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Aliases for GRM2 Gene

Aliases for GRM2 Gene

  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 2 2 3
  • MGLUR2 3 4 6
  • GPRC1B 3 4
  • Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 2 3
  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 3
  • Glutamate Receptor Homolog 3
  • GLUR2 3
  • MGlu2 3

External Ids for GRM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM2 Gene

  • GC03P050838
  • GC03P050996
  • GC03P051597
  • GC03P051700
  • GC03P051716

Summaries for GRM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GRM2 Gene

GRM2 (Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM2 include schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are GPCRs, Class C Metabotropic glutamate, pheromone and Taste transduction. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.

Tocris Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group II receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group III receptors. Group II receptors are divided into two subtypes, mGlu2 and mGlu3. mGlu group II receptors are coupled to Gi/o which inhibits adenylyl cyclase, decreasing the formation of cAMP. mGlu group II receptors are involved in presynaptic inhibition and do not appear to affect postsynaptic membrane potential by themselves. The human genes for mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors have been localized to chromosomes 3 (p21.1) and 7 (7q21.1-q21.2) respectively.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRM2 Gene

Genomics for GRM2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRM2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GRM2 Gene

51,707,065 bp from pter
51,718,613 bp from pter
11,549 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRM2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GRM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM2 Gene

Proteins for GRM2 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0M0K7
    • Q14CU5
    • Q52MC6
    • Q9H3N6

    Protein attributes for GRM2 Gene

    872 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    95568 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with GRASP (By similarity). Interacts with HTR2A.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRM2 Gene

neXtProt entry for GRM2 Gene

Proteomics data for GRM2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRM2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn203, Asn286, Asn338, Asn402, and Asn547
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GRM2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM2 Gene

Domains for GRM2 Gene

Gene Families for GRM2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRM2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM2: view

Function for GRM2 Gene

Molecular function for GRM2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
metabotropic glutamate receptor 2,group II,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,expressed in fetal and adult brain,linked to the inhibition of cAMP cascade
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001641 group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IBA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS 7620613
GO:0005246 calcium channel regulator activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008066 glutamate receptor activity TAS 7620613
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

Phenotypes for GRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM2: view

Animal Models for GRM2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM2:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRM2 Gene

Localization for GRM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse. Cell projection, dendrite.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GRM2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
GO:0030054 cell junction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

Pathways for GRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM2: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS 7620613
GO:0007196 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS 7620613
GO:0014047 glutamate secretion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

Drugs for GRM2 Gene

(1) Drugbank Compounds for GRM2 Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
Target investigational

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRM2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(S)-MCPG Non-selective mGlu antagonist. Active isomer of Cat. No. 0336 [150145-89-4]
DCG IV Very potent, selective group II mGlu agonist. Also NMDA agonist [147782-19-2]
LY 341495 Highly potent, selective group II antagonist [201943-63-7]
LY 341495 disodium salt Disodium salt of LY 341495 (Cat. No. 1209)
LY 354740 Potent and highly selective group II mGlu agonist [176199-48-7]

(29) IUPHAR Ligand for GRM2 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
MNI-136 Allosteric regulator Negative 8.06
MNI-135 Allosteric regulator Negative 7.98
MNI-137 Allosteric regulator Negative 7.9
JNJ-42153605 Allosteric regulator Positive 7.82
THIIC Allosteric regulator Positive 7.65
cyPPTS Allosteric regulator Positive 7.6
GSK1331258 Allosteric regulator Positive 7.1
compound 34 [PMID: 20409708] Allosteric regulator Positive 7.08
biphenylindanone A Allosteric regulator Positive 7
CBiPES Allosteric regulator Positive 7
GSK1331268 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.9
3-MPPTS Allosteric regulator Positive 6.6
PTBE Allosteric regulator Positive 6.5
compound 48 [PMID: 22364337] Allosteric regulator Positive 6.44
LY379268 Agonist Full agonist 6.4
L-CCG-I Agonist Full agonist 6.3
4-MPPTS Allosteric regulator Positive 5.8
4-APPES Allosteric regulator Positive 5.65
LY354740 Agonist Full agonist 5.5
DCG-IV Antagonist Antagonist 5.5
(2R,3R)-APDC Agonist Full agonist 5.3
L-glutamic acid Agonist Full agonist 5.2
compound 3 [PMID: 21105727] Allosteric regulator Positive 5.1
compound 4 [PMID: 21105727] Allosteric regulator Positive 4.98
compound 2 [PMID: 21105727] Allosteric regulator Positive 4.9
LY341495 Antagonist Antagonist 4.7
(1S,3R)-ACPD Agonist Full agonist 4.7
[3H]LY341495 Antagonist Antagonist 4.5
(+)-MCPG Antagonist Antagonist 3.2

(15) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GRM2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glutamate 83.1 102
phenylglycine 62.6 1
quisqualate 62 3
nmda 45.1 9
kainate 44.2 4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM2: view

Transcripts for GRM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRM2 Gene

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for GRM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRM2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cortex (9.2), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (7.2), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (6.5), and Testis (6.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (35.5), Frontal cortex (13.2), Platelet (10.4), and Fetal Brain (7.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRM2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM2 Gene Hs.121510

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Detected in brain cortex (at protein level). Widely expressed in different regions of the adult brain as well as in fetal brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GRM2: view

Expression partners for GRM2 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GRM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM2 35
  • 91.67 (n)
  • 98.62 (a)
GRM2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM2 35
  • 92.24 (n)
  • 98.17 (a)
GRM2 36
  • 98 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm2 35
  • 90.02 (n)
  • 97.9 (a)
Grm2 16
Grm2 36
  • 97 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm2 35
  • 89.83 (n)
  • 98.14 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 44 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM2 36
  • 88 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRM2 35
  • 75.73 (n)
  • 80.14 (a)
GRM2 36
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM2 36
  • 77 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia grm2 35
  • 72.08 (n)
  • 76.9 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grm2a 35
  • 69.7 (n)
  • 73.49 (a)
GRM2 (2 of 2) 36
  • 70 (a)
grm2a 36
  • 70 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG30361 37
  • 41 (a)
Glu-RA 37
  • 47 (a)
mGluRA 36
  • 44 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-1 37
  • 40 (a)
mgl-1 36
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GRM2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM2 Gene

Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)

Paralogs for GRM2 Gene

Paralogs for GRM2 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for GRM2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM2: view

Variants for GRM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs533647878 -- 51,713,264(+) GTTAA(C/T)GGGCG reference, synonymous-codon, intron-variant
rs533622062 -- 51,709,001(+) CTTGC(A/G)CTCCT synonymous-codon, reference, intron-variant
rs533288325 -- 51,716,446(+) ACTGA(A/G)GGGTC intron-variant
rs533254315 -- 51,708,229(+) TTGCT(C/G)TCTCA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs533062004 -- 51,707,200(+) GCTGC(C/T)GCTGC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv508921 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv512802 CNV Insertion 21212237
esv1008297 CNV Insertion 20482838

Relevant External Links for GRM2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

Disorders for GRM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for GRM2 Gene in MalaCards »

(1) Disease for GRM2 Gene

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GRM2 Gene

(5) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GRM2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
schizophrenia 49.4 23
cns diseases 44.2 3
psychiatric disorder 24.4 2
epilepsy 9.51 1
alzheimers disease 9.36 2

Relevant External Links for GRM2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM2: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRM2 Gene

Publications for GRM2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2. (PMID: 7620613) Flor P.J. … Kuhn R. (Eur. J. Neurosci. 1995) 2 3 4 23
  2. Structure and polymorphisms of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 gene (GRM2): analysis of association with schizophrenia. (PMID: 11317221) Joo A. … Fukumaki Y. (Mol. Psychiatry 2001) 3 23 48
  3. Association analysis of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor genes (GRM2 and GRM3) with mood disorders and fluvoxamine response in a Japanese population. (PMID: 19386277) Tsunoka T. … Iwata N. (Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2009) 3 23 48
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4
  5. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PMID: 19086053) GratacA^s M. … Carracedo A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2009) 3 48

Products for GRM2 Gene

Sources for GRM2 Gene

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