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GRM2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC03P051716

Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 2

  See GRM2-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 21 2     Glutamate Receptor Homolog2
MGLUR22 3 5     mGlu22
GPRC1B2 3     Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 22
GLUR22     mGluR23
Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 22     

External Ids:    HGNC: 45941   Entrez Gene: 29122   Ensembl: ENSG000001640827   OMIM: 6040995   UniProtKB: Q144163   

Export aliases for GRM2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC03P050838 GC03P050996 GC03P051597 GC03P051700


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GRM2 Gene:
L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic
and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain
function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a
family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology,
putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these
receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes
GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but
differ in their agonist selectivities. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for
this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GRM2 Gene:
GRM2 (glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM2 include schizophrenia. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRM2_HUMAN, Q14416
Function: G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers
signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream
effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of
neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization

summary for GRM2 Gene:
Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group II receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate
receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group III receptors. Group II receptors are divided
into two subtypes, mGlu2 and mGlu3. mGlu group II receptors are coupled to Gi/o which inhibits adenylyl
cyclase, decreasing the formation of cAMP. mGlu group II receptors are involved in presynaptic inhibition
and do not appear to affect postsynaptic membrane potential by themselves. The human genes for mGlu2 and
mGlu3 receptors have been localized to chromosomes 3 (p21.1) and 7 (7q21.1-q21.2) respectively.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM2 (Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000003.11  NT_022517.19  NC_018914.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GRM2 gene promoter:
         Pax-5   Pax-2   Pax-2a   Nkx2-5   c-Ets-1   GATA-2   CREB   deltaCREB   ZID   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGRM2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GRM2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GRM2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 3p21.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  3p21.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 3p21.2

GRM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GRM2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 3         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC03P051716:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
51,741,081 bp from pter      End:
51,752,629 bp from pter
Size:
11,549 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRM2_HUMAN, Q14416 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 precursor  
Size: 872 amino acids; 95568 Da
Subunit: Interacts with GRASP (By similarity). Interacts with HTR2A
Secondary accessions: B0M0K7 Q14CU5 Q52MC6 Q9H3N6

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GRM2: NX_Q14416

Explore proteomics data for GRM2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn203, Asn286, Asn338, Asn402, Asn547
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GRM2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000830.2  NP_001123535.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000378492   ENSP00000296479   ENSP00000404797   ENSP00000408906  
    Reactome Protein details: Q14416

    GRM2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant GRM2 Protein
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GRM2
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    OriGene Custom Protein Services for GRM2
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    Novus Biologicals GRM2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GRM2 Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GRM2

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for GRM2 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for GRM2 (4 products) 

     
    Search antibodies-online for peptides for GRM2

    GRM2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GRM2
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    antibodies-online antibodies for GRM2 (83 products) 

    GRM2 Assay Products:

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    GenScript GRM2-overexpressing Cell Line for Assay
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GRM2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GRM2
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    antibodies-online kits for GRM2 (30 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    GR: Glutamate receptors
    GRM: GPCR / Class C : Glutamate receptors, metabotropic

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: mGlu2 receptor
    Metabotropic glutamate receptors

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 8):
     IPR011500 GPCR_3_9-Cys_dom
     IPR028082 Peripla_BP_I
     IPR000337 GPCR_3
     IPR017979 GPCR_3_CS
     IPR001458 GPCR_3_mtglu_rcpt_2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q14416

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q14416

    4 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000162 Metabotropic glutamate receptor signature
    IPB000337 G-protein coupled receptors family 3 (Metabotropic glutamate receptor-like)
    IPB001458 Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 signature
    IPB001828 Extracellular ligand-binding receptor


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRM2_HUMAN, Q14416
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family


    Find genes that share domains with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GRM2_HUMAN, Q14416
    Function: G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers
    signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream
    effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of
    neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GRM2:
    metabotropic glutamate receptor 2,group II,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,expressed in fetal and adult
    brain,linked to the inhibition of cAMP cascade

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001641group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IEA--
    GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS7620613
    GO:0005246calcium channel regulator activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0008066glutamate receptor activity TAS7620613
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for GRM2:
     Increased G2M DNA content 

         3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Grm2):
     behavior/neurological  homeostasis/metabolism  nervous system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for GRM2: Grm2tm1Ddsc Grm2tm1Nak

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for GRM2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GRM2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GRM2 (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-137 hsa-miR-25 hsa-miR-766 hsa-miR-374c hsa-miR-497* hsa-miR-92b hsa-miR-4308 hsa-miR-3163
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGRM2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GRM2

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GRM2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): GRM2 (NM_001130063)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GRM2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GRM2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GRM2

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GRM2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GRM2_HUMAN, Q14416: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse (By similarity). Cell
    projection, dendrite (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    extracellular2
    nucleus2
    cytoskeleton1
    lysosome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane TAS7620613
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----
    GO:0030054cell junction IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GRM2 About   (see all 10)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction0.36
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
    2Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    3CREB Pathway
    CREB Pathway0.68
    4Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
    Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons0.47
    5Taste transduction
    Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)0.45


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    3 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GRM2
        Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
    CREB Pathway
    Signaling in Gap Junctions

    1 BioSystems Pathway for GRM2
        GPCRs, Class C Metabotropic glutamate, pheromone


    2 Reactome Pathways for GRM2
        Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)
    G alpha (i) signalling events


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GRM2):
        Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    Glutamatergic synapse
    Cocaine addiction

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GRM2: 
              G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Synaptic Plasticity in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GRM2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 14)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GRM2 (Q144163 ENSP000003784924) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 14)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GNA15P306793, ENSP000002629584I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000262958
    GNAQP501483, ENSP000002865484I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000286548
    GRASPQ7Z6J23, ENSP000002936624I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000293662
    RGS12O149243, ENSP000003393814I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000339381
    RANBP9Q96S593, ENSP000000116194I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000011619
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0007194negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS7620613
    GO:0007268synaptic transmission TAS7620613
    GO:0014047glutamate secretion IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GRM2
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for GRM2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    DCG IV Very potent, selective group II mGlu agonist. Also NMDA agonist [147782-19-2]
    LY 341495 Highly potent, selective group II antagonist [201943-63-7]
    (S)-MCPGNon-selective mGlu antagonist. Active isomer of Cat. No. 0336[150145-89-4]
    LY 379268Highly selective group II mGlu agonist[191471-52-0]
    LY 341495 disodium saltDisodium salt of LY 341495 (Cat. No. 1209)--

    1 DrugBank Compound for GRM2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Acamprosate3-(Acetylamino)propanesulphonic acid (see all 4)77337-76-9targetantagonist16545872

    Selected IUPHAR Ligands for GRM2 (mGlu2 receptor) (see all 29)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    [3H]LY341495
    AntagonistAntagonist8.810530814
    LY341495
    AntagonistAntagonist8.610530814
    MNI-136
    Allosteric regulatorNegative7.33 - 8.0617416742
    MNI-135
    Allosteric regulatorNegative6.93 - 7.9817416742
    LY379268
    AgonistFull agonist7.910090786
    MNI-137
    Allosteric regulatorNegative7.14 - 7.917416742
    JNJ-42153605
    Allosteric regulatorPositive7.8223072213
    THIIC
    Allosteric regulatorPositive7.6520947638
    cyPPTS
    Allosteric regulatorPositive7.615717213
    GSK1331258
    Allosteric regulatorPositive7.120005096

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GRM2 gene (see all 15)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glutamate 83.1 148 18853337 (3), 8667369 (3), 10682721 (3), 11317221 (3) (see all 73)
    phenylglycine 62.6 1 7515823 (1)
    quisqualate 62 3 8103516 (2), 9076745 (1)
    nmda 45.1 15 18439999 (1), 7517889 (1), 8667369 (1), 9510076 (1) (see all 9)
    kainate 44.2 4 7517889 (1), 9510076 (1), 15680691 (1), 10515165 (1)
    phencyclidine 40 2 14684454 (1), 11317221 (1)
    gaba 37.4 2 9153573 (2)
    ganciclovir 13.2 1 9076745 (1)
    calcium 9.92 9 12948859 (3), 8667369 (1), 14743430 (1), 16715415 (1) (see all 5)
    dopamine 3.55 1 18853337 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GRM2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000839.3  NM_001130063.1  

    Unigene Cluster for GRM2:

    Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2
    Hs.121510  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AB209164
    8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000395052 ENST00000296479 ENST00000475478(uc003dbo.4) ENST00000464585(uc010hlv.3 uc010hlu.3)
    ENST00000419928 ENST00000442933 ENST00000477330 ENST00000496661
    miRNA
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GRM2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB209164.1 AK289984.1 AK302671.1 AK313056.1 AK315816.1 AY999299.1 BC041447.1 BC113615.1 
    BC113619.1 EU432122.1 L35318.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.205959  DT.97776359  DT.95098184 

    22 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BI831801 F05658 BM680534 AA309540 T33422 BX282369 F01915 AL707551 
    AL040113 BX648951 BC041447 NM_000839 CD609634 BF529767 T03525 R44770 
    AW953253 BF927489 BM711556 R19103 BF927473 CD609633 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    4 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
    SP1:                                                                  
    SP2:        -     -     -     -     -     -                           
    SP3:        -                                                         
    SP4:                                                                  


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GRM2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    GRM2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGCGTGTCAG
    GRM2 Expression
    About this image


    GRM2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 19 entries
             Thalamus
             Septum   
     
     Neurons
             Glycinergic Amacrine Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Glycinergic Amacrine Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
    GRM2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GRM2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.121510

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRM2_HUMAN, Q14416
    Tissue specificity: Detected in brain cortex (at protein level). Widely expressed in different regions of the
    adult brain as well as in fetal brain

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GRM2: 
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              Synaptic Plasticity in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GRM2 gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Grm21 , 5 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 21, 5 90.02(n)1
    97.9(a)1
      9 (57.98 cM)5
    1080681  NM_001160353.11  NP_001153825.11 
     1066445375 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GRM21 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2 75.73(n)
    80.14(a)
      427575  XM_004944494.1  XP_004944551.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GRM26
    glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2
    77(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(152767761-152855300)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia grm21 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2 72.08(n)
    76.9(a)
      100380092  XM_004914070.1  XP_004914127.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii grm2a1 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2a 69.7(n)
    73.49(a)
      336153  XM_002662507.3  XP_002662553.3 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Glu-RA3 metabotropic glutamate receptor
    signaling pathway more
    47(a)
    (best of 2)
        --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mgl-13 metatrophic glutamate receptor 40(a)   X(10003865-10009638)   --


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GRM2 gene
    GRM72  GRM42  TAS1R22  GRM82  TAS1R32  GRM32  TAS1R12  GRM62  
    GRM52  GRM12  GPRC6A2  
    9 SIMAP similar genes for GRM2 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     GRM2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GRM3    DKFZp686H1993    GRM8    GRM6    GRM1    GRM4
    GRM7    GRM5    CASR

    Find genes that share paralogs with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GRM2 (see all 305)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 3 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs609726211,2
    C--51676478(+) GGCTT-/AATA  
            
    GTCAG
    2 -- int10--------
    rs1856247101,2
    --51739101(+) TTGCTA/CTGTGT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1453061481,2
    C--51739119(+) TAAAA-/ACACACA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1893526651,2
    --51739123(+) AACACA/GCATTT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs773452491,2
    --51739147(+) CAGCCA/GTATAT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1808580231,2
    --51739536(+) ATGCTG/TTACAC 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1119700641,2
    C,F--51739551(+) ATATCC/TGTGTT 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1838384891,2
    --51739656(+) TGTCAA/GCCCCT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1141376111,2
    C,F--51739870(+) TTCCAC/TAGCAG 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 120
    rs791342111,2
    C,F--51739911(+) AAGCTC/TGTCCT 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.05EA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GRM2 (51741081 - 51752629 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for GRM2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv512802CNV Insertion21212237
    nsv508921CNV Insertion20534489
    esv1008297CNV Insertion20482838

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 604099    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease for GRM2:    
    About MalaCards
    schizophrenia

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GRM2:
    Schizophrenia     Cocaine dependence     Childhood absence epilepsy

    Find genes that share disorders with GRM2           About GenesLikeMe

    5 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GRM2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    schizophrenia 49.4 30 18853337 (5), 11317221 (4), 19487395 (3), 19552508 (2) (see all 11)
    cns diseases 44.2 4 17416742 (1), 10682721 (1), 16005222 (1)
    psychiatric disorder 24.4 2 19164443 (1), 18336281 (1)
    epilepsy 9.51 2 15731895 (1)
    alzheimers disease 9.36 3 14872255 (1), 11844485 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GRM2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GRM2 (6 documents)

    Export disorders for GRM2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GRM2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 153):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GRM2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2. (PubMed id 7620613)1, 2, 3, 9 Flor P.J....Kuhn R. (Eur. J. Neurosci. 1995)
    2. Structure and polymorphisms of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 gene (GRM2): analysis of association with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 11317221)1, 4, 9 Joo A....Fukumaki Y. (Mol. Psychiatry 2001)
    3. Association analysis of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor genes (GRM2 and GRM3) with mood disorders and fluvoxamine response in a Japanese population. (PubMed id 19386277)1, 4, 9 Tsunoka T....Iwata N. (amp 2009)
    4. Identification of three residues essential for 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A-metabotropic glutamate 2 (5-HT2AA^mGlu2) receptor heteromerization and its psychoactive behavioral function. (PubMed id 23129762)1, 2 Moreno J.L....GonzA!lez-Maeso J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2012)
    5. Identification of neuroglycan C and interacting partners as potential susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese population. (PubMed id 19367581)1, 4 So H.C....Sham P.C. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010)
    6. Association analysis of GRM2 and HTR2A with methamphetamine-induced psychosis and schizophrenia in the Japanese population. (PubMed id 20211215)1, 4 Tsunoka T....Iwata N. (amp 2010)
    7. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis. (PubMed id 19156168)1, 4 Need A.C....Goldstein D.B. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2009)
    8. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PubMed id 19086053)1, 4 GratacA^s M....Carracedo A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2009)
    9. Identification of a serotonin/glutamate receptor complex implicated in psychosis. (PubMed id 18297054)1, 2 GonzA!lez-Maeso J....Sealfon S.C. (Nature 2008)
    10. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2912 HGNC: 4594 AceView: GRM2 Ensembl:ENSG00000164082 euGenes: HUgn2912
    ECgene: GRM2 Kegg: 2912 H-InvDB: GRM2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GRM2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GRM2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GRM2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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