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Aliases for GSTA1 Gene

Aliases for GSTA1 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 1 2 3 5
  • GST Class-Alpha Member 1 3 4
  • GST HA Subunit 1 3 4
  • GST-Epsilon 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GSTA1-1 3 4
  • GTH1 3 4
  • Glutathione S-Transferase Ha Subunit 1 3
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase A1 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase A1 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase A1 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 80 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase A1 2
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 2 3
  • GST2 3

External Ids for GSTA1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTA1 Gene

  • GC06M052658
  • GC06M052657
  • GC06M052703
  • GC06M052764
  • GC06M052656
  • GC06M052486

Summaries for GSTA1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTA1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of a family of enzymes that function to add glutathione to target electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins, and products of oxidative stress. This action is an important step in detoxification of these compounds. This subfamily of enzymes has a particular role in protecting cells from reactive oxygen species and the products of peroxidation. Polymorphisms in this gene influence the ability of individuals to metabolize different drugs. This gene is located in a cluster of similar genes and pseudogenes on chromosome 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for GSTA1 Gene

GSTA1 (Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTA1 include Prostate Leiomyosarcoma and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Among its related pathways are Phase II conjugation and Glutathione metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTA4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA1 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTA1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTA1 Gene

Genomics for GSTA1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSTA1 Gene

Enhancers for GSTA1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GSTA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GSTA1 Gene

52,791,380 bp from pter
52,803,910 bp from pter
12,531 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSTA1 Gene

Genes around GSTA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTA1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTA1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTA1 Gene

Proteins for GSTA1 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTA1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase A1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14750
    • Q5GHF8
    • Q5SZC1

    Protein attributes for GSTA1 Gene

    222 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25631 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer or heterodimer of GSTA1 and GSTA2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTA1 Gene

neXtProt entry for GSTA1 Gene

Proteomics data for GSTA1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GSTA1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GSTA1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for GSTA1 Gene

Gene Families for GSTA1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTA1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The C-terminal domain may form a component of the hydrophobic substrate-binding site, but in contrast appears not to be directly involved in GSH binding and is not absolutely essential for catalytic activity.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
  • The C-terminal domain may form a component of the hydrophobic substrate-binding site, but in contrast appears not to be directly involved in GSH binding and is not absolutely essential for catalytic activity.
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 GST N-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTA1: view

Function for GSTA1 Gene

Molecular function for GSTA1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione S-transferase 1,alpha,expressed in liver,with a proximal promoter essential for the binding of activating transcription factor complexes
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTA1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTA1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GSTA1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSTA1

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTA1 Gene

Localization for GSTA1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GSTA1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTA1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 4
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
lysosome 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 2
vacuole 2
chloroplast 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTA1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GSTA1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTA1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IC 3800996
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTA1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTA1 Gene

(23) Drugs for GSTA1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Busulfan Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate 527
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target, Enzyme, substrate 0
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Pharma Nitrogen mustard alkylating agent and prodrug. 2701
Azathioprine Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 155
Cisplatin Approved Pharma Inhibits DNA synthesis,chemotherapy drug, Platinum 2569

(50) Additional Compounds for GSTA1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GSTA1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Ezatiostat hydrochloride GST inhibitor 286942-97-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTA1: view

Transcripts for GSTA1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTA1 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTA1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTA1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTA1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSTA1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GSTA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x19.8), Liver (x13.9), Kidney - Cortex (x5.4), and Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (24.3) and Liver (10.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSTA1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTA1 Gene Hs.446309

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTA1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTA1: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSTA1 Gene

Orthologs for GSTA1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTA1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTA2 35
  • 78.94 (n)
  • 75.91 (a)
GSTA2 36
  • 82 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTA1 35
  • 99.1 (n)
  • 98.65 (a)
GSTA1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gsta2 35
  • 79.88 (n)
  • 76.13 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 60 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 61 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsta2 36
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 65 (a)
GSTA3 36
  • 65 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 69 (a)
-- 36
  • 69 (a)
-- 36
  • 66 (a)
-- 36
  • 65 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gstal 36
  • 55 (a)
zgc:173961 36
  • 54 (a)
zgc:173962 36
  • 55 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F56A4.3 36
  • 27 (a)
F56A4.4 36
  • 26 (a)
gst-10 36
  • 27 (a)
gst-41 36
  • 29 (a)
Y45G12C.3 36
  • 26 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 42 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GSTA1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTA1 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTA1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTA1 (if available)

Paralogs for GSTA1 Gene

Paralogs for GSTA1 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTA1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTA1: view

Variants for GSTA1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTA1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1051578 - 52,799,212(-) GTCCA(C/G/T)CCGGT reference, missense
rs1051745 - 52,794,201(+) ATGTC(A/C/G/T)ACCTG reference, missense
rs1051757 - 52,794,190(-) AGGAA(A/C)AAGAT reference, missense
rs1051535 -- 52,803,820(-) AATTC(A/G)GTTGT utr-variant-5-prime
rs1051536 -- 52,803,813(-) TTGTC(C/G)AGCCA utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTA1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv462945 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv470818 CNV Loss 18288195
esv2752126 CNV Gain 17911159
esv2732085 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv9378 CNV Loss 19470904
esv4858 CNV Duplication 18987735
nsv885883 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv1952e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv2436160 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2666921 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2732086 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv436888 CNV Insertion 17901297
esv2656678 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv482096 CNV Gain 20164927

Variation tolerance for GSTA1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.80; 33.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GSTA1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA1 Gene

Disorders for GSTA1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for GSTA1 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
prostate leiomyosarcoma
  • leiomyosarcoma of the prostate
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
skin carcinoma in situ
  • carcinoma in situ of ear
  • dracontiasis
ovarian endodermal sinus tumor
  • endodermal sinus tumor of ovary
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTA1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GSTA1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTA1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTA1 Gene

Publications for GSTA1 Gene

  1. Glutathione S-transferase A1 polymorphisms and acute graft-vs.-host disease in HLA-matched sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (PMID: 17425746) Kim I. … Kim B.K. (Clin Transplant 2007) 3 23 25 26
  2. [Study on the genetic polymorphisms of human glutathione-S-transferase A1 in Hakka population in South China]. (PMID: 17086718) Pan S.X. … Ling W.H. (Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2006) 3 23 48 67
  3. Influence of glutathione S-transferase A1, P1, M1, T1 polymorphisms on oral busulfan pharmacokinetics in children with congenital hemoglobinopathies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (PMID: 20672371) Elhasid R. … Efrati E. (Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010) 3 25 26
  4. Levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) and effect modification of polymorphisms of glutathione-related genes in vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries. (PMID: 17333241) JAPnsson L.S. … JAPnsson B.A. (Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2007) 3 25 26
  5. Influence of glutathione S-transferase A1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of busulfan. (PMID: 16448639) Kusama M. … Iga T. (Clin. Chim. Acta 2006) 23 25 26

Products for GSTA1 Gene

Sources for GSTA1 Gene