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Aliases for GSR Gene

Aliases for GSR Gene

  • Glutathione Reductase 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • GRase 3 4
  • GR 3 4
  • Glutathione Reductase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Epididymis Luminal Protein 75 3
  • EC 1.8.1 63
  • HEL-75 3
  • GLUR 4
  • GRD1 4

External Ids for GSR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSR Gene

  • GC08M030441
  • GC08M030989
  • GC08M030594
  • GC08M030593
  • GC08M029081
  • GC08M030535

Summaries for GSR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSR Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. This enzyme is a homodimeric flavoprotein. It is a central enzyme of cellular antioxidant defense, and reduces oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form GSH, which is an important cellular antioxidant. Rare mutations in this gene result in hereditary glutathione reductase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GSR Gene

GSR (Glutathione Reductase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSR include hemolytic anemia due to glutathione reductase deficiency and pyridoxine deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Cellular Senescence. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and NADP binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

  • Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol

Gene Wiki entry for GSR Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSR Gene

Genomics for GSR Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSR Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GSR Gene

30,678,061 bp from pter
30,727,969 bp from pter
49,909 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GSR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSR Gene

Proteins for GSR Gene

  • Protein details for GSR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C8KIL8
    • C8KIL9
    • C8KIM0
    • D3DSV3
    • Q7Z5C9
    • Q9NP63

    Protein attributes for GSR Gene

    522 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56257 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692; Note=Binds 1 FAD per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
    • The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond
    • Sequence=AAP88037.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSR Gene


neXtProt entry for GSR Gene

Proteomics data for GSR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GSR Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys181, Lys300, and Lys456
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GSR Gene

Domains for GSR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Each subunit can be divided into 4 domains that are consecutive along the polypeptide chain. Domains 1 and 2 bind FAD and NADPH, respectively. Domain 4 forms the interface
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
  • Each subunit can be divided into 4 domains that are consecutive along the polypeptide chain. Domains 1 and 2 bind FAD and NADPH, respectively. Domain 4 forms the interface
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSR: view

No data available for Gene Families for GSR Gene

Function for GSR Gene

Molecular function for GSR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione reductase (NADPH) FAD dependent,maintaining glutathione in the reduced state
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2 glutathione + NADP(+) = glutathione disulfide + NADPH
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004362 glutathione-disulfide reductase activity TAS --
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity TAS 947404
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0016668 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, NAD(P) as acceptor --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

Phenotypes for GSR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSR: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GSR Gene

Transcription Factor Targets for GSR Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for GSR

No data available for Animal Models and HOMER Transcription for GSR Gene

Localization for GSR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Isoform Mitochondrial: Mitochondrion.
Isoform Cytoplasmic: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GSR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSR gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 3
chloroplast 2
extracellular 2
lysosome 2
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
vacuole 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

Pathways for GSR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSR: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IEA --
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS --
GO:0015949 nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

Drugs for GSR Gene

(12) Drugbank Compounds for GSR Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
70-18-8 124886 Target approved, nutraceutical
  • BCNU
154-93-8 2578 Target inhibitor approved
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate), 5'-5'-ester with riboflavine
146-14-5 643975 Target approved
11505541 Target experimental
9543424 Target experimental

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GSR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
N6022 GSNOR inhibitor [1208315-24-5]

(11) HMDB Compounds for GSR Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid
  • 2-KDN
  • BCNU
  • 1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation

(149) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GSR Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gssg 89.5 124
trypanothione 87.6 56
superoxide 87.5 128
glucose 6-phosphate 84 111
malondialdehyde 80.5 126

(2) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for GSR Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
carboplatin Clinical Annotation
taxanes Clinical Annotation
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSR: view

Compound Products

Transcripts for GSR Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSR Gene

Glutathione reductase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GSR

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSR Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for GSR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GSR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSR Gene Hs.271510

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GSR: view

Expression partners for GSR Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSR Gene

Orthologs for GSR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GSR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSR 35
  • 86.83 (n)
  • 85.93 (a)
GSR 36
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSR 35
  • 87.69 (n)
  • 88.01 (a)
GSR 36
  • 83 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsr 35
  • 82.4 (n)
  • 86.6 (a)
Gsr 16
Gsr 36
  • 87 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSR 35
  • 98.98 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
GSR 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gsr 35
  • 82.85 (n)
  • 87.07 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GSR 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GSR 36
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GSR 35
  • 69.98 (n)
  • 73.76 (a)
GSR 36
  • 73 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GSR 36
  • 73 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gsr 35
  • 71.76 (n)
  • 77.51 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.17468 35
gsr 35
  • 65.47 (n)
  • 68.11 (a)
gsr 36
  • 67 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gsr-1 35
  • 58.24 (n)
  • 60.63 (a)
gsr-1 36
  • 58 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR196W 35
  • 55.36 (n)
  • 53.57 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E24069g 35
  • 52.99 (n)
  • 51.88 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLR1 35
  • 53.18 (n)
  • 53.93 (a)
GLR1 36
  • 49 (a)
GLR1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GR 35
  • 50.11 (n)
  • 42.63 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0163300 35
  • 48.87 (n)
  • 42.99 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.12083 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03339 35
  • 56.85 (n)
  • 56.7 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pgr1 35
  • 54.96 (n)
  • 53.24 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 62 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GSR:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSR Gene

Gene Tree for GSR (if available)
Gene Tree for GSR (if available)

Paralogs for GSR Gene

Paralogs for GSR Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for GSR Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSR: view

Variants for GSR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2978663 -- 30,708,428(-) GTCCT(A/G)TGCAC intron-variant
rs2978662 -- 30,712,310(-) TTCTC(C/T)GTCCA intron-variant
rs2978661 -- 30,716,334(-) TTGTG(A/C)TGGGG intron-variant
rs2978305 -- 30,682,502(-) aagtc(G/T)aaaca intron-variant
rs2978303 -- 30,696,749(-) CACTA(C/T)ACTCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv890703 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2657353 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2671289 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv516544 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv824585 CNV Gain 20364138

Relevant External Links for GSR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Disorders for GSR Gene

(95) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GSR Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
riboflavin deficiency 73 5
pyridoxine deficiency 51.8 1
leishmaniasis old world cutaneous 48.3 1
cell damage 43.6 7
hemolysis 42.6 11

Genatlas disease for GSR Gene

hemolytic crisis

Relevant External Links for GSR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSR: view

No data available for OMIM and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Publications for GSR Gene

  1. Enzyme inactivation through sulfhydryl oxidation by physiologic NO- carriers. (PMID: 9546215) Becker K. … Karplus P.A. (Nat. Struct. Biol. 1998) 3 4 23
  2. Kinetics and crystallographic analysis of human glutathione reductase in complex with a xanthene inhibitor. (PMID: 8626496) Savvides S.N. … Karplus P.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996) 3 4 23
  3. Glutathione reductase turned into trypanothione reductase: structural analysis of an engineered change in substrate specificity. (PMID: 9174360) Stoll V.S. … Pai E.F. (Biochemistry 1997) 3 4 23
  4. Zinc attenuates malathion-induced depressant-like behavior and confers neuroprotection in the rat brain. (PMID: 17327255) Brocardo P.S. … Rodrigues A.L. (Toxicol. Sci. 2007) 23 25 26
  5. The glutathione reductase inhibitor carmustine induces an influx of Ca2+ in PC12 cells. (PMID: 15321730) Doroshenko N. … Doroshenko P. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2004) 23 25 26

Products for GSR Gene

Sources for GSR Gene

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