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GRM4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC06M035725

Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 4

  Search for GRM4
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 41 2
MGLUR42 3 5
GPRC1D2 3
mGlu42
Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 42
mGluR43

External Ids:    HGNC: 45961   Entrez Gene: 29142   Ensembl: ENSG000001244937   OMIM: 6041005   UniProtKB: Q148333   

Export aliases for GRM4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06M033991 GC06M034036 GC06M034097 GC06M033731 GC06M034039 GC06M034203 GC06M034891 GC06M035230


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GRM4 Gene:
L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic
and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain
function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a
family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology,
putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these
receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes
GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but
differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found
for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012)

GeneCards Summary for GRM4 Gene:
GRM4 (glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRM4_HUMAN, Q14833
Function: G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers
signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream
effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity

summary for GRM4 Gene:
Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group III receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate
receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group II receptors. Group III receptors are divided
into four subtypes, mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8. The receptors are coupled to Gi/o which inhibits adenylyl
cyclase, decreasing the formation of cAMP. mGlu group III receptors are involved in spatial learning and
memory, and umami taste (mGlu4), stimulation of photoreceptors (mGlu6), long term depression (mGlu7) and
presynaptic inhibition in the perforant pathway (mGlu8). The human genes for mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8
receptors have been localized to chromosomes 6 (6p21.3), 5 (5q35), 3 (3p26-p25) and 7 (7q31.3-q32.1)
respectively.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM4 (Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000006.11  NT_007592.16  NC_018917.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GRM4 gene promoter:
         Egr-3   Spz1   USF1   AP-2gamma   POU2F1   E2F-1   E2F   USF-1   POU2F1a   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGRM4 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GRM4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GRM4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p21.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p21.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p21.3

GRM4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GRM4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06M035725:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
33,989,628 bp from pter      End:
34,123,399 bp from pter
Size:
133,772 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRM4_HUMAN, Q14833 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 precursor  
Size: 912 amino acids; 101868 Da
Subunit: Interacts with PICK1 (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: B3KVL9 B7Z1T9 B7Z1U6 F5GXM5 Q5SZ84 Q6ZMQ2
Alternative splicing: 5 isoforms:  Q14833-1   Q14833-2   Q14833-3   Q14833-4   Q14833-5   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GRM4: NX_Q14833

Explore proteomics data for GRM4 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn98, Asn301, Asn454, Asn484, Asn569
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GRM4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000832.1  NP_001243738.1  NP_001243740.1  NP_001243741.1  NP_001243742.1  NP_001269776.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000440556   ENSP00000363292   ENSP00000477466   ENSP00000437730   ENSP00000398456  
     ENSP00000477016   ENSP00000476561   ENSP00000363296   ENSP00000437925  
    Reactome Protein details: Q14833

    GRM4 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GRM4
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for GRM4
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for GRM4
    Novus Biologicals GRM4 Protein
    Novus Biologicals GRM4 Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GRM4

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for GRM4 

    GRM4 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GRM4
    R&D Systems Antibodies for GRM4 (mGluR4)
    OriGene Antibodies for GRM4
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GRM4
    Novus Biologicals GRM4 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GRM4
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GRM4
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for GRM4
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GRM4

    GRM4 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for GRM4
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GRM4
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GRM4
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GRM4
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for GRM4 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    GR: Glutamate receptors
    GRM: GPCR / Class C : Glutamate receptors, metabotropic

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: mGlu4 receptor
    Metabotropic glutamate receptors

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 8):
     IPR011500 GPCR_3_9-Cys_dom
     IPR028082 Peripla_BP_I
     IPR000337 GPCR_3
     IPR001786 GPCR_3_mtglu_rcpt_4
     IPR017979 GPCR_3_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q14833

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q14833

    4 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000162 Metabotropic glutamate receptor signature
    IPB000337 G-protein coupled receptors family 3 (Metabotropic glutamate receptor-like)
    IPB001786 Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 signature
    IPB001828 Extracellular ligand-binding receptor


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRM4_HUMAN, Q14833
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family


    Find genes that share domains with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GRM4_HUMAN, Q14833
    Function: G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers
    signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream
    effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity IMP8738157
    GO:0005516calmodulin binding IEA--
    GO:0008066glutamate receptor activity IMP8738157
    GO:0048306calcium-dependent protein binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for GRM4:
     Increased cell number in G2M,  

         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Grm4):
     behavior/neurological  nervous system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Grm4tm1Hpn for GRM4

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GRM4
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GRM4

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GRM4
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GRM4

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GRM4 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GRM4 (see all 19):
    hsa-miR-2052 hsa-miR-3605-3p hsa-miR-29c hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-486-3p hsa-miR-507 hsa-miR-548x hsa-miR-3119
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGRM4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GRM4
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GRM4

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GRM4

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GRM4 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GRM4
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GRM4 (NM_000841)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GRM4
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GRM4
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GRM4

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GRM4
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for GRM4 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GRM4


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GRM4_HUMAN, Q14833: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    extracellular1
    mitochondrion1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular IDA15102938
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane IDA15102938
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----
    GO:0031410cytoplasmic vesicle IDA15102938

    Find genes that share ontologies with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GRM4 About   (see all 9)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction0.36
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
    2Taste transduction
    Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)0.45
    Taste transduction0.45
    3Glutamic acid signaling
    Glutamic acid signaling
    Synaptic Neurotransmission: Glutamatergic Excitation0.00
    4Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    5CREB Pathway
    CREB Pathway0.68


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for GRM4
        Synaptic Neurotransmission: Glutamatergic Excitation

    3 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GRM4
        Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
    CREB Pathway
    Signaling in Gap Junctions

    1 BioSystems Pathway for GRM4
        GPCRs, Class C Metabotropic glutamate, pheromone


    2 Reactome Pathways for GRM4
        Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)
    G alpha (i) signalling events


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GRM4):
        Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    Glutamatergic synapse
    Taste transduction

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GRM4 (see all 6): 
              Neurotransmitter Receptors in human mouse rat
              G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GRM4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 12)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GRM4 (Q148333 ENSP000003632964) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 16)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CALM1P621583, ENSP000003494674I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000349467
    CALM2P621583I2D: score=2 
    CALM3P621583I2D: score=2 
    GNA15P306793, ENSP000002629584I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000262958
    GNAQP501483, ENSP000002865484I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000286548
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000187activation of MAPK activity IDA15102938
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0007196adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IMP15102938
    GO:0007268synaptic transmission TAS8738157
    GO:0007269neurotransmitter secretion TAS15102938

    Find genes that share ontologies with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GRM4
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for GRM4 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    MSOPSpecific group III mGlu antagonist[66515-29-5]
    L-AP4Selective group III mGlu agonist[23052-81-5]
    (S)-3,4-DCPG Potent, selective mGlu8a agonist [201730-11-2]
    AMN 082 dihydrochlorideThe first selective mGlu7 agonist[97075-46-2]
    CPPGVery potent group III mGlu antagonist[183364-82-1]

    1 HMDB Compound for GRM4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    L-Glutamic acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate (see all 49)56-86-0--

    1 DrugBank Compound for GRM4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Glutamic Acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid (see all 15)56-86-0target--17360958

    Selected IUPHAR Ligands for GRM4 (mGlu4 receptor) (see all 23)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    compound 22a [PMID: 21688779]
    Allosteric regulatorPositive8.121688779
    ADX88178
    Allosteric regulatorPositive7.422787118
    FP0429
    AgonistFull agonist7.3 - 7.417360426
    SIB-1893
    Allosteric regulatorPositive6.3 - 6.812684257
    compound 1 [PMID: 22465637]
    Allosteric regulatorPositive6.722465637
    VU0361737
    Allosteric regulatorPositive6.619469556
    MPEP
    Allosteric regulatorPositive6.3 - 6.612684257
    L-AP4
    AgonistAgonist6.59473604
    VU0400195
    Allosteric regulatorPositive6.521966889
    VU0359516
    Allosteric regulatorPositive6.420582156

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GRM4 gene (see all 12)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glutamate 81.7 98 18664603 (4), 16582932 (3), 19621591 (3), 8667369 (2) (see all 52)
    cppg 80.8 1 16582932 (1)
    quisqualate 69.4 3 15184361 (3)
    phenylglycine 66.8 2 7515823 (2)
    phosphoinositide 49.7 1 7931274 (1)
    kainate 45.4 2 9510076 (1), 10515165 (1)
    ganciclovir 40 1 7472317 (1)
    cyclic amp 32.7 7 7931274 (2), 10632098 (1), 1361913 (1), 9726424 (1)
    nmda 30.9 4 8667369 (1), 9510076 (1), 10515165 (1)
    gaba 25.9 5 10773016 (1), 19065062 (1), 9065826 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GRM4 gene (8 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000841.3  NM_001256809.2  NM_001256811.2  NM_001256812.2  NM_001256813.2  NM_001282847.1  NM_001256810.1  NM_001256814.1  

    Unigene Cluster for GRM4:

    Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4
    Hs.429018  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AB209104
    14 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000538487(uc010jvk.1) ENST00000374177 ENST00000545715(uc003oip.3)
    ENST00000609222 ENST00000609860 ENST00000544773 ENST00000455714 ENST00000609278
    ENST00000609443 ENST00000609915 ENST00000609973 ENST00000607916 ENST00000374181(uc003oio.3 uc011dsl.2 uc003oiq.3 uc011dsm.2 uc003oir.4 uc011dsn.2 uc010jvh.3 uc010jvi.3)
    ENST00000535756
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GRM4 (see all 19):
    hsa-miR-2052 hsa-miR-3605-3p hsa-miR-29c hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-486-3p hsa-miR-507 hsa-miR-548x hsa-miR-3119
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGRM4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GRM4
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GRM4
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GRM4 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GRM4
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GRM4 (NM_000841)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GRM4
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GRM4
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GRM4
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GRM4
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GRM4
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GRM4

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB209104.1 AK055153.1 AK122836.1 AK122982.1 AK126746.1 AK131536.1 AK289524.1 AK289534.1 
    AK289563.1 AK293913.1 AK293949.1 AK308669.1 AK312300.1 BC130526.1 BC130528.1 BC139794.1 
    BC144057.1 EU432124.1 NR_046379.1 U92457.1 X80818.1 

    13 DOTS entries:

    DT.410918  DT.121329607  DT.40131070  DT.95331336  DT.121329541  DT.95158464  DT.101980978  DT.101980977 
    DT.121329559  DT.121329542  DT.121329577  DT.91681914  DT.91807435 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 37):

    AK122982 X80818 AW275023 CK819155 AA297156 NM_000841 AA583221 AA297088 
    AA416557 AK131536 CD609643 AK122836 BP359939 AW950825 T09090 BE207131 
    AK126746 U92457 AW615557 BM128082 CA439788 AA297070 AA297056 CD609645 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM4 (see all 15)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11a ·
    SP1:                                                              -     -                                   -     -                 -                           
    SP2:                          -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -     -                 -                           
    SP3:                                                                                                              -                 -                           
    SP4:                                                                                                        -     -                 -                       -   
    SP5:                                                                                                                                -                           

    ExUns: 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17
    SP1:  -                                   -         
    SP2:  -                                   -         
    SP3:  -                                             
    SP4:  -                                   -         
    SP5:  -                                   -         


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GRM4

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    GRM4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GTTTTGCAAA
    GRM4 Expression
    About this image


    GRM4 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 21 entries
             Thalamus
             cerebellum   
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)
             Mesencephalic Basal Plate
    GRM4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GRM4 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.429018

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRM4_HUMAN, Q14833
    Tissue specificity: Strongly expressed in the cerebellum. Expressed at low levels in hippocampus, hypothalamus and
    thalamus. No expression detected in liver

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GRM4 (see all 6): 
              Neurotransmitter Receptors in human mouse rat
              G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GRM4

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for GRM4 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Grm41 , 5 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 41, 5 89.73(n)1
    96.69(a)1
      17 (14.05 cM)5
    2689341  NM_001013385.11  NP_001013403.11 
     274223875 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GRM41 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4 82.26(n)
    89.29(a)
      419906  XM_003642745.2  XP_003642793.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GRM46
    glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4
    86(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(121782319-122140988)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.108842 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with moderate similarity more 73.59(n)    BX852903.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii grm41 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4 75.19(n)
    81.48(a)
      567181  XM_690474.5  XP_695566.4 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GRM4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GRM4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GRM4 gene
    GRM72  TAS1R22  GRM82  TAS1R32  GRM22  GRM32  TAS1R12  GRM62  
    GRM52  GRM12  GPRC6A2  
    8 SIMAP similar genes for GRM4 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     GRM4_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GRM7    GRM8    GRM6    GRM5    GRM3    GRM2
    GRM1    CASR

    Find genes that share paralogs with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GRM4 (see all 3429)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1832745971,2
    --33904590(+) GCACCC/TGAGCC 8 -- int1 ds50010--------
    rs94619461,2
    C,F--33904789(+) GCTGCA/CGGGCA 8 -- ds5001 int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.16WA NA 242
    rs286307031,2
    C--33904843(+) ATTCCT/GGGAAT 8 -- ds5001 int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 2
    rs1382550661,2
    --33905043(+) CAGGAA/CCCTCA 8 -- ds5001 int10--------
    rs1496242691,2
    --33905063(+) GAGCCC/TGGGTG 8 -- nc-transcript-variantut310--------
    rs1444854031,2
    C--33905137(+) TTGTCA/GTCAAT 8 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant0--------
    rs1150062691,2
    C,F--33905226(+) GCAGAC/TGGGCG 8 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant1Minor allele frequency- T:0.14WA 118
    rs1864660951,2
    --33905250(+) AGACAC/GACGGC 8 -- nc-transcript-variantut310--------
    rs1913641221,2
    --33905533(+) AGCAGA/GAGGAG 8 -- nc-transcript-variantut310--------
    rs1828342891,2
    --33905553(+) AAGAGA/GATGAG 8 -- nc-transcript-variantut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GRM4 (33989628 - 34123399 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for GRM4 (see all 20):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv990009CNV Deletion20482838
    esv2731904CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2666805CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2731903CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2674236CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2731899CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2518465CNV Deletion19546169
    esv2731902CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2731900CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2731901CNV Deletion23290073

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GRM4
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GRM4

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 604100    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GRM4:
    Parkinson's disease

    Find genes that share disorders with GRM4           About GenesLikeMe

    5 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GRM4 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    myoclonic epilepsy juvenile 60.3 3 20338729 (1), 14582146 (1), 11223165 (1)
    schizophrenia 0 8 11525421 (4), 19351574 (3)
    colon cancer 0 4 15217955 (2), 15867225 (1)
    epilepsy 0 1 11223165 (1)
    tumors 0 3 20061814 (1), 15867225 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GRM4
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GRM4 (11 documents)

    Export disorders for GRM4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GRM4 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 109):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GRM4)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Molecular characterization and localization of human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4. (PubMed id 8738157)1, 2, 3, 9 Makoff A.... Emson P. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1996)
    2. Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells. (PubMed id 9473604)1, 2, 3, 9 Wu S.... Belagaje R.M. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1998)
    3. Mutation screening of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR4 (GRM4) gene in patients with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 11525421)1, 2, 4, 9 Ohtsuki T.... Arinami T. (Psychiatr. Genet. 2001)
    4. Association study of polymorphisms in the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor genes, GRM4 and GRM7, with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 19351574)1, 4, 9 Shibata H....Fukumaki Y. (Psychiatry Res 2009)
    5. Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4. (PubMed id 7617140)1, 2, 9 Flor P.J.... Kuhn R. (Neuropharmacology 1995)
    6. Role of GRM4 in idiopathic generalized epilepsies analysed by genetic association and sequence analysis. (PubMed id 20338729)1, 4, 9 Muhle H....Sander T. (Epilepsy Res. 2010)
    7. Human variation in alcohol response is influenced by variation in neuronal signaling genes. (PubMed id 20201926)1, 4 Joslyn G....White R.L. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2010)
    8. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis. (PubMed id 19156168)1, 4 Need A.C....Goldstein D.B. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2009)
    9. Case-control association study of 65 candidate genes revealed a possible association of a SNP of HTR5A to be a factor susceptible to bipolar disease in Bulgarian population. (PubMed id 19328558)1, 4 Yosifova A....Nakamura Y. (J Affect Disord 2009)
    10. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PubMed id 19086053)1, 4 GratacA^s M....Carracedo A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2914 HGNC: 4596 AceView: GRM4 Ensembl:ENSG00000124493 euGenes: HUgn2914
    ECgene: GRM4 Kegg: 2914 H-InvDB: GRM4

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GRM4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GRM4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GRM4

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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