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Aliases for GSR Gene

Aliases for GSR Gene

  • Glutathione-Disulfide Reductase 2 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Reductase 2 3
  • EC 4 58
  • GRase 3 4
  • GR 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 122m 3
  • Glutathione Reductase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Epididymis Luminal Protein 75 3
  • Glutathione Reductase 2
  • HEL-S-122m 3
  • EC 1.8.1 58
  • HEL-75 3
  • GLUR 4
  • GRD1 4

External Ids for GSR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSR Gene

  • GC08M030441
  • GC08M030989
  • GC08M030594
  • GC08M030593
  • GC08M029081
  • GC08M030535

Summaries for GSR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSR Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. This enzyme is a homodimeric flavoprotein. It is a central enzyme of cellular antioxidant defense, and reduces oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form GSH, which is an important cellular antioxidant. Rare mutations in this gene result in hereditary glutathione reductase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GSR Gene

GSR (Glutathione-Disulfide Reductase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSR include Hemolytic Anemia Due To Glutathione Reductase Deficiency and Riboflavin Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Insulin secretion and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

  • Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.

Gene Wiki entry for GSR Gene

Additional gene information for GSR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSR Gene

Genomics for GSR Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSR Gene

Enhancers for GSR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH08H030721 1.5 FANTOM5 ENCODE 10.5 +1.1 1127 10.3 MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC MEF2D GTF2E2 WRN GSR UBXN8 ENSG00000272375 RBPMS-AS1
GH08H030743 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 9.7 -16.2 -16173 2.5 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 ZNF207 WRN GTF2E2 PPP2CB RNU5A-3P GSR UBXN8 LOC105379355 GC08M030742
GH08H030742 0.7 ENCODE 8.8 -14.7 -14708 0.3 TBP SAP130 ZNF511 TAF1 HLF MAX CEBPG RAD21 NR2F2 GABPA PPP2CB RNU5A-3P GSR LOC105379355 PIR49055
GH08H030403 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.8 +321.9 321917 6.1 CTCF HLF RAD21 NR2F2 ZFHX2 JUND POLR2A CEBPA HMBOX1 FOS RBPMS-AS1 PURG GSR PIR31328
GH08H030737 0.6 FANTOM5 9 -9.4 -9367 0.3 CEBPB HNF4A NFE2 RAD21 ZNF558 GSR PIR49055 LOC105379355
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GSR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GSR Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Locations for GSR Gene

Genomic Locations for GSR Gene
49,909 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSR Gene

Genes around GSR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSR Gene

Proteins for GSR Gene

  • Protein details for GSR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C8KIL8
    • C8KIL9
    • C8KIM0
    • D3DSV3
    • Q7Z5C9
    • Q9NP63

    Protein attributes for GSR Gene

    522 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56257 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
    • The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond.
    • Sequence=AAP88037.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSR Gene


neXtProt entry for GSR Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GSR Gene


Post-translational modifications for GSR Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=181181, isoforms=3, 2300, and isoforms=3, 4, 5, 2456
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for GSR Gene

Gene Families for GSR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Each subunit can be divided into 4 domains that are consecutive along the polypeptide chain. Domains 1 and 2 bind FAD and NADPH, respectively. Domain 4 forms the interface.
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
  • Each subunit can be divided into 4 domains that are consecutive along the polypeptide chain. Domains 1 and 2 bind FAD and NADPH, respectively. Domain 4 forms the interface.
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSR: view

Function for GSR Gene

Molecular function for GSR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione reductase (NADPH) FAD dependent,maintaining glutathione in the reduced state
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2 glutathione + NADP(+) = glutathione disulfide + NADPH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSR Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004362 glutathione-disulfide reductase activity TAS --
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity TAS 947404
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016668 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, NAD(P) as acceptor IEA --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSR: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GSR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSR

Transcription Factor Targets for GSR Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for GSR

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models and HOMER Transcription for GSR Gene

Localization for GSR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Isoform Mitochondrial: Mitochondrion.
Isoform Cytoplasmic: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSR gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSR: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IEA --
GO:0015949 nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS --
GO:0034599 cellular response to oxidative stress TAS --
GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis IEA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSR Gene

(98) Drugs for GSR Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Carmustine Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 216
FAD Approved Pharma Target 0
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target 0
Carboplatin Approved Pharma Antitumor agent that forms platinum-DNA adducts., Platinum 2094
Selenium Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 185

(74) Additional Compounds for GSR Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid
  • 2-KDN
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid
  • 2-Oxo-3-deoxy-D-glycero-galactononulosonate
  • 2-Oxo-3-deoxy-D-glycero-galactononulosonic acid
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
  • Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-NADP
  • b-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-TPN
  • beta-NADP

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GSR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
N6022 GSNOR inhibitor 1208315-24-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSR: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GSR Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSR Gene

Glutathione reductase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSR Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for GSR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GSR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GSR Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSR Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GSR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSR Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GSR Gene

  • Blood(4.6)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Lung(4.5)
  • Nervous system(3.2)
  • Kidney(2.8)
  • Eye(2.4)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Intestine(2.2)
  • Muscle(2.2)
  • Stomach(2.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSR Gene

Germ Layers:
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • blood
  • red blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSR: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSR Gene

Orthologs for GSR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GSR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSR 34 33
  • 98.98 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSR 34 33
  • 87.69 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSR 34 33
  • 86.83 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GSR 34
  • 84 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gsr 33
  • 82.85 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsr 16 34 33
  • 82.4 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GSR 34
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GSR 34 33
  • 69.98 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GSR 34
  • 73 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gsr 33
  • 71.76 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gsr 33 34
  • 65.47 (n)
Dr.17468 33
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gsr-1 34 33
  • 58.24 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR196W 33
  • 55.36 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLR1 33 34 36
  • 53.18 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E24069g 33
  • 52.99 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GR 33
  • 50.11 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0163300 33
  • 48.87 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 62 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03339 33
  • 56.85 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pgr1 33
  • 54.96 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.12083 33
Species where no ortholog for GSR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSR Gene

Gene Tree for GSR (if available)
Gene Tree for GSR (if available)

Paralogs for GSR Gene

Paralogs for GSR Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for GSR Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSR: view

Variants for GSR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000006113 -- 30,726,044(+) GGGGC(A/G)CTTAG intron-variant
rs1000014435 -- 30,718,224(+) ACTGG(C/T)TCCTG intron-variant
rs1000065782 -- 30,729,652(+) GCCTA(C/G)TCCTC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000163907 -- 30,686,614(+) CCCAG(C/G)AGTTT intron-variant
rs1000179040 -- 30,729,304(+) AACAC(C/T)GGGAA upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv824585 CNV gain 20364138
nsv516544 CNV loss 19592680
nsv478854 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv473830 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
esv3616792 CNV loss 21293372
esv2671289 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2657353 CNV deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for GSR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.81; 66.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GSR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Disorders for GSR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(17) MalaCards diseases for GSR Gene - From: HGMD, GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hemolytic anemia due to glutathione reductase deficiency
riboflavin deficiency
  • rbfvd
transitional meningioma
  • transitional meningioma
von economo's disease
  • encephalitis lethargica
pyridoxine deficiency
  • vitamin b6 deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for GSR Gene

hemolytic crisis

Relevant External Links for GSR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Publications for GSR Gene

  1. Enzyme inactivation through sulfhydryl oxidation by physiologic NO-carriers. (PMID: 9546215) Becker K … Karplus PA (Nature structural biology 1998) 3 4 22 60
  2. Glutathione reductase turned into trypanothione reductase: structural analysis of an engineered change in substrate specificity. (PMID: 9174360) Stoll VS … Pai EF (Biochemistry 1997) 3 4 22 60
  3. Kinetics and crystallographic analysis of human glutathione reductase in complex with a xanthene inhibitor. (PMID: 8626496) Savvides SN … Karplus PA (The Journal of biological chemistry 1996) 3 4 22 60
  4. Low 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and influence of genetic background in an Andean population exposed to high levels of arsenic. (PMID: 19896490) Engström KS … Broberg K (Mutation research 2010) 3 45 60
  5. Glutathione pathway genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer survival after platinum-based chemotherapy. (PMID: 20200426) Moyer AM … Weinshilboum RM (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 45 60

Products for GSR Gene

Sources for GSR Gene

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