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Aliases for GRM4 Gene

Aliases for GRM4 Gene

  • Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 4 2
  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 4 2 3 5
  • GPRC1D 3 4
  • MGLUR4 3 4
  • MGlu4 3

External Ids for GRM4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM4 Gene

  • GC06M033991
  • GC06M034036
  • GC06M034097
  • GC06M033731
  • GC06M034039
  • GC06M034203
  • GC06M034891
  • GC06M035230
  • GC06M035725
  • GC06M034538
  • GC06M035558

Summaries for GRM4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM4 Gene

  • L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GRM4 Gene

GRM4 (Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM4 include Epilepsy, Generalized, With Febrile Seizures Plus, Type 5 and Schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are Taste transduction and Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and calcium-dependent protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is GRM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.

Tocris Summary for GRM4 Gene

  • Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group III receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group II receptors. Group III receptors are divided into four subtypes, mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM4 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRM4 Gene

Genomics for GRM4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRM4 Gene

Enhancers for GRM4 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GRM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GRM4 Gene

34,018,643 bp from pter
34,155,622 bp from pter
136,980 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GRM4 Gene

Genes around GRM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GRM4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GRM4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM4 Gene

Proteins for GRM4 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KVL9
    • B7Z1T9
    • B7Z1U6
    • F5GXM5
    • Q5SZ84
    • Q6ZMQ2

    Protein attributes for GRM4 Gene

    912 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    101868 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PICK1.

    Alternative splice isoforms for GRM4 Gene


neXtProt entry for GRM4 Gene

Proteomics data for GRM4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRM4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM4 Gene

Domains & Families for GRM4 Gene

Gene Families for GRM4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM4: view

Function for GRM4 Gene

Molecular function for GRM4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM4: view

Animal Models for GRM4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM4:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GRM4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRM4

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRM4 Gene

Localization for GRM4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GRM4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM4 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA 15102938
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle IDA 15102938
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM4: view

Pathways & Interactions for GRM4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM4: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IDA 15102938
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0043523 regulation of neuron apoptotic process TAS 15102938
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRM4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRM4 Gene

(31) Drugs for GRM4 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-AP4 Pharma Agonist Selective group III mGlu agonist 0
L-Glutamic Acid Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 0
(<i>R,S</i>)-4-PPG Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
(<i>S</i>)-3,4-DCPG Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
ADX88178 Pharma Positive, Allosteric regulator 0

(11) Additional Compounds for GRM4 Gene - From: IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRM4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(RS)-PPG Potent, selective mGlu8 agonist 120667-15-4
(S)-3,4-DCPG Potent, selective mGlu8a agonist 201730-11-2
ACPT-I Group III mGlu agonist 194918-76-8
L-AP4 Selective group III mGlu agonist 23052-81-5
O-Phospho-L-serine Group III mGlu agonist 407-41-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM4: view

Transcripts for GRM4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRM4 Gene

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: -
SP6: - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - - - -
SP12: -
SP14: - - - -

ExUns: 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP5: - -
SP13: -

Relevant External Links for GRM4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GRM4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRM4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x23.2) and Brain - Cerebellum (x22.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRM4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM4 Gene Hs.429018

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM4 Gene

Tissue specificity: Strongly expressed in the cerebellum. Expressed at low levels in hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus. No expression detected in liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRM4: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRM4 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GRM4 Gene

Orthologs for GRM4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM4 35
  • 93.13 (n)
  • 97.91 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 85 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM4 35
  • 93.26 (n)
  • 98.15 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 95 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm4 35
  • 89.73 (n)
  • 96.69 (a)
Grm4 16
Grm4 36
  • 95 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm4 35
  • 89.99 (n)
  • 97.04 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 78 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 100 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRM4 35
  • 82.26 (n)
  • 89.29 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 88 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM4 36
  • 86 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100491626 35
  • 70.63 (n)
  • 81.9 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.10884 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grm4 35
  • 75.19 (n)
  • 81.48 (a)
grm4 36
  • 79 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG30361 37
  • 43 (a)
Glu-RA 37
  • 45 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-1 37
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GRM4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM4 Gene

Gene Tree for GRM4 (if available)
Gene Tree for GRM4 (if available)

Paralogs for GRM4 Gene

Paralogs for GRM4 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for GRM4 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM4: view

Variants for GRM4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRM4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_012992 -
rs452752 - 34,132,992(+) GCGAA(A/G)GATGT intron-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1075482 -- 34,107,777(-) TCCCG(C/T)GGGTA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1109653 -- 34,106,742(-) gacaa(A/C)tcccc intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1109654 -- 34,106,686(-) CTAGA(C/T)GCGTG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6829n71 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2674236 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2731898 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2666805 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv7787 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2731899 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2731900 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2518465 CNV Deletion 19546169
nsv509129 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv511878 CNV Loss 21212237
esv2731901 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2676995 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2657235 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2542860 CNV Insertion 19546169
esv2731902 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2731903 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv885779 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2731904 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv990009 CNV Deletion 20482838
nsv885780 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for GRM4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 2.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.83; 34.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for GRM4 Gene

Disorders for GRM4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GRM4 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
epilepsy, generalized, with febrile seizures plus, type 5
  • epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, 10
  • schizophrenia 12
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GRM4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GRM4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRM4 Gene

Publications for GRM4 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization and localization of human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4. (PMID: 8738157) Makoff A. … Emson P. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1996) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells. (PMID: 9473604) Wu S. … Belagaje R.M. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1998) 2 3 23
  3. Role of GRM4 in idiopathic generalized epilepsies analysed by genetic association and sequence analysis. (PMID: 20338729) Muhle H. … Sander T. (Epilepsy Res. 2010) 3 23
  4. Association study of polymorphisms in the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor genes, GRM4 and GRM7, with schizophrenia. (PMID: 19351574) Shibata H. … Fukumaki Y. (Psychiatry Res 2009) 3 23
  5. A phenotypic small-molecule screen identifies an orphan ligand-receptor pair that regulates neural stem cell differentiation. (PMID: 17884634) Saxe J.P. … Huang J. (Chem. Biol. 2007) 3 23

Products for GRM4 Gene

Sources for GRM4 Gene