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Aliases for GSTM2 Gene

Aliases for GSTM2 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 2 (Muscle) 2 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M2 (Muscle) 2 3
  • GST Class-Mu 2 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GSTM2-2 3 4
  • GST4 3 4
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M1 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 4 3
  • GST, Muscle 3
  • GTHMUS 3
  • GSTM 3

External Ids for GSTM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTM2 Gene

  • GC01P110689
  • GC01P109140
  • GC01P109312
  • GC01P109509
  • GC01P109922
  • GC01P110013
  • GC01P110210
  • GC01P108098

Summaries for GSTM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTM2 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTM2 Gene

GSTM2 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 2 (Muscle)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTM2 include Testis Seminoma and Progressive Bulbar Palsy. Among its related pathways are Phase II conjugation and Glutathione metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is GSTM5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTM2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTM2 Gene

Genomics for GSTM2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSTM2 Gene

Enhancers for GSTM2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GSTM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GSTM2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GSTM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GSTM2 Gene

109,668,022 bp from pter
109,709,551 bp from pter
41,530 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GSTM2 Gene

Genes around GSTM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTM2 Gene

Proteins for GSTM2 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DRY4
    • E9PEM9
    • Q2M318
    • Q5TZY5
    • Q8WWE1

    Protein attributes for GSTM2 Gene

    218 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25745 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTM2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTM2 Gene


neXtProt entry for GSTM2 Gene

Proteomics data for GSTM2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GSTM2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Families for GSTM2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTM2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 GST N-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTM2: view

Function for GSTM2 Gene

Molecular function for GSTM2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione-S-transferase 2 ,mu class,expressed in muscle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 24965446
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 8373352
GO:0043295 glutathione binding IDA 2034681
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTM2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GSTM2

miRNA for GSTM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSTM2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTM2 Gene

Localization for GSTM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GSTM2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 4
mitochondrion 2
cytoskeleton 1
lysosome 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 2034681
GO:0016529 sarcoplasmic reticulum IDA 22406107
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSTM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTM2: view

Pathways by source for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 2034681
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0010880 regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum IDA 17023043
GO:0014809 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion IC 17023043
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTM2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTM2 Gene

(5) Drugs for GSTM2 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target 0
Glutathione S-(2,4 Dinitrobenzene) Experimental Pharma Target 0
Oxidized Glutathione Disulfide Experimental Pharma Target 0
S-METHYL-GLUTATHIONE Experimental Pharma Target 0
Trichloroethylene Pharma 5

(44) Additional Compounds for GSTM2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTM2: view

Transcripts for GSTM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTM2 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (muscle):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTM2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSTM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (9.2) and Retina (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSTM2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTM2 Gene Hs.279837

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTM2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Muscle.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTM2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSTM2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for GSTM2 Gene

Orthologs for GSTM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gstm7 35
  • 84.18 (n)
  • 83.41 (a)
Gstm7 16
Gm4845 36
  • 70 (a)
Gm6665 36
  • 80 (a)
Gstm1 36
  • 75 (a)
Gstm2 36
  • 79 (a)
Gstm3 36
  • 76 (a)
Gstm4 36
  • 78 (a)
Gstm6 36
  • 75 (a)
Gstm7 36
  • 83 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gstm7 35
  • 85.47 (n)
  • 84.86 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 72 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 77 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 78 (a)
GSTM2 36
  • 77 (a)
GSTM4 36
  • 78 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 73 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 69 (a)
-- 36
  • 67 (a)
-- 36
  • 69 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gstm 36
  • 63 (a)
gstm3 36
  • 61 (a)
zgc:173994 36
  • 64 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-1 36
  • 29 (a)
gst-23 36
  • 29 (a)
gst-25 36
  • 27 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 27 (a)
-- 36
  • 40 (a)
-- 36
  • 41 (a)
-- 36
  • 40 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GSTM2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTM2 (if available)

Paralogs for GSTM2 Gene

Paralogs for GSTM2 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTM2 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins: Pseudogenes for GSTM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTM2: view

Variants for GSTM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2229050 - 109,671,534(+) GCCCA(A/G)CTGCC reference, missense
rs473682 -- 109,666,819(-) gaacc(A/C/G)gggag upstream-variant-2KB
rs366732 -- 109,680,385(-) AGAAA(A/G)AAACC intron-variant
rs534314 -- 109,680,703(-) ACCCT(C/G)CCTGC intron-variant
rs535088 -- 109,680,767(+) TTCTC(A/G)GTCAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv510951 CNV Complex 20534489
nsv872142 CNV Loss 21882294
esv25172 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
nsv872143 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv482081 CNV Gain 20164927
nsv820548 CNV Deletion 20802225
nsv824076 CNV Loss 20364138
esv1003982 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv998761 CNV Gain 20482838
nsv2310 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv508471 CNV Loss 20534489
nsv10617 CNV Gain 18304495
dgv329n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv824087 CNV Loss 20364138
dgv6e180 CNV Gain 20482838
nsv2321 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv514002 CNV Gain 21397061
dgv61e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv276 CNV Loss 15895083
esv2421364 OTHER Complex 20811451
nsv442967 CNV CNV 18776908
dgv3n47 CNV Loss 21111241

Variation tolerance for GSTM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 53.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.10; 22.42% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for GSTM2 Gene

Disorders for GSTM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GSTM2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
testis seminoma
  • seminoma
progressive bulbar palsy
  • progressive bulbar atrophy
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTM2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GSTM2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTM2 Gene

Publications for GSTM2 Gene

  1. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a class-mu glutathione transferase from human muscle, the product of the GST4 locus. (PMID: 2034681) Vorachek W.R. … Rule G.S. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Genetic variants in GSTM3 gene within GSTM4-GSTM2-GSTM1-GSTM5-GSTM3 cluster influence breast cancer susceptibility depending on GSTM1. (PMID: 19856098) Yu K.D. … Shao Z.M. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2010) 3 23
  3. No evidence for glutathione S-transferases GSTA2, GSTM2, GSTO1, GSTO2, and GSTZ1 in breast cancer risk. (PMID: 19859803) Andonova I.E. … Brauch H. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2010) 3 23
  4. Glutathione S-transferase variants and hypertension. (PMID: 18551009) Delles C. … Dominiczak A.F. (J. Hypertens. 2008) 3 23
  5. Colorimetric endpoint assay for enzyme-catalyzed iodide ion release for high-throughput screening in microtiter plates. (PMID: 17490601) Kurtovic S. … Mannervik B. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2007) 25 26

Products for GSTM2 Gene

Sources for GSTM2 Gene