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Aliases for HAGH Gene

Aliases for HAGH Gene

  • Hydroxyacylglutathione Hydrolase 2 3
  • Glyoxalase II 3 4 6
  • EC 4 63
  • Glx II 3 4
  • HAGH1 3 4
  • GLO2 3 4
  • Hydroxyacylglutathione Hydrolase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Hydroxyacylglutathione Hydroxylase 3
  • Hydroxyacyl Glutathione Hydrolase 2
  • GLXII 3
  • GLX2 3

External Ids for HAGH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HAGH Gene

  • GC16M001876
  • GC16M001797
  • GC16M001799
  • GC16M001845

Summaries for HAGH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HAGH Gene

  • The enzyme encoded by this gene is classified as a thiolesterase and is responsible for the hydrolysis of S-lactoyl-glutathione to reduced glutathione and D-lactate. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

GeneCards Summary for HAGH Gene

HAGH (Hydroxyacylglutathione Hydrolase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Pyruvate metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ETHE1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HAGH Gene

  • Thiolesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoyl-glutathione to form glutathione and D-lactic acid

Gene Wiki entry for HAGH Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HAGH Gene

Genomics for HAGH Gene

Regulatory Elements for HAGH Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for HAGH Gene

1,795,620 bp from pter
1,827,194 bp from pter
31,575 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HAGH Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for HAGH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HAGH Gene

Proteins for HAGH Gene

  • Protein details for HAGH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K290
    • B4DP33
    • B4DRA7
    • E7EN93

    Protein attributes for HAGH Gene

    308 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33806 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105; Note=Binds 2 Zn(2+) ions per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • Sequence=AAH00840.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA62483.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HAGH Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for HAGH Gene


neXtProt entry for HAGH Gene

Proteomics data for HAGH Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for HAGH Gene

Post-translational modifications for HAGH Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

Domains for HAGH Gene

Protein Domains for HAGH Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HAGH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q16775
  • Belongs to the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily. Glyoxalase II family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HAGH: view

No data available for Gene Families for HAGH Gene

Function for HAGH Gene

Molecular function for HAGH Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
hydroxyacyl glutathione hydrolase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
S-(2-hydroxyacyl)glutathione + H(2)O = glutathione + a 2-hydroxy carboxylate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Thiolesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoyl-glutathione to form glutathione and D-lactic acid

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HAGH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HAGH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004416 hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase activity IDA 8550579
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HAGH: view

miRNA for HAGH Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HAGH

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HAGH

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for HAGH Gene

Localization for HAGH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HAGH Gene

Isoform 1: Mitochondrion matrix.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HAGH Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HAGH gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HAGH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 15117945
GO:0005739 mitochondrion --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HAGH: view

Pathways for HAGH Gene

SuperPathways for HAGH Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Pyruvate metabolism
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HAGH: view

Pathways by source for HAGH Gene

1 KEGG pathway for HAGH Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q16775-GLO2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Secondary metabolite metabolism; methylglyoxal degradation; (R)-lactate from methylglyoxal: step 2/2

Interacting Proteins for HAGH Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000380514 Q16775-GLO2_HUMAN for HAGH Gene via STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HAGH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006750 glutathione biosynthetic process IDA 8550579
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HAGH: view

Compounds for HAGH Gene

(4) HMDB Compounds for HAGH Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
D-Lactic acid
  • (-)-Lactate
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
  • (R)-S-lactoylglutathione
  • Dihydrogen oxide

(2) Drugbank Compounds for HAGH Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
70-18-8 target

(10) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for HAGH Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
s-d-lactoylglutathione 97.1 6
s-p-nitrobenzoxycarbonylglutathione 95.7 3
methylglyoxal 91.5 14
trypanothione 72.5 3
phosphoglycolate 71.5 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HAGH: view

Transcripts for HAGH Gene

Unigene Clusters for HAGH Gene

Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HAGH

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HAGH Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c · 13d
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: -

Relevant External Links for HAGH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HAGH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HAGH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for HAGH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (17.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HAGH Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HAGH Gene Hs.157394

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HAGH Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in liver and kidney.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with HAGH: view

Expression partners for HAGH Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for HAGH Gene

Orthologs for HAGH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for HAGH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HAGH 35
  • 87.23 (n)
  • 87.99 (a)
  • 88 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HAGH 35
  • 87.88 (n)
  • 86.69 (a)
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hagh 35
  • 84.09 (n)
  • 87.66 (a)
Hagh 16
Hagh 36
  • 87 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HAGH 35
  • 98.97 (n)
  • 98.46 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hagh 35
  • 83.23 (n)
  • 85.71 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HAGH 36
  • 83 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HAGH 36
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HAGH 35
  • 73.99 (n)
  • 77.03 (a)
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HAGH 36
  • 62 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia hagh 35
  • 70.37 (n)
  • 75.42 (a)
Str.10314 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hagh 35
  • 71.79 (n)
  • 79.62 (a)
wufa66a03 35
hagh 36
  • 71 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2186 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4365 37
  • 58 (a)
CG4365 35
  • 63.8 (n)
  • 59.37 (a)
CG4365 36
  • 46 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000416 35
  • 59.6 (n)
  • 51.52 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y17G7B.3 37
  • 47 (a)
Y17G7B.3 35
  • 49.28 (n)
  • 48.22 (a)
Y17G7B.3 36
  • 47 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLO2 36
  • 34 (a)
GLO4 36
  • 28 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GLY2 35
  • 56.21 (n)
  • 54.51 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.7524 35
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.2144 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.6480 35
Os03g0332400 35
  • 55.82 (n)
  • 51.76 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.7031 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.10563 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.6527 35
Species with no ortholog for HAGH:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for HAGH Gene

Gene Tree for HAGH (if available)
Gene Tree for HAGH (if available)

Paralogs for HAGH Gene

Paralogs for HAGH Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for HAGH Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HAGH: view

Variants for HAGH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HAGH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs104843 -- 1,823,086(+) CTCCA(A/C)GACAG intron-variant
rs149159 -- 1,823,354(-) ggagg(C/T)ggagc intron-variant
rs238678 -- 1,822,721(-) AGGGC(C/T)CCAAG intron-variant
rs238679 -- 1,822,478(-) GGCCA(C/T)GTCAG intron-variant
rs238680 -- 1,822,159(-) AAGAC(A/C/G/T)CGGGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HAGH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2422427 CNV Duplication 17116639
nsv904954 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv905017 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv518641 CNV Loss 19592680
dgv2538n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv517196 CNV Gain+Loss 19592680
nsv905023 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv2539n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2540n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2542n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv905034 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv905042 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv457337 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv905043 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv335n27 CNV Gain 19166990

Relevant External Links for HAGH Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HAGH Gene

Disorders for HAGH Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for HAGH Gene (138760)

(4) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for HAGH Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
kidney tumor 40 1
breast carcinoma 3.93 1
tumors 0 1
cancer 0 2

Relevant External Links for HAGH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HAGH: view

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES and Genatlas for HAGH Gene

Publications for HAGH Gene

  1. Molecular cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of human glyoxalase II. (PMID: 8550579) Ridderstroem M. … Mannervik B. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996) 3 4 23
  2. Crystal structure of human glyoxalase II and its complex with a glutathione thiolester substrate analogue. (PMID: 10508780) Cameron A.D. … Mannervik B. (Structure 1999) 3 4 23
  3. The human hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase (HAGH) gene encodes both cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of glyoxalase II. (PMID: 15117945) Cordell P.A. … Pease R.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23
  4. Human glyoxalase II contains an Fe(II)Zn(II) center but is active as a mononuclear Zn(II) enzyme. (PMID: 19413286) Limphong P. … Crowder M.W. (Biochemistry 2009) 3 23
  5. New regional localisations for HAGH and PGP on human chromosome 16. (PMID: 3025077) Mulley J.C. … Callen D.F. (Hum. Genet. 1986) 2 3

Products for HAGH Gene

Sources for HAGH Gene

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