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Aliases for GSTM1 Gene

Aliases for GSTM1 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1 2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M1 2 3
  • GST HB Subunit 4 3 4
  • GST Class-Mu 1 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GSTM1a-1a 3 4
  • GSTM1b-1b 3 4
  • GSTM1-1 3 4
  • GST1 3 4
  • GTH4 3 4
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase 3
  • HB Subunit 4 3
  • GTM1 3
  • MU-1 3
  • H-B 3
  • MU 3

External Ids for GSTM1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GSTM1 Gene

  • GST1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTM1 Gene

  • GC01P110709
  • GC01P109159
  • GC01P109332
  • GC01P109529
  • GC01P109942
  • GC01P110031
  • GC01P110231
  • GC01P110232

Summaries for GSTM1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTM1 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Null mutations of this class mu gene have been linked with an increase in a number of cancers, likely due to an increased susceptibility to environmental toxins and carcinogens. Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTM1 Gene

GSTM1 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTM1 include lung cancer, gstm1-related and asbestosis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Chemical carcinogenesis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTM3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM1 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTM1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTM1 Gene

Genomics for GSTM1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSTM1 Gene

Genomic Location for GSTM1 Gene

109,687,796 bp from pter
109,709,039 bp from pter
21,244 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GSTM1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GSTM1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTM1 Gene

Proteins for GSTM1 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTM1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5GHG0
    • Q6FH88
    • Q8TC98
    • Q9UC96

    Protein attributes for GSTM1 Gene

    218 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25712 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTM1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTM1 Gene


neXtProt entry for GSTM1 Gene

Proteomics data for GSTM1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GSTM1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys52
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GSTM1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for GSTM1 (Glutathione S-Transferase mu 1/GSTM1)

Domains for GSTM1 Gene

Gene Families for GSTM1 Gene

  • SGST :Glutathione S-transferases / Soluble

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTM1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P09488
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 GST N-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTM1: view

Function for GSTM1 Gene

Molecular function for GSTM1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione-S-transferase 1 ,mu class,deleted in lung and urinary bladder cancer (in dependance on the exposure to carcinogens as cigarette) and in childhood acute leukemia (null allele) in association with CYP1A1*2A
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTM1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity IDA 8373352
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 8373352
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 8373352
GO:0043295 glutathione binding IDA 8373352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM1: view

Phenotypes for GSTM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTM1: view

Animal Models for GSTM1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GSTM1:

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GSTM1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GSTM1 Gene

Localization for GSTM1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GSTM1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTM1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 3
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 8373352
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM1: view

Pathways for GSTM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTM1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0018916 nitrobenzene metabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process IDA 8373352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM1: view

Compounds for GSTM1 Gene

(12) HMDB Compounds for GSTM1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 2,3-dihydroxy-1,3,5[10]-estratriene-17-one-1-S-glutathione
Not Available
  • 2,3-dihydroxy-1,3,5[10]-estratriene-17-one-4-S-glutathione
Not Available
  • 3,4-dihydroxy-1,3,5[10]-estratriene-17-one-2-S-glutathione
Not Available
  • adrenochrome oxidised
  • catecholestrogen quinone

(11) Drugbank Compounds for GSTM1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • Azathioprin
446-86-6 enzyme substrate
  • Busulphan
55-98-1 enzyme substrate
41575-94-4 enzyme substrate

(88) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GSTM1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gsts 94.8 50
epoxide 79.7 45
1-hydroxypyrene 74.4 18
mspi 73.2 24
hydrocarbons 67.5 26

(9) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for GSTM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTM1: view

Transcripts for GSTM1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GSTM1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTM1 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase mu 1:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GSTM1

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTM1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTM1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTM1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSTM1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GSTM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (11.0), Tonsil (10.0), Ovary (7.2), Skin (6.9), and Gallbladder (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSTM1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTM1 Gene Hs.301961

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTM1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Liver (at protein level).
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GSTM1: view

Expression partners for GSTM1 Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for GSTM1 Gene

Orthologs for GSTM1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTM1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTM1 35
  • 86.7 (n)
  • 85.78 (a)
-- 36
  • 75 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 82 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 84 (a)
GSTM2 36
  • 83 (a)
GSTM4 36
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gstm2 35
  • 85.78 (n)
  • 83.94 (a)
Gstm1 16
Gm4845 36
  • 73 (a)
Gm6665 36
  • 78 (a)
Gstm1 36
  • 78 (a)
Gstm2 36
  • 84 (a)
Gstm3 36
  • 76 (a)
Gstm4 36
  • 80 (a)
Gstm6 36
  • 78 (a)
Gstm7 36
  • 81 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTM1 35
  • 99.08 (n)
  • 97.71 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gstm2 35
  • 83.64 (n)
  • 81.65 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 70 (a)
-- 36
  • 67 (a)
-- 36
  • 73 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gstm1 35
  • 65.12 (n)
  • 69.44 (a)
Str.5827 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia gstm2-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gstm 36
  • 65 (a)
gstm3 36
  • 63 (a)
zgc:173994 36
  • 66 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-1 36
  • 31 (a)
gst-23 36
  • 30 (a)
gst-25 36
  • 28 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 29 (a)
-- 36
  • 43 (a)
-- 36
  • 43 (a)
-- 36
  • 40 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GSTM1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTM1 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTM1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTM1 (if available)

Paralogs for GSTM1 Gene

Paralogs for GSTM1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GSTM1 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTM1: view

Variants for GSTM1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM1 Gene

There are two alleles; GSTM1A and GSTM1B which differ in position 173

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTM1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs412302 -- 109,687,394(-) GGTGG(C/T)CCCAA upstream-variant-2KB
rs412543 -- 109,687,322(-) ACTCC(C/G)AGGGC upstream-variant-2KB
rs421092 -- 109,693,976(+) TGGGA(C/G)ATCCA downstream-variant-500B
rs421547 -- 109,685,945(-) ATGGA(C/T)ATATG upstream-variant-2KB
rs423033 -- 109,685,960(-) ATATT(A/G)CAAAT upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTM1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv510951 CNV Complex 20534489
esv25172 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
nsv872143 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv820548 CNV Deletion 20802225
nsv824076 CNV Loss 20364138
esv1003982 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv998761 CNV Gain 20482838
nsv2310 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv508471 CNV Loss 20534489
nsv10617 CNV Gain 18304495
dgv329n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv824087 CNV Loss 20364138
dgv6e180 CNV Gain 20482838
nsv514002 CNV Gain 21397061
dgv61e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv276 CNV Loss 15895083
esv2421364 OTHER Complex 20811451
nsv442967 CNV CNV 18776908
dgv3n47 CNV Loss 21111241
esv2530591 CNV Loss 19546169
dgv66n67 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv437937 CNV Loss 16468122
nsv435675 CNV Deletion 17901297
esv2716040 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv482092 CNV Gain 20164927
esv33243 CNV Gain 17666407
nsv2332 CNV Insertion 18451855

Relevant External Links for GSTM1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for GSTM1 Gene

(91) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GSTM1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
genetic susceptibility 77.4 26
cancer lung 71.6 267
cancer 67.8 146
bladder cancer 66.5 137
encephalopathy toxic chronic 61.2 2

Relevant External Links for GSTM1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTM1: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTM1 Gene

Publications for GSTM1 Gene

  1. An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors. (PMID: 17372252) Schwartzbaum J.A. … Feychting M. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2007) 3 23 25 48
  2. The role of glutathione transferases M1 and T1 in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in a Tunisian population. (PMID: 17381051) Ouerhani S. … ElgaaA^ed A.B. (Ann. Hum. Biol. 2006) 3 23 25 48
  3. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and P1 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women. (PMID: 17624589) Sakoda L.C. … Chen C. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2008) 3 23 25 48
  4. Relation between inducibility of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and lung cancer in a French population. (PMID: 11037803) StA1cker I. … HAcmon D. (Pharmacogenetics 2000) 3 23 48
  5. Polymorphic glutathione S-transferase M1 is a risk factor of primary open-angle glaucoma among Estonians. (PMID: 11040079) Juronen E. … Mikelsaar A.V. (Exp. Eye Res. 2000) 3 23 48

Products for GSTM1 Gene

Sources for GSTM1 Gene

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