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Aliases for GRM6 Gene

Aliases for GRM6 Gene

  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 6 2 3
  • MGLUR6 3 4 6
  • CSNB1B 3 6
  • GPRC1F 3 4
  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 6 3
  • MGlu6 3

External Ids for GRM6 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM6 Gene

  • GC05M178429
  • GC05M179301
  • GC05M178505
  • GC05M178324
  • GC05M178392
  • GC05M173132

Summaries for GRM6 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM6 Gene

  • L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GRM6 Gene

GRM6 (Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 6) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM6 include night blindness, congenital stationary , 1b, autosomal recessive and suppression amblyopia. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and CREB Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM6 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity (By similarity). Signaling stimulates TRPM1 channel activity and Ca(2+) uptake. Required for normal vision.

Tocris Summary for GRM6 Gene

  • Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group III receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group II receptors. Group III receptors are divided into four subtypes, mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8. The receptors are coupled to Gi/o which inhibits adenylyl cyclase, decreasing the formation of cAMP. mGlu group III receptors are involved in spatial learning and memory, and umami taste (mGlu4), stimulation of photoreceptors (mGlu6), long term depression (mGlu7) and presynaptic inhibition in the perforant pathway (mGlu8). The human genes for mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 receptors have been localized to chromosomes 6 (6p21.3), 5 (5q35), 3 (3p26-p25) and 7 (7q31.3-q32.1) respectively.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM6 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRM6 Gene

Genomics for GRM6 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRM6 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GRM6 Gene

178,978,327 bp from pter
178,996,206 bp from pter
17,880 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GRM6 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GRM6 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM6 Gene

Proteins for GRM6 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM6 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:

    Protein attributes for GRM6 Gene

    877 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    95468 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

neXtProt entry for GRM6 Gene

Proteomics data for GRM6 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRM6 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn296, Asn451, Asn479, and Asn567
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GRM6 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM6 Gene

Domains for GRM6 Gene

Gene Families for GRM6 Gene

  • GRM :GPCR / Class C : Glutamate receptors, metabotropic
  • GR :Glutamate receptors

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRM6 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • O15303
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM6: view

Function for GRM6 Gene

Molecular function for GRM6 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
metabotropic glutamate receptor 6,groupe III,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,restrictidly expressed in retinal bipolar cells,linked to the inhibition of cAMP cascade
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity (By similarity). Signaling stimulates TRPM1 channel activity and Ca(2+) uptake. Required for normal vision.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRM6 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001640 adenylate cyclase inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor activity --
GO:0001642 group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IBA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS 9215706
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17405131
GO:0008066 glutamate receptor activity TAS 9215706
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM6: view

Phenotypes for GRM6 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM6: view

Animal Models for GRM6 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM6:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM6

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GRM6 Gene

Localization for GRM6 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM6 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Golgi apparatus membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell projection, dendrite. Note=Subject to trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus and then to the cell membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GRM6 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM6 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM6 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane IDA 17405131
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane IDA 17405131
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IDA 17405131
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM6: view

Pathways for GRM6 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM6: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • Neurotransmitter Receptors in human,mouse,rat
    • GABA & Glutamate in human,mouse,rat

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM6 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007196 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007216 G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IMP 23452348
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM6: view

Compounds for GRM6 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRM6 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(S)-3,4-DCPG Potent, selective mGlu8a agonist [201730-11-2]
AMN 082 dihydrochloride The first selective mGlu7 agonist [97075-46-2]
CPPG Very potent group III mGlu antagonist [183364-82-1]
L-AP4 Selective group III mGlu agonist [23052-81-5]
MMPIP hydrochloride Potent, allosteric mGlu7-selective antagonist [479077-02-6]

(12) IUPHAR Ligand for GRM6 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
L-AP4 Agonist Agonist 6.5
LY379268 Agonist Full agonist 6.4
(2S,1S,2S)-L-CCG-I Agonist Full agonist 6.2
L-SOP Agonist Agonist 5.9
LY354740 Agonist Full agonist 5.5
(R,S)-4-PPG Agonist Full agonist 5.3
L-glutamic acid Agonist Full agonist 5.2
(S)-3,4-DCPG Agonist Full agonist 5.1
(1S,3R)-ACPD Agonist Full agonist 4.7
[3H]LY341495 Antagonist Antagonist 4.5
homo-AMPA Agonist Agonist 4.1
MPPG Antagonist Antagonist 3.3

(4) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GRM6 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glutamate 73.9 34
kainate 51.1 2
nmda 38.2 1
aspartate 9.78 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM6: view

Transcripts for GRM6 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GRM6 Gene

(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(8) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GRM6 Gene

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 6:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM6

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM6 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GRM6 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GRM6 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRM6 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM6 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (5.1) and Testis (4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GRM6 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (31.9), Seminal vesicle (28.3), and Retina (8.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRM6 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM6 Gene Hs.248131

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM6 Gene

Tissue specificity: Detected in melanocytes.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GRM6: view

Expression partners for GRM6 Gene

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GRM6 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM6 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM6 35
  • 90.45 (n)
  • 96.48 (a)
GRM6 36
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM6 35
  • 91.1 (n)
  • 96.34 (a)
GRM6 36
  • 95 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm6 35
  • 88.04 (n)
  • 94.61 (a)
Grm6 16
Grm6 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM6 35
  • 99.01 (n)
  • 98.97 (a)
GRM6 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm6 35
  • 88.2 (n)
  • 94.61 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRM6 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM6 36
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM6 36
  • 74 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia grm8 35
  • 76.09 (n)
  • 78.38 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grm6b 35
  • 71.46 (n)
  • 77.15 (a)
grm6a 36
  • 70 (a)
grm6b 36
  • 70 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG30361 37
  • 42 (a)
Glu-RA 37
  • 44 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-1 37
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GRM6:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM6 Gene

Gene Tree for GRM6 (if available)
Gene Tree for GRM6 (if available)

Paralogs for GRM6 Gene

Paralogs for GRM6 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GRM6 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM6: view

Variants for GRM6 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRM6 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs762724 -- 178,989,881(-) AATGC(A/G)CTCTC intron-variant
rs762725 -- 178,989,826(-) GGTTG(C/T)CTTGG intron-variant
rs903982 -- 178,995,828(-) CTCTT(C/G)CTTAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs903983 -- 178,995,825(-) TTCCT(C/T)AGGCC upstream-variant-2KB
rs903984 -- 178,991,793(-) AAGCA(C/G)AAAGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM6 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6389n71 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv364n21 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv883221 CNV Gain 21882294

Relevant External Links for GRM6 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM6 Gene

Disorders for GRM6 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for GRM6 Gene (604096)


  • Night blindness, congenital stationary, 1B (CSNB1B) [MIM:257270]: A non-progressive retinal disorder characterized by impaired night vision. Congenital stationary night blindness type 1B is an autosomal recessive form associated with a negative electroretinogram waveform. Patients are night blind from an early age, and when maximally dark-adapted, they could perceive lights only with an intensity equal to or slightly dimmer than that normally detected by the cone system. ERGs in response to single brief flashes of light have clearly detectable a-waves, which are derived from photoreceptors, and greatly reduced b-waves, which are derived from the second-order inner retinal neurons. ERGs in response to sawtooth flickering light indicate a markedly reduced on response and a nearly normal OFF response. There is no subjective delay in the perception of suddenly appearing white vs black objects on a gray background. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15781871, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17405131, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23714322}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GRM6 Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GRM6 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
night blindness, congenital stationary 93.3 4

Relevant External Links for GRM6

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM6: view

No data available for Genatlas for GRM6 Gene

Publications for GRM6 Gene

  1. The whole nucleotide sequence and chromosomal localization of the gene for human metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6. (PMID: 9215706) Hashimoto T. … Nakanishi S. (Eur. J. Neurosci. 1997) 2 3 4 23
  2. Night blindness and abnormal cone electroretinogram ON responses in patients with mutations in the GRM6 gene encoding mGluR6. (PMID: 15781871) Dryja T.P. … Rajagopalan A.S. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005) 3 4 23
  3. Sequence variations of GRM6 in patients with high myopia. (PMID: 19862333) Xu X. … Zhang Q. (Mol. Vis. 2009) 3 23 48
  4. Night blindness-associated mutations in the ligand-binding, cysteine-rich, and intracellular domains of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 abolish protein trafficking. (PMID: 17405131) Zeitz C. … Berger W. (Hum. Mutat. 2007) 3 4 23
  5. Genotype and phenotype of 101 dutch patients with congenital stationary night blindness. (PMID: 23714322) Bijveld M.M. … van Genderen M.M. (Ophthalmology 2013) 3 4

Products for GRM6 Gene

Sources for GRM6 Gene

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