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Aliases for GSTM2 Gene

Aliases for GSTM2 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 2 (Muscle) 2 3
  • GST4 3 4 6
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M2 (Muscle) 2 3
  • GST Class-Mu 2 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GSTM2-2 3 4
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M1 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 4 3
  • GST, Muscle 3
  • GTHMUS 3
  • GSTM 3

External Ids for GSTM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTM2 Gene

  • GC01P110689
  • GC01P109140
  • GC01P109312
  • GC01P109509
  • GC01P109922
  • GC01P110013
  • GC01P110210
  • GC01P108098

Summaries for GSTM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTM2 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTM2 Gene

GSTM2 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 2 (Muscle)) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Chemical carcinogenesis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is GSTM3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTM2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTM2 Gene

Genomics for GSTM2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSTM2 Gene

Genomic Location for GSTM2 Gene

109,668,022 bp from pter
109,709,551 bp from pter
41,530 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GSTM2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GSTM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTM2 Gene

Proteins for GSTM2 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DRY4
    • E9PEM9
    • Q2M318
    • Q5TZY5
    • Q8WWE1

    Protein attributes for GSTM2 Gene

    218 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25745 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTM2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTM2 Gene


neXtProt entry for GSTM2 Gene

Proteomics data for GSTM2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GSTM2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GSTM2 Gene

Antibody Products

Domains for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Families for GSTM2 Gene

  • SGST :Glutathione S-transferases / Soluble

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTM2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P28161
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 GST N-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTM2: view

Function for GSTM2 Gene

Molecular function for GSTM2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glutathione-S-transferase 2 ,mu class,expressed in muscle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity IDA 16549767
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 22406107
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 8373352
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 8373352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view

Phenotypes for GSTM2 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GSTM2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTM2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GSTM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSTM2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GSTM2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GSTM2 Gene

Localization for GSTM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GSTM2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 4
cytoskeleton 3
cytosol 3
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 2034681
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016529 sarcoplasmic reticulum IDA 22406107
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view

Pathways for GSTM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTM2: view

Pathways by source for GSTM2 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • Drug Metabolism in human,mouse,rat
    • Drug Metabolism: Phase II Enzymes in human,mouse,rat

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 16549767
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0010880 regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum IDA 17023043
GO:0010881 regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion IC 17023043
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view

Compounds for GSTM2 Gene

(12) HMDB Compounds for GSTM2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 2,3-dihydroxy-1,3,5[10]-estratriene-17-one-1-S-glutathione
Not Available
  • 2,3-dihydroxy-1,3,5[10]-estratriene-17-one-4-S-glutathione
Not Available
  • 3,4-dihydroxy-1,3,5[10]-estratriene-17-one-2-S-glutathione
Not Available
  • adrenochrome oxidised
  • catecholestrogen quinone

(4) Drugbank Compounds for GSTM2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
70-18-8 target
Glutathione S-(2,4 Dinitrobenzene)
26289-39-4 target
Oxidized Glutathione Disulfide

(4) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GSTM2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gsts 80.4 2
1-chloro-24-dinitrobenzene 60.6 2
epoxide 50.9 1
oxygen 5.42 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTM2: view

Transcripts for GSTM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTM2 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (muscle):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GSTM2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTM2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSTM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSTM2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTM2 Gene Hs.279837

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTM2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Muscle
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GSTM2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for GSTM2 Gene

Orthologs for GSTM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 72 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 77 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 78 (a)
GSTM2 36
  • 77 (a)
GSTM4 36
  • 78 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 73 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gm4845 36
  • 70 (a)
Gm6665 36
  • 80 (a)
Gstm1 36
  • 75 (a)
Gstm2 16
Gstm2 36
  • 79 (a)
Gstm3 36
  • 76 (a)
Gstm4 36
  • 78 (a)
Gstm6 36
  • 75 (a)
Gstm7 35
  • 84.18 (n)
  • 83.41 (a)
Gstm7 36
  • 83 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gstm7 35
  • 85.47 (n)
  • 84.86 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 69 (a)
-- 36
  • 67 (a)
-- 36
  • 69 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gstm 36
  • 63 (a)
gstm3 36
  • 61 (a)
zgc:173994 36
  • 64 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-1 36
  • 29 (a)
gst-23 36
  • 29 (a)
gst-25 36
  • 27 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 27 (a)
-- 36
  • 40 (a)
-- 36
  • 41 (a)
-- 36
  • 40 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GSTM2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTM2 (if available)

Paralogs for GSTM2 Gene

Paralogs for GSTM2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GSTM2 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins: Pseudogenes for GSTM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTM2: view

Variants for GSTM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs366732 -- 109,680,385(-) AGAAA(A/G)AAACC intron-variant
rs402505 -- 109,669,213(-) GGGCA(A/G)AGAGG intron-variant
rs403294 -- 109,668,932(-) TCATA(A/G)TCAGG synonymous-codon, reference
rs403337 -- 109,668,886(-) CCCCA(A/G)AGCCC intron-variant
rs428135 -- 109,669,059(-) CTAAG(C/G)TGGGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv510951 CNV Complex 20534489
nsv872142 CNV Loss 21882294
esv25172 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
nsv872143 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv482081 CNV Gain 20164927
nsv820548 CNV Deletion 20802225
nsv824076 CNV Loss 20364138
esv1003982 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv998761 CNV Gain 20482838
nsv2310 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv508471 CNV Loss 20534489
nsv10617 CNV Gain 18304495
dgv329n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv824087 CNV Loss 20364138
dgv6e180 CNV Gain 20482838
nsv2321 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv514002 CNV Gain 21397061
dgv61e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv276 CNV Loss 15895083
esv2421364 OTHER Complex 20811451
nsv442967 CNV CNV 18776908
dgv3n47 CNV Loss 21111241

Relevant External Links for GSTM2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene

Disorders for GSTM2 Gene

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GSTM2 Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GSTM2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
breast cancer 7.23 3
tumors 0.501 1

Relevant External Links for GSTM2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene

Publications for GSTM2 Gene

  1. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a class-mu glutathione transferase from human muscle, the product of the GST4 locus. (PMID: 2034681) Vorachek W.R. … Rule G.S. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991) 2 3 4 23
  2. Genetic variants in GSTM3 gene within GSTM4-GSTM2-GSTM1-GSTM5-GSTM3 cluster influence breast cancer susceptibility depending on GSTM1. (PMID: 19856098) Yu K.D. … Shao Z.M. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2010) 3 23 48
  3. No evidence for glutathione S-transferases GSTA2, GSTM2, GSTO1, GSTO2, and GSTZ1 in breast cancer risk. (PMID: 19859803) Andonova I.E. … Brauch H. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2010) 3 23 48
  4. Glutathione S-transferase variants and hypertension. (PMID: 18551009) Delles C. … Dominiczak A.F. (J. Hypertens. 2008) 3 23 48
  5. A distinct human testis and brain mu-class glutathione S-transferase. Molecular cloning and characterization of a form present even in individuals lacking hepatic type mu isoenzymes. (PMID: 2345169) Campbell E. … Listowsky I. (J. Biol. Chem. 1990) 2 3

Products for GSTM2 Gene

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • Drug Metabolism in human,mouse,rat
    • Drug Metabolism: Phase II Enzymes in human,mouse,rat
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GSTM2
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GSTM2
    • Block miRNA regulation of GSTM2 using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for GSTM2 Gene

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