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Aliases for GYS1 Gene

Aliases for GYS1 Gene

  • Glycogen Synthase 1 (Muscle) 2 3
  • GYS 3 4 6
  • EC 4 63
  • Glycogen [Starch] Synthase, Muscle 3
  • GSY 3

External Ids for GYS1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GYS1 Gene

  • GYS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GYS1 Gene

  • GC19M050129
  • GC19M049839
  • GC19M054147
  • GC19M054164
  • GC19M054165
  • GC19M054166
  • GC19M049471
  • GC19M045849

Summaries for GYS1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GYS1 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the addition of glucose monomers to the growing glycogen molecule through the formation of alpha-1,4-glycoside linkages. Mutations in this gene are associated with muscle glycogen storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

GeneCards Summary for GYS1 Gene

GYS1 (Glycogen Synthase 1 (Muscle)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GYS1 include glycogen storage disease 0, muscle and glycogen storage disease due to muscle and heart glycogen synthase deficiency. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Akt Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and glycogen (starch) synthase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GYS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GYS1 Gene

  • Transfers the glycosyl residue from UDP-Glc to the non-reducing end of alpha-1,4-glucan

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GYS1 Gene

Genomics for GYS1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GYS1 Gene

Genomic Location for GYS1 Gene

48,968,125 bp from pter
48,993,353 bp from pter
25,229 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GYS1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GYS1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GYS1 Gene

Proteins for GYS1 Gene

  • Protein details for GYS1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glycogen [starch] synthase, muscle
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9BTT9

    Protein attributes for GYS1 Gene

    737 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    83786 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with GYG1.

    Alternative splice isoforms for GYS1 Gene


neXtProt entry for GYS1 Gene

Proteomics data for GYS1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GYS1 Gene

  • Phosphorylation at Ser-8 by AMPK inactivates the enzyme activity. Primed phosphorylation at Ser-657 (site 5) by CSNK2A1 and CSNK2A2 is required for inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-641 (site 3a), Ser-645 (site 3b), Ser-649 (site 3c) and Ser-653 (site 4) by GSK3A an GSK3B (By similarity). Phosphorylated at Ser-641 by DYRK2, leading to inactivation (By similarity). Phosphorylated at Ser-641 by PASK, leading to inactivation; phosphorylation by PASK is inhibited by glycogen. Dephosphorylation at Ser-641 and Ser-645 by PP1 activates the enzyme.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys88, Lys381, Lys474, and Lys599
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GYS1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GYS1 (GYS1)

Domains for GYS1 Gene

Gene Families for GYS1 Gene

Protein Domains for GYS1 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GYS1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 3 family.
  • Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GYS1: view

Function for GYS1 Gene

Molecular function for GYS1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glycogen synthase,skeletal muscle,the rate limiting enzyme of the insulin-induced glycogenesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + ((1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl)(n) = UDP + ((1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl)(n+1)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Allosteric activation by glucose-6-phosphate. Phosphorylation reduces the activity towards UDP-glucose. When in the non-phosphorylated state, glycogen synthase does not require glucose-6-phosphate as an allosteric activator; when phosphorylated it does (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Transfers the glycosyl residue from UDP-Glc to the non-reducing end of alpha-1,4-glucan

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GYS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GYS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004373 glycogen (starch) synthase activity IDA 16275910
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0005536 glucose binding IEA --
GO:0019901 protein kinase binding IPI 16275910
GO:0061547 glycogen synthase activity, transferring glucose-1-phosphate EXP --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GYS1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GYS1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GYS1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GYS1

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GYS1 Gene

Localization for GYS1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GYS1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GYS1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 3
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GYS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 19946888
GO:0016234 inclusion body IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GYS1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GYS1 Gene

Pathways for GYS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GYS1: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P13807-GYS1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Glycan biosynthesis; glycogen biosynthesis

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GYS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0005977 glycogen metabolic process --
GO:0005978 glycogen biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0007507 heart development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GYS1: view

Drugs for GYS1 Gene

(3) HMDB Compounds for GYS1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • (1,4-alpha-D-Glucosyl)N
Uridine 5'-diphosphate
  • 5'-UDP
Uridine diphosphate glucose
  • (UDP)glucose

(9) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GYS1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glycogen 88.8 107
glucose 6-phosphate 74.5 4
glucose 67.4 27
xbai 52.4 3
gliclazide 51.4 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GYS1: view

Transcripts for GYS1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GYS1 Gene

Glycogen synthase 1 (muscle):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GYS1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GYS1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -

Relevant External Links for GYS1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GYS1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GYS1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GYS1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (8.2) and Heart - Left Ventricle (5.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GYS1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (22.2) and Fetal heart (8.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GYS1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GYS1 Gene Hs.386225

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GYS1: view

Expression partners for GYS1 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GYS1 Gene

Orthologs for GYS1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GYS1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GYS1 35
  • 91.12 (n)
  • 97.55 (a)
GYS1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GYS1 35
  • 90.73 (n)
  • 96.33 (a)
GYS1 36
  • 96 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gys1 35
  • 87.38 (n)
  • 96.74 (a)
Gys1 16
Gys1 36
  • 96 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GYS1 35
  • 99.29 (n)
  • 99.43 (a)
GYS1 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gys1 35
  • 87.34 (n)
  • 96.74 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GYS1 36
  • 85 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GYS1 36
  • 90 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GYS1 36
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100490155 35
  • 73.96 (n)
  • 83.08 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
gys1 35
  • 73.28 (n)
  • 83.53 (a)
gys1 36
  • 81 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG6904 37
  • 60 (a)
CG6904 35
  • 62.52 (n)
  • 60.7 (a)
CG6904 36
  • 55 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002586 35
  • 61.56 (n)
  • 60.24 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y46G5A.31 37
  • 54 (a)
gsy-1 35
  • 58.07 (n)
  • 55.77 (a)
gsy-1 36
  • 52 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAR008W 35
  • 58.8 (n)
  • 58.43 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F23133g 35
  • 56.03 (n)
  • 56.98 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GSY1 35
  • 56.2 (n)
  • 58.04 (a)
GSY1 36
  • 52 (a)
GSY1 38
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06687 35
  • 60.08 (n)
  • 59.32 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 58 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GYS1:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GYS1 Gene

Gene Tree for GYS1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GYS1 (if available)

Paralogs for GYS1 Gene

Paralogs for GYS1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for GYS1 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GYS1: view

Variants for GYS1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GYS1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs57693449 -- 48,978,947(+) CTTAG(A/G)ACCCA intron-variant
rs146252605 -- 48,979,877(+) CCCGA(A/C)CTCAG intron-variant
rs146417520 -- 48,991,347(+) AGGGC(C/T)GGGGT synonymous-codon, reference, intron-variant
rs146580571 -- 48,980,658(+) TGTTT(-/A)CAAAA intron-variant
rs149068055 -- 48,984,918(+) ACAGA(C/T)TTGTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GYS1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv9739 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495
nsv833856 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv833857 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv912248 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3970n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for GYS1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GYS1 Gene

Disorders for GYS1 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for GYS1 Gene (138570)


  • Muscle glycogen storage disease 0 (GSD0b) [MIM:611556]: Metabolic disorder characterized by fasting hypoglycemia presenting in infancy or early childhood. The role of muscle glycogen is to provide critical energy during bursts of activity and sustained muscle work. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17928598}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GYS1 Gene

(8) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GYS1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
insulin resistance 68.5 17
niddm 67.1 25
hyperinsulinemia 62.9 2
insulin sensitivity 56.6 2
hyperglycemia 41 3

Relevant External Links for GYS1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GYS1: view

No data available for Genatlas for GYS1 Gene

Publications for GYS1 Gene

  1. Association of sixty-one non-synonymous polymorphisms in forty-one hypertension candidate genes with blood pressure variation and hypertension. (PMID: 17137217) Kokubo Y. … Miyata T. (Hypertens. Res. 2006) 3 23 48
  2. Variation in GYS1 interacts with exercise and gender to predict cardiovascular mortality. (PMID: 17356695) Fredriksson J. … Orho-Melander M. (PLoS ONE 2007) 3 23 48
  3. Physiogenomic comparison of edema and BMI in patients receiving rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. (PMID: 18996102) RuaA+o G. … Hanks S. (Clin. Chim. Acta 2009) 3 23 48
  4. Association of muscle glycogen synthase polymorphism with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. (PMID: 12870167) Motoyama K. … Nishizawa Y. (Metab. Clin. Exp. 2003) 3 23 48
  5. Association of GYS1 and beta(3)-AR gene with postprandial hyperglycemia and serum uric acid in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (PMID: 12411100) Wang G. … Xu X. (Chin. Med. J. 2002) 3 23 48

Products for GYS1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GYS1

Sources for GYS1 Gene

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