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Aliases for GRM2 Gene

Aliases for GRM2 Gene

  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 2 2 3
  • GPRC1B 3 4
  • MGLUR2 3 4
  • Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 2 3
  • Glutamate Receptor Homolog 3
  • GLUR2 3
  • MGlu2 3

External Ids for GRM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM2 Gene

  • GC03P050838
  • GC03P050996
  • GC03P051597
  • GC03P051700
  • GC03P051716

Summaries for GRM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GRM2 Gene

GRM2 (Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM2 include amphetamine abuse and schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and CREB Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.

Tocris Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group II receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group III receptors. Group II receptors are divided into two subtypes, mGlu2 and mGlu3.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRM2 Gene

Genomics for GRM2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRM2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GRM2 Gene

Chromosome:
3
Start:
51,707,033 bp from pter
End:
51,718,616 bp from pter
Size:
11,584 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRM2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GRM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM2 Gene

Proteins for GRM2 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14416-GRM2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q14416
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0M0K7
    • Q14CU5
    • Q52MC6
    • Q9H3N6

    Protein attributes for GRM2 Gene

    Size:
    872 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    95568 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with GRASP (By similarity). Interacts with HTR2A.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRM2 Gene

neXtProt entry for GRM2 Gene

Proteomics data for GRM2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRM2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 203, Asn 286, Asn 338, Asn 402, and Asn 547
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GRM2 Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM2 Gene

Domains & Families for GRM2 Gene

Gene Families for GRM2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRM2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q14416

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GRM2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM2: view

Function for GRM2 Gene

Molecular function for GRM2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
metabotropic glutamate receptor 2,group II,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,expressed in fetal and adult brain,linked to the inhibition of cAMP cascade
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001641 group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IBA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS 7620613
GO:0005246 calcium channel regulator activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008066 glutamate receptor activity TAS 7620613
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM2: view

Animal Models for GRM2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM2:

miRNA for GRM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRM2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRM2 Gene

Localization for GRM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse. Cell projection, dendrite.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GRM2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 7620613
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
GO:0030054 cell junction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM2: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS 7620613
GO:0007196 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007216 G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS 7620613
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRM2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRM2 Gene

(49) Drugs for GRM2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, IUPHAR, DGIdb, and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Dopamine Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 2814
Ganciclovir Approved, Investigational Pharma 139
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
Forskolin Experimental Pharma 0
Quisqualate Experimental Pharma 0

(9) Additional Compounds for GRM2 Gene - From: Tocris and NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,3R)-ACPD
111900-32-4
(S)-4-Carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine
85148-82-9
(S)-MCPG
150145-89-4
L-CCG-l
117857-93-9
Xanthurenic acid
  • 4,8-Dihydroxy-2-quinolinecarboxylate
  • 4,8-Dihydroxy-2-quinolinecarboxylic acid
  • 4,8-Dihydroxy-Quinaldate
  • 4,8-Dihydroxy-Quinaldic acid
  • 4,8-Dihydroxyquinaldate
59-00-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM2: view

Transcripts for GRM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRM2 Gene

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP1:
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: -
SP4:

Relevant External Links for GRM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GRM2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GRM2

Expression for GRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cortex (x9.2), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x7.2), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x6.5), and Testis (x6.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (35.5), Frontal cortex (13.2), Platelet (10.4), and Fetal Brain (7.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRM2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM2 Gene Hs.121510

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM2 Gene

Q14416-GRM2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Detected in brain cortex (at protein level). Widely expressed in different regions of the adult brain as well as in fetal brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRM2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRM2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GRM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM2 35
  • 91.67 (n)
  • 98.62 (a)
GRM2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM2 35
  • 92.24 (n)
  • 98.17 (a)
GRM2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm2 35
  • 90.02 (n)
  • 97.9 (a)
Grm2 16
Grm2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm2 35
  • 89.83 (n)
  • 98.14 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM2 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRM2 35
  • 75.73 (n)
  • 80.14 (a)
GRM2 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM2 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia grm2 35
  • 72.08 (n)
  • 76.9 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grm2a 35
  • 69.7 (n)
  • 73.49 (a)
GRM2 (2 of 2) 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
grm2a 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG30361 37
  • 41 (a)
Glu-RA 37
  • 47 (a)
mGluRA 36
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-1 37
  • 40 (a)
mgl-1 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for GRM2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)

Paralogs for GRM2 Gene

Paralogs for GRM2 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for GRM2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM2: view

Variants for GRM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1054625 -- 51,715,522(-) ACCCT(C/G)TTTGT reference, synonymous-codon, utr-variant-5-prime, downstream-variant-500B, nc-transcript-variant
rs4071859 -- 51,717,127(+) CACAC(-/AC/CA)TTGTA intron-variant
rs5848933 -- 51,717,120(+) GCATG(-/CA/CACA)GCACA intron-variant
rs34368018 -- 51,718,896(+) TTCCC(-/C)TGGGG downstream-variant-500B
rs34507460 -- 51,707,565(+) CTTGC(-/A)GACTT intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv508921 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv512802 CNV Insertion 21212237
esv1008297 CNV Insertion 20482838

Variation tolerance for GRM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 17.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.05; 60.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GRM2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GRM2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

Disorders for GRM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GRM2 Gene - From: DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
amphetamine abuse
schizophrenia
  • schizophrenia 12
- elite association
Search GRM2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GRM2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GRM2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GRM2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GRM2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRM2 Gene

Publications for GRM2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2. (PMID: 7620613) Flor P.J. … Kuhn R. (Eur. J. Neurosci. 1995) 2 23 67
  2. Scaffold hopping from pyridones to imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines. New positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor. (PMID: 19932615) Tresadern G. … Trabanco A.A. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2010) 23 67
  3. Transcriptional regulation of type-2 metabotropic glutamate receptors: an epigenetic path to novel treatments for chronic pain. (PMID: 20064669) Chiechio S. … Nicoletti F. (Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2010) 23 67
  4. Association analysis of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor genes (GRM2 and GRM3) with mood disorders and fluvoxamine response in a Japanese population. (PMID: 19386277) Tsunoka T. … Iwata N. (Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2009) 23 67
  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of the heterodimeric mGluR2/5HT(2A) complex. An atomistic resolution study of a potential new target in psychiatric conditions. (PMID: 19422244) Bruno A. … Costantino G. (J Chem Inf Model 2009) 23 67

Products for GRM2 Gene

Sources for GRM2 Gene

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