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Aliases for GSR Gene

Aliases for GSR Gene

  • Glutathione Reductase 2 3
  • EC 1.8.1.7 4 64
  • GRase 3 4
  • GR 3 4
  • Glutathione Reductase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Epididymis Luminal Protein 75 3
  • EC 1.8.1 64
  • HEL-75 3
  • GLUR 4
  • GRD1 4

External Ids for GSR Gene

Summaries for GSR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSR Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. This enzyme is a homodimeric flavoprotein. It is a central enzyme of cellular antioxidant defense, and reduces oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form GSH, which is an important cellular antioxidant. Rare mutations in this gene result in hereditary glutathione reductase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GSR Gene

GSR (Glutathione Reductase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSR include pyridoxine deficiency and hemolytic anemia due to glutathione reductase deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Cellular Senescence. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and NADP binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

  • Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol

Gene Wiki entry for GSR Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSR Gene

Genomics for GSR Gene

Genomic Location for GSR Gene

Start:
30,678,061 bp from pter
End:
30,727,969 bp from pter
Size:
49,909 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GSR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSR Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSR Gene

Proteins for GSR Gene

  • Protein details for GSR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P00390-GSHR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    P00390
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C8KIL8
    • C8KIL9
    • C8KIM0
    • D3DSV3
    • Q7Z5C9
    • Q9NP63

    Protein attributes for GSR Gene

    Size:
    522 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56257 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692; Note=Binds 1 FAD per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
    Miscellaneous:
    • The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAP88037.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSR Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GSR Gene

Proteomics data for GSR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GSR Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys181, Lys300, and Lys456

Other Protein References for GSR Gene

Domains for GSR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GSHR_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Each subunit can be divided into 4 domains that are consecutive along the polypeptide chain. Domains 1 and 2 bind FAD and NADPH, respectively. Domain 4 forms the interface:
    • P00390
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.:
    • P00390
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSR: view

No data available for Gene Families for GSR Gene

Function for GSR Gene

Molecular function for GSR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glutathione reductase (NADPH) FAD dependent,maintaining glutathione in the reduced state
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: 2 glutathione + NADP(+) = glutathione disulfide + NADPH
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004362 glutathione-disulfide reductase activity TAS --
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity TAS 947404
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0016668 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, NAD(P) as acceptor --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

Phenotypes for GSR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSR: view

miRNA for GSR Gene

Transcription Factor Targeting for GSR Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for GSR

No data available for Animal Models and HOMER Transcription for GSR Gene

Localization for GSR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Isoform Mitochondrial: Mitochondrion.
Isoform Cytoplasmic: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GSR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSR gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 3
chloroplast 2
extracellular 2
lysosome 2
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
vacuole 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

Pathways for GSR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSR: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IEA --
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS --
GO:0015949 nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

Compounds for GSR Gene

(9) HMDB Compounds for GSR Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid
  • 2-KDN
22594-61-2
FAD
  • 1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide
146-14-5
Glutathione
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
70-18-8
L-Glutamic acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
56-86-0
NAD
  • 3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
53-84-9

(149) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GSR Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gssg 89.5 124
trypanothione 87.6 56
superoxide 87.5 128
glucose 6-phosphate 84 111
malondialdehyde 80.5 126
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSR: view

Transcripts for GSR Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSR Gene

Glutathione reductase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSR Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP1:
SP2:
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for GSR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GSR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GSR

Expression for GSR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSR Gene Hs.271510

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GSR: view

Orthologs for GSR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GSR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSR 36
  • 98.98 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
GSR 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSR 36
  • 86.83 (n)
  • 85.93 (a)
GSR 37
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSR 36
  • 87.69 (n)
  • 88.01 (a)
GSR 37
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsr 36
  • 82.4 (n)
  • 86.6 (a)
Gsr 16
Gsr 37
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GSR 37
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GSR 37
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gsr 36
  • 82.85 (n)
  • 87.07 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GSR 36
  • 69.98 (n)
  • 73.76 (a)
GSR 37
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GSR 37
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gsr 36
  • 71.76 (n)
  • 77.51 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.17468 36
gsr 36
  • 65.47 (n)
  • 68.11 (a)
gsr 37
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gsr-1 36
  • 58.24 (n)
  • 60.63 (a)
gsr-1 37
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR196W 36
  • 55.36 (n)
  • 53.57 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLR1 36
  • 53.18 (n)
  • 53.93 (a)
GLR1 37
  • 49 (a)
OneToMany
GLR1 39
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E24069g 36
  • 52.99 (n)
  • 51.88 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GR 36
  • 50.11 (n)
  • 42.63 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0163300 36
  • 48.87 (n)
  • 42.99 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03339 36
  • 56.85 (n)
  • 56.7 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pgr1 36
  • 54.96 (n)
  • 53.24 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.12083 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 62 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GSR:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GSR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GSR (if available)

Paralogs for GSR Gene

Paralogs for GSR Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GSR Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSR: view

Variants for GSR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs3594 -- 30,678,143(+) ACATA(A/C)AAATA utr-variant-3-prime
rs14203 -- 30,678,389(+) gggtc(C/T)tgctc utr-variant-3-prime
rs889926 -- 30,683,852(+) GCAAC(A/G)GGTGA intron-variant
rs909351 -- 30,683,385(-) ATGAT(C/G)ACTTG intron-variant
rs909352 -- 30,683,377(-) TTGAT(C/G)TACTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv890703 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2657353 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2671289 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv516544 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv824585 CNV Gain 20364138

Relevant External Links for GSR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GSR
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GSR

Disorders for GSR Gene

(95) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GSR Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
riboflavin deficiency 73 5
pyridoxine deficiency 51.8 1
leishmaniasis old world cutaneous 48.3 1
cell damage 43.6 7
hemolysis 42.6 11

Genatlas disease for GSR Gene

hemolytic crisis

Relevant External Links for GSR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GSR
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GSR
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Publications for GSR Gene

  1. Enzyme inactivation through sulfhydryl oxidation by physiologic NO- carriers. (PMID: 9546215) Becker K. … Karplus P.A. (Nat. Struct. Biol. 1998) 3 4 23
  2. Kinetics and crystallographic analysis of human glutathione reductase in complex with a xanthene inhibitor. (PMID: 8626496) Savvides S.N. … Karplus P.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996) 3 4 23
  3. Glutathione reductase turned into trypanothione reductase: structural analysis of an engineered change in substrate specificity. (PMID: 9174360) Stoll V.S. … Pai E.F. (Biochemistry 1997) 3 4 23
  4. The decrease in antioxidant potential in human brain tumours. (PMID: 12533953) Dudek H. … Rydzewska M. (Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst. 2002) 3 23
  5. Study of the activity of glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-transferase, and glutathione-reductase in renal transplants. (PMID: 12826156) De Vega L. … Bustamante Munguira E. (Transplant. Proc. 2003) 3 23

Products for GSR Gene

Sources for GSR Gene

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