAL Gene

  • GC12M095787
  • GC12M096730
  • GC12M096300
  • GC12M094869
  • GC12M093429
  • GC12M096366

Summaries for HAL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HAL Gene

  • Histidine ammonia-lyase is a cytosolic enzyme catalyzing the first reaction in histidine catabolism, the nonoxidative deamination of L-histidine to trans-urocanic acid. Histidine ammonia-lyase defects cause histidinemia which is characterized by increased histidine and histamine and decreased urocanic acid in body fluids. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

GeneCards Summary for HAL Gene

HAL (Histidine Ammonia-Lyase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HAL include histidinemia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include histidine ammonia-lyase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for HAL Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HAL Gene

Genomics for HAL Gene

Regulatory Elements for HAL Gene

Genomic Location for HAL Gene

95,972,662 bp from pter
95,996,365 bp from pter
23,704 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HAL Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for HAL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HAL Gene

Proteins for HAL Gene

  • Protein details for HAL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Histidine ammonia-lyase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DQC1
    • B4E0V8
    • F5GXF2
    • F5H1U5
    • Q4VB92
    • Q4VB93

    Protein attributes for HAL Gene

    657 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    72698 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for HAL Gene


neXtProt entry for HAL Gene

Proteomics data for HAL Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HAL Gene

  • Contains an active site 4-methylidene-imidazol-5-one (MIO), which is formed autocatalytically by cyclization and dehydration of residues Ala-Ser-Gly.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for HAL Gene

Domains for HAL Gene

Protein Domains for HAL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P42357
  • Belongs to the PAL/histidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HAL: view

No data available for Gene Families for HAL Gene

Function for HAL Gene

Molecular function for HAL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: histidine ammonia lyase (histidase),histidine catabolism
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: L-histidine = urocanate + NH(3).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HAL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0004397 histidine ammonia-lyase activity IEA --
GO:0016841 ammonia-lyase activity --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HAL: view

Phenotypes for HAL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HAL: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for HAL Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HAL

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for HAL Gene

Localization for HAL Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HAL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HAL gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HAL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HAL Gene

Pathways for HAL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HAL: view

Pathways by source for HAL Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P42357-HUTH_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-histidine degradation into L-glutamate; N-formimidoyl-L-glutamate from L-histidine: step 1/3

Interacting Proteins for HAL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006548 histidine catabolic process TAS --
GO:0009058 biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0019556 histidine catabolic process to glutamate and formamide IEA --
GO:0019557 histidine catabolic process to glutamate and formate IEA --
GO:0034641 cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HAL: view

Compounds for HAL Gene

(3) HMDB Compounds for HAL Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • NH3
  • (S)-1H-Imidazole-4-alanine
Urocanic acid
  • 3-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)-2-propenoate

(1) Drugbank Compounds for HAL Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • (S)-4-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)imidazole
71-00-1 target

(11) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for HAL Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
urocanic acid 90.4 8
dehydroalanine 85 3
histidinol-phosphate 84.9 2
histidine 79.5 36
phenylalanine 62 6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HAL: view

Transcripts for HAL Gene

Unigene Clusters for HAL Gene

Histidine ammonia-lyase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HAL

Primer Products

  • OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human,mouse,rat for HAL

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HAL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21a · 21b ^
SP1: - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: -

ExUns: 22a · 22b

Relevant External Links for HAL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HAL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HAL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HAL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (27.8), Whole Blood (12.2), and Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (5.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for HAL Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HAL Gene Hs.190783

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with HAL: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HAL Gene

Orthologs for HAL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for HAL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HAL 35
  • 99.39 (n)
  • 99.24 (a)
HAL 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HAL 35
  • 90.01 (n)
  • 95.13 (a)
HAL 36
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HAL 35
  • 90.01 (n)
  • 94.98 (a)
HAL 36
  • 95 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hal 35
  • 87.42 (n)
  • 93.76 (a)
Hal 16
Hal 36
  • 94 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HAL 36
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HAL 36
  • 90 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hal 35
  • 87.67 (n)
  • 93.91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HAL 35
  • 78.29 (n)
  • 89.04 (a)
HAL 36
  • 81 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HAL 36
  • 87 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.2256 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia hal.1 35
  • 72.98 (n)
  • 80.46 (a)
Str.16849 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hal 35
  • 71.97 (n)
  • 82.06 (a)
hal 36
  • 80 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea haly-1 35
  • 56.03 (n)
  • 57 (a)
haly-1 36
  • 53 (a)
F47B10.2 37
  • 54 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11334 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 60 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HAL:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HAL Gene

Gene Tree for HAL (if available)
Gene Tree for HAL (if available)

Paralogs for HAL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for HAL Gene

Variants for HAL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HAL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs721199 -- 95,980,279(-) TGCAT(A/G)TGAAC intron-variant
rs1059844 -- 95,972,991(-) GCTGC(A/C)CACAG utr-variant-3-prime
rs1059845 -- 95,972,920(-) TATTC(C/T)TTGTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1108405 -- 95,975,662(-) GTATA(A/C)GAGAG intron-variant
rs2068662 -- 95,974,477(-) GTGTC(C/T)GGTCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HAL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7234 OTHER Inversion 18451855
nsv523292 CNV Gain 19592680

Relevant External Links for HAL Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HAL Gene

Disorders for HAL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (1) Diseases for HAL Gene including...

Search for HAL Gene in MalaCards »

(1) OMIM Diseases for HAL Gene (609457)


  • Histidinemia (HISTID) [MIM:235800]: Autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased histidine and histamine as well as decreased urocanic acid in body fluids. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15806399}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for HAL Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for HAL Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
histidinemia 97.2 10

Genatlas disease for HAL Gene


Relevant External Links for HAL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HAL: view

Publications for HAL Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding human histidase. (PMID: 7916645) Suchi M. … Takagi Y. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1993) 3 4 23
  2. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the human histidase gene (HAL). (PMID: 8530107) Suchi M. … Wada Y. (Genomics 1995) 3 4 23
  3. Molecular characterization of histidinemia: identification of four missense mutations in the histidase gene. (PMID: 15806399) Kawai Y. … Suchi M. (Hum. Genet. 2005) 3 4 23
  4. A role for ultraviolet radiation immunosuppression in non-melanoma skin cancer as evidenced by gene-environment interactions. (PMID: 18641401) Welsh M.M. … Nelson H.H. (Carcinogenesis 2008) 3 23 48
  5. Regulation by glucagon of the rat histidase gene promoter in cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoblastoma cells. (PMID: 15741241) AlemA!n G. … Torres N. (Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005) 3 23

Products for HAL Gene

Sources for HAL Gene

Back to Top