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GSR Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 73
GCID: GC08M030535

Glutathione Reductase

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glutathione Reductase1 2     Epididymis Luminal Protein 752
GR2 3     Glutathione Reductase, Mitochondrial2
GRase2 3     GLUR3
EC 1.8.1.73 8     GRD13
HEL-752     EC 1.8.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 46231   Entrez Gene: 29362   Ensembl: ENSG000001046877   OMIM: 1383005   UniProtKB: P003903   

Export aliases for GSR gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC08M030441 GC08M030989 GC08M030594 GC08M030593 GC08M030655 GC08M029081


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GSR Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. This enzyme is a
homodimeric flavoprotein. It is a central enzyme of cellular antioxidant defense, and reduces oxidized
glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form GSH, which is an important cellular antioxidant. Rare
mutations in this gene result in hereditary glutathione reductase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced
transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. (provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010)

GeneCards Summary for GSR Gene:
GSR (glutathione reductase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GSR include hemolytic anemia due to glutathione reductase deficiency, and pyridoxine deficiency. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and NADP binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GSHR_HUMAN, P00390
Function: Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol

Gene Wiki entry for GSR (Glutathione reductase) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000008.11  NC_018919.2  NT_167187.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GSR gene promoter:
         c-Fos   GR   p53   AP-1   ATF-2   c-Jun   GR-alpha   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGSR promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GSR

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GSR


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8p21.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8p12   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8p21.1

GSR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GSR gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08M030535:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
30,535,578 bp from pter      End:
30,585,486 bp from pter
Size:
49,909 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GSHR_HUMAN, P00390 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 522 amino acids; 56257 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 FAD per subunit
Subunit: Homodimer; disulfide-linked
Miscellaneous: The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAP88037.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GSR (see all 27):
1ALG (3D)        1BWC (3D)        1DNC (3D)        1GRA (3D)        1GRB (3D)        1GRE (3D)    
Secondary accessions: C8KIL8 C8KIL9 C8KIM0 D3DSV3 Q7Z5C9 Q9NP63
Alternative splicing, Alternative initiation: 5 isoforms:  P00390-1   P00390-2   P00390-3   P00390-4   P00390-5   (Expressed at very high levels in peripheral blood)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GSR: NX_P00390

Explore proteomics data for GSR at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys181, Lys300, Lys456
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for GSR (P00390) (see all 11)
     IGGGSGG  HILIATG  ATKADFD  IGTVGLTE 


    See GSR Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000628.2  NP_001182031.1  NP_001182032.1  NP_001182033.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000221130   ENSP00000431044   ENSP00000429247   ENSP00000430825   ENSP00000445516  
     ENSP00000444559   ENSP00000438845   ENSP00000390065  
    Reactome Protein details: P00390

    GSR Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals GSR Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GSR Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GSR
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    GSR Antibody Products:

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    GSR Assay Products:

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    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section

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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR013027 FAD_pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase
     IPR006322 Glutathione_Rdtase_euk/bac
     IPR012999 Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS
     IPR004099 Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer
     IPR016156 FAD/NAD-linked_Rdtase_dimer

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P00390

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P00390

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001100 Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    IPB001327 Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    IPB013027 FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide reductase signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GSHR_HUMAN, P00390
    Domain: Each subunit can be divided into 4 domains that are consecutive along the polypeptide chain. Domains 1 and
    2 bind FAD and NADPH, respectively. Domain 4 forms the interface
    Similarity: Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family


    GSR for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GSHR_HUMAN, P00390
    Function: Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol
    Catalytic activity: 2 glutathione + NADP(+) = glutathione disulfide + NADPH

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GSR:
    glutathione reductase (NADPH) FAD dependent,maintaining glutathione in the reduced state

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.8.1.71 2 EC 1.8.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004362glutathione-disulfide reductase activity TAS--
    GO:0009055electron carrier activity TAS947404
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
    GO:0016668oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, NAD(P) as acceptor ----
    GO:0050660flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA--
         
    GSR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Gsr):
     cardiovascular system  normal  vision/eye 

    GSR for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GSR
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GSR
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GSR

    Transcription Factor Targeting: 
    Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for GSR (see all 1325):
    A2M,  ABCA10,  ABCA8,  ABCC3,  ABCC4,  ABCC6,  ABCC8,  ABCC9,  ABCD2,  ABCG4

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSR:
    hsa-mir-183-5p (MIRT047077), hsa-mir-744-5p (MIRT037682), hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029742), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT032416)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GSR using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GSR (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-193a-3p hsa-miR-892b hsa-miR-1278 hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-3662 hsa-miR-26b hsa-miR-193b
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGSR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GSR
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GSR

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GSR

    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GSR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): GSR (NM_000637)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GSR
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GSR
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GSR

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GSR
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for GSR 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GSR


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GSHR_HUMAN, P00390: Isoform Mitochondrial: Mitochondrion
    GSHR_HUMAN, P00390: Isoform Cytoplasmic: Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    cytosol4
    plasma membrane3
    chloroplast2
    extracellular2
    lysosome2
    nucleus2
    peroxisome2
    vacuole2
    cytoskeleton1
    endoplasmic reticulum1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ----
    GO:0005759mitochondrial matrix TAS--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA19056867

    GSR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GSR About   (see all 10)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Glutathione metabolism
    Glutathione metabolism0.65
    glutathione redox reactions I0.00
    Glutathione metabolism0.65
    glutathione redox reactions II0.00
    Glutathione metabolism0.45
    2Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species
    Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species
    Oxidative Stress Regulatory Pathway (Erythrocyte)0.00
    3Purine metabolism (REACTOME)
    Metabolism of nucleotides0.42
    Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates0.00
    4Cellular Senescence
    Cellular responses to stress0.81
    5Biological oxidations
    metapathway biotransformation0.42

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for GSR
        Glutathione metabolism

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for GSR (see all 7)
        Sulfation Biotransformation Reaction
    Oxidative Stress
    Selenium Pathway
    glutathione redox reactions II
    Glutathione metabolism


    2 Reactome Pathways for GSR
        Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species
    Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for GSR
        Oxidative Stress Regulatory Pathway (Erythrocyte)

    2 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GSR):
        Glutathione metabolism
    Thyroid hormone synthesis


    GSR for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GSR (see all 7): 
              Oxidative Stress in human mouse rat
              Neurotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Signal Transduction PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Hepatotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Cellular Stress Responses in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GSR

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GSR (P003902, 3 ENSP000002211304) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 114)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PJA1Q8NG272, 3, ENSP000003550144MINT-63334 I2D: score=6 STRING: ENSP00000355014
    PDHBP111773, ENSP000003072414I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000307241
    SDHBP219123, ENSP000003646494I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000364649
    TXNP105993, ENSP000003636414I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000363641
    OCM2P0CE713, ENSP000002576274I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000257627
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006749glutathione metabolic process IEA--
    GO:0015949nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS--
    GO:0044281small molecule metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0045454cell redox homeostasis IEA--
    GO:0055086nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process TAS--

    GSR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GSR
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GSR (GSHR)

    9 HMDB Compounds for GSR    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid2-KDN (see all 18)22594-61-2--
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    Glutathione5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (see all 32)70-18-8--
    L-Glutamic acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate (see all 49)56-86-0--
    NAD3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate (see all 28)53-84-9--
    NADH1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (see all 17)58-68-4--
    NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--
    NADPH2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide (see all 23)53-57-6--
    Oxidized glutathioneGSSG (see all 4)27025-41-8--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for GSR (see all 13)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    CarmustineBCNU (see all 4)154-93-8targetinhibitor10378469 12477282 3806383 15104113 1394620 6094175 15321730 1312851
    Glutathione5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (see all 5)70-18-8target--17369902 17303537 17338281 17512104 17327255
    NADHbeta-DPNH (see all 18)606-68-8target--17540766 17565998 17550271 17053903 17502280
    3,6-Dihydroxy-Xanthene-9-Propionic Acid-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    3-(Prop-2-Ene-1-Sulfinyl)-Propene-1-Thiol-- --target--17139284 17016423
    3-Sulfinoalanine-- 1115-65-7target--17139284 17016423
    Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide-- 146-14-5target--17139284 17016423
    Glutathionylspermidine Disulfide-- --target--17139284 17016423
    Meta-Nitro-Tyrosine-- --target--17139284 17016423
    Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide-- 53-84-9target--17139284 17016423

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GSR gene (see all 149)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    gssg 89.5 218 16410648 (4), 9005440 (3), 18839590 (3), 15720387 (3) (see all 99)
    trypanothione 87.6 85 1924337 (4), 2059620 (3), 8168518 (3), 1924336 (3) (see all 36)
    superoxide 87.5 620 9853803 (4), 9013263 (3), 10569399 (2), 14633623 (2) (see all 99)
    glucose 6-phosphate 84 171 18308427 (3), 1841426 (2), 7586028 (2), 8655605 (2) (see all 99)
    malondialdehyde 80.5 263 16094713 (3), 16989498 (3), 20187535 (3), 16970843 (3) (see all 99)
    nadph 79.1 144 9175718 (3), 18166048 (2), 18498919 (2), 19668867 (2) (see all 99)
    gamma-glutamylcysteine 78.6 42 1677568 (1), 1945285 (1), 9724699 (1), 11133045 (1) (see all 31)
    o-ethylhydroxylamine 73.6 1 10087986 (1)
    bcnu 73.5 69 9113101 (4), 15857610 (4), 1468685 (1), 8254030 (1) (see all 39)
    no-dimethylhydroxylamine 71.5 5 9137808 (1), 10087986 (1)



    GSR for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GSR gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000637.3  NM_001195102.1  NM_001195103.1  NM_001195104.1  

    Unigene Cluster for GSR:

    Glutathione reductase
    Hs.271510  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000637
    8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000221130(uc003xih.2 uc022ato.1 uc022atp.1 uc022atq.1)
    ENST00000523295 ENST00000520888 ENST00000521479 ENST00000546342 ENST00000541648
    ENST00000537535 ENST00000414019
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GSR using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GSR (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-193a-3p hsa-miR-892b hsa-miR-1278 hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-3662 hsa-miR-26b hsa-miR-193b
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGSR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GSR
    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GSR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): GSR (NM_000637)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GSR
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GSR
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GSR
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GSR
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GSR
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GSR
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GSR

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB519179.1 AB519180.1 AB519181.1 AF228704.1 BC035691.1 BC069244.1 X15722.1 X54507.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.97780985  DT.100798243  DT.86839565 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 183):

    BQ436355 BQ216251 CA397018 BQ224655 BQ056743 BC069244 CR597200 AF228704 
    NM_000637 BM976198 BQ225447 AL542274 AA725383 T08637 BQ015920 BQ954745 
    CR603039 AI130967 BM478858 AW449420 C13971 CB528732 CK904292 AW083699 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSR    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
    SP1:                                                                        
    SP2:                                                                        
    SP3:                    -     -                                             


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GSR

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GSR expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTGCTGCACT
    GSR Expression
    About this image


    GSR expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
             Oviduct
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)
             Islets of Langerhans
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Gonad (Reproductive System)
             Primordial Germ Cells Primitive Gonad
    GSR Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GSR Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.271510
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GSR (see all 7): 
              Oxidative Stress in human mouse rat
              Neurotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Signal Transduction PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Hepatotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Cellular Stress Responses in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for GSR gene from Selected species (see all 22)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gsr1 , 5 glutathione reductase1, 5 82.4(n)1
    86.6(a)1
      8 (20.69 cM)5
    147821  NM_010344.41  NP_034474.41 
     336525235 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GSR1 glutathione reductase 69.98(n)
    73.76(a)
      771783  XM_001235016.3  XP_001235017.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GSR6
    glutathione reductase
    73(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343257.1(260464-322819)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia CD328025.12   -- 74.02(n)    CD328025.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.174682 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 78.85(n)    CK238037.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea gsr-11 gsr-1 58.24(n)
    60.63(a)
      175467  NM_001026049.5  NP_001021220.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GLR1(YPL091W)4
    GLR11
    Cytosolic and mitochondrial glutathione oxidoreductase, more4
    GLR11
    53.18(n)1
    53.93(a)1
      16(375502-376953)4
    8560141, 4  NP_015234.11, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons GR1 GR 50.11(n)
    42.63(a)
      824631  NM_115323.3  NP_191026.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os03g01633001 Os03g0163300 48.87(n)
    42.99(a)
      4331719  NM_001055592.1  NP_001049057.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GSR (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GSR (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GSR gene
    TXNRD32  TXNRD12  TXNRD22  
    5 SIMAP similar genes for GSR using alignment to 4 protein entries:     GSHR_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DLD    TXNRD2    TXNRD1    DKFZp781E0833    TXNRD3

    GSR for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GSR (see all 1419)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs668248751,2
    C--30535885(-) AAAAA-/AAAAA 
     
    /AAAAAA
    AAAAA
    12 -- ut311NA 2
    rs598452941,2
    C--30535891(+) TTTTT-/T/TTTT
            
    GAGAC
    8 -- ut31 cds11NA 2
    rs355552691,2
    C--30536667(+) AAAAA-/AGTAGC 4 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA 2
    rs718234441,2
    C--30536667(+) GTCTC-/A/AAAA
            
    AAAAA
    8 -- ut31 cds10--------
    rs25517311,2
    --30538134(-) aggagA/Tttgag 4 -- int10--------
    rs712062731,2
    C--30542449(-) AAATA-/AATA  
            
    AATAA
    4 -- int11Minor allele frequency- AATA:0.00NA 2
    rs101025101,2
    C--30542492(+) tttatG/Ttattt 4 -- int10--------
    rs81910211,2
    C,F--30542531(-) ccagcC/Gtgggc 4 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.01NS 176
    rs712062751,2
    C--30546096(-) TTTCC-/TTTTTT 4 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 2
    rs352068611,2
    C--30547264(+) GTGTG-/TATATAT 4 -- int11Minor allele frequency- TA:0.00NA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GSR (30535578 - 30585486 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for GSR:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2671289CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2657353CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv890703CNV Loss21882294
    nsv516544CNV Loss19592680
    nsv824585CNV Gain20364138

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GSR
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GSR
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GSR

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 138300    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for GSR (see all 193):    
    About MalaCards
    hemolytic anemia due to glutathione reductase deficiency    pyridoxine deficiency    riboflavin deficiency    primary hyperoxaluria type 2
    diabetic cataract    ariboflavinosis    primary hyperoxaluria    rasmussen encephalitis
    senile cataract    glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency    trypanosomiasis    nodular goiter
    methemoglobinemia    encephalitis    paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration    cerebellar degeneration
    meningococcal infection    variegate porphyria    mitral valve prolapse    cataract-glaucoma

    9 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GSR:
    Ariboflavinosis     Vascular disease     Toxic encephalopathy     Diabetes mellitus
    Malaria     Anemia     Cancer     Chagas disease
    Glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    GSR for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GSR gene (see all 95)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    riboflavin deficiency 73 5 11924113 (1), 1915204 (1), 1425515 (1), 16109485 (1) (see all 5)
    pyridoxine deficiency 51.8 1 10459067 (1)
    leishmaniasis old world cutaneous 48.3 1 9174360 (1)
    cell damage 43.6 7 20041424 (2), 11676988 (1), 17952420 (1), 17427263 (1) (see all 6)
    hemolysis 42.6 14 15521559 (2), 20181004 (2), 2195189 (1), 1795479 (1) (see all 9)
    chagas disease 35.6 2 10571254 (1)
    rasmussen encephalitis 34.8 1 9892506 (1)
    trypanosomiasis african 33.5 1 9174360 (1)
    neurodegenerative diseases 28.8 3 15834439 (1), 12678430 (1), 16684968 (1)
    methemoglobinemia 25.8 2 10790768 (1), 8303876 (1)

    Genatlas disease: GSR
    hemolytic crisis

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GSR
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GSR (22 documents)

    Export disorders for GSR gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GSR gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1264):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GSR)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Glutathione reductase turned into trypanothione reductase: structural analysis of an engineered change in substrate specificity. (PubMed id 9174360)1, 2, 9 Stoll V.S.... Pai E.F. (Biochemistry 1997)
    2. Enzyme inactivation through sulfhydryl oxidation by physiologic NO- carriers. (PubMed id 9546215)1, 2, 9 Becker K.... Karplus P.A. (Nat. Struct. Biol. 1998)
    3. Kinetics and crystallographic analysis of human glutathione reductase in complex with a xanthene inhibitor. (PubMed id 8626496)1, 2, 9 Savvides S.N. and Karplus P.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996)
    4. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    5. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    6. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    7. Common polymorphisms in ITGA2, PON1 and THBS2 are associated with coronary atherosclerosis in a candidate gene association study of the Chinese Han population. (PubMed id 20485444)1, 4 Wang Y....Huang W. (J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    8. Glutathione pathway genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer survival after platinum-based chemotherapy. (PubMed id 20200426)1, 4 Moyer A.M....Weinshilboum R.M. (amp 2010)
    9. Expression of glutathione reductase splice variants in human tissues. (PubMed id 20628807)1, 2 Satoh N.... Hisatomi H. (Biochem. Genet. 2010)
    10. Low 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and influence of genetic background in an Andean population exposed to high levels of arsenic. (PubMed id 19896490)1, 4 EngstrAPm K.S....Broberg K. (Mutat. Res. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2936 HGNC: 4623 AceView: GSR Ensembl:ENSG00000104687 euGenes: HUgn2936
    ECgene: GSR Kegg: 2936 H-InvDB: GSR

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GSR Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for GSR Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/gsr/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutathione_reductase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GSR gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GSR

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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