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Aliases for GRIA2 Gene

Aliases for GRIA2 Gene

  • Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2 2 3
  • AMPA-Selective Glutamate Receptor 2 3 4
  • GluR-K2 3 4
  • GluR-2 3 4
  • GluR-B 3 4
  • GLUR2 3 4
  • GluA2 3 4
  • Glutamate Receptor Ionotropic, AMPA 2 4
  • Glutamate Receptor B Flip Isoform 3
  • GLURB 3
  • HBGR2 3

External Ids for GRIA2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GRIA2 Gene

  • GLUR2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRIA2 Gene

  • GC04P159021
  • GC04P158572
  • GC04P158719
  • GC04P158499
  • GC04P158361
  • GC04P158141
  • GC04P153892

Summaries for GRIA2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRIA2 Gene

  • Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled from 4 related subunits, GRIA1-4. The subunit encoded by this gene (GRIA2) is subject to RNA editing (CAG->CGG; Q->R) within the second transmembrane domain, which is thought to render the channel impermeable to Ca(2+). Human and animal studies suggest that pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function, and defective GRIA2 RNA editing at the Q/R site may be relevant to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology. Alternative splicing, resulting in transcript variants encoding different isoforms, (including the flip and flop isoforms that vary in their signal transduction properties), has been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GRIA2 Gene

GRIA2 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRIA2 include status epilepticus and fraser syndrome. Among its related pathways are CREB Pathway and N-cadherin signaling events. GO annotations related to this gene include ionotropic glutamate receptor activity and AMPA glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRID2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRIA2 Gene

  • Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.

Tocris Summary for GRIA2 Gene

  • AMPA receptors are members of the ionotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes NMDA and kainate receptors. AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and play a role in hippocampal synaptic long-term potentiation and depression.

Gene Wiki entry for GRIA2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRIA2 Gene

Genomics for GRIA2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRIA2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GRIA2 Gene

Chromosome:
4
Start:
157,204,182 bp from pter
End:
157,366,075 bp from pter
Size:
161,894 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRIA2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GRIA2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRIA2 Gene

Proteins for GRIA2 Gene

  • Protein details for GRIA2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P42262-GRIA2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutamate receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    P42262
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MT92
    • I6L997
    • Q96FP6

    Protein attributes for GRIA2 Gene

    Size:
    883 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    98821 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer or heterotetramer of pore-forming glutamate receptor subunits. Tetramers may be formed by the dimerization of dimers. May interact with MPP4. Forms a ternary complex with GRIP1 and CSPG4. Interacts with ATAD1 in an ATP-dependent manner. ATAD1-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis disrupts binding to ATAD1 and to GRIP1 and leads to AMPAR complex disassembly (By similarity). Interacts with PICK1 (via PDZ domain). Interacts with PRKCABP and GRIP2 (By similarity). Interacts with GRIA1 and SYNDIG1 (By similarity). Interacts with LRFN1. Interacts with SNX27 (via PDZ domain); the interaction is required for recycling to the plasma membrane when endocytosed and prevent degradation in lysosomes (By similarity). Found in a complex with GRIA1, GRIA3, GRIA4, CNIH2, CNIH3, CACNG2, CACNG3, CACNG4, CACNG5, CACNG7 and CACNG8. Interacts with CACNG5 (By similarity). Interacts with OLFM2 (By similarity).
    Miscellaneous:
    • The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists. This receptor binds AMPA (quisqualate) > glutamate > kainate

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRIA2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GRIA2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GRIA2 Gene

Proteomics data for GRIA2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRIA2 Gene

  • Palmitoylated. Depalmitoylated upon glutamate stimulation. Cys-610 palmitoylation leads to Golgi retention and decreased cell surface expression. In contrast, Cys-836 palmitoylation does not affect cell surface expression but regulates stimulation-dependent endocytosis (By similarity).
  • Glycosylation at Asn 256, Asn 370, Asn 406, and Asn 413
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GRIA2 (GluR2)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRIA2 Gene

Domains & Families for GRIA2 Gene

Gene Families for GRIA2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRIA2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P42262

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GRIA2_HUMAN :
  • The M4 transmembrane segment mediates tetramerization and is required for cell surface expression
  • Belongs to the glutamate-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.10.1) family. GRIA2 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The M4 transmembrane segment mediates tetramerization and is required for cell surface expression
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutamate-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.10.1) family. GRIA2 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRIA2: view

Function for GRIA2 Gene

Molecular function for GRIA2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutamate receptor,subunit 2,ionotropic,AMPA (amino-3-hydroxy 5 methyl-isoxazole-propionic) class,with flip and flop isoforms,mediating the fast component of excitatory post synaptic currents in the central nervous system,interacting with and signaling through the protein-kinase LYN
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004970 ionotropic glutamate receptor activity IDA 20614889
GO:0004971 AMPA glutamate receptor activity ISS --
GO:0005234 extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16724110
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRIA2: view

Animal Models for GRIA2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRIA2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GRIA2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRIA2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRIA2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRIA2 Gene

Localization for GRIA2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRIA2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Interaction with CACNG2, CNIH2 and CNIH3 promotes cell surface expression. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GRIA2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRIA2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4
endoplasmic reticulum 3
extracellular 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane ISS --
GO:0008021 synaptic vesicle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GRIA2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRIA2: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8003671
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS --
GO:0034220 ion transmembrane transport IBA --
GO:0035235 ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway IDA 20614889
GO:0035249 synaptic transmission, glutamatergic IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRIA2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRIA2 Gene

(83) Drugs for GRIA2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, ApexBio, DrugBank, IUPHAR, DGIdb, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Butabarbital Approved, Illicit Pharma antagonist, Target 0
Butalbital Approved, Illicit Pharma antagonist, Target 0
Butethal Approved, Illicit Pharma antagonist, Target 0
Methylphenobarbital Approved Pharma antagonist, Target 0
Pentobarbital Approved Pharma antagonist, Target 10

(11) Additional Compounds for GRIA2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, Tocris, and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
3'-Hydroxyhexobarbital
427-29-2
(R)-AMPA
83654-13-1
(RS)-AMPA
74341-63-2
(RS)-AMPA hydrobromide
171259-81-7
(S)-(-)-5-Fluorowillardiine
140187-23-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRIA2: view

Transcripts for GRIA2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRIA2 Gene

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRIA2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRIA2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5:
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for GRIA2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GRIA2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GRIA2

Expression for GRIA2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRIA2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRIA2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x6.5), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x6.0), Brain - Cortex (x4.8), and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GRIA2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (22.1), Fetal Brain (17.3), and Frontal cortex (16.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRIA2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRIA2 Gene Hs.32763

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRIA2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRIA2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRIA2 Gene

Orthologs for GRIA2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRIA2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRIA2 35
  • 94.41 (n)
  • 99.89 (a)
GRIA2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRIA2 35
  • 93.8 (n)
  • 96.48 (a)
GRIA2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gria2 35
  • 93.85 (n)
  • 99.77 (a)
Gria2 16
Gria2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRIA2 35
  • 99.66 (n)
  • 99.89 (a)
GRIA2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gria2 35
  • 93.92 (n)
  • 99.55 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRIA2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRIA2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRIA2 35
  • 88.41 (n)
  • 95.92 (a)
GRIA2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRIA2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gria2 35
  • 84.05 (n)
  • 93.97 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.8583 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gria2.2 35
gria2a 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToMany
gria2b 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11155 37
  • 51 (a)
CG15627 37
  • 33 (a)
CG4226 37
  • 27 (a)
CG9935 37
  • 39 (a)
Glu-RI 37
  • 41 (a)
Glu-RIB 37
  • 35 (a)
Glu-RIIA 37
  • 30 (a)
Kai-RIA 37
  • 35 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glr-1 37
  • 38 (a)
glr-4 37
  • 31 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GRIA2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRIA2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GRIA2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GRIA2 (if available)

Paralogs for GRIA2 Gene

Paralogs for GRIA2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRIA2: view

Variants for GRIA2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRIA2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
VAR_000303 -
VAR_037055 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRIA2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv880748 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv830123 CNV Gain 17160897
dgv1700e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv1631445 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv293530 CNV Insertion 16902084
essv14215 CNV CNV 17122850
nsv881583 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv881114 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv5788n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for GRIA2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 10.79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.02; 20.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GRIA2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GRIA2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GRIA2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRIA2 Gene

Disorders for GRIA2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for GRIA2 Gene - From: DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
status epilepticus
  • grand mal status
fraser syndrome
  • cryptophthalmos syndrome
lateral sclerosis
  • adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis
motor neuron disease
  • motor neuron diseases
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- elite association
Search GRIA2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GRIA2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GRIA2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GRIA2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GRIA2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRIA2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRIA2 Gene

Publications for GRIA2 Gene

  1. Influence of an adenosine deaminase inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride, on 5-HT2CR mRNA editing in primary cultured cortical cells. (PMID: 20190421) Pham N.T. … Matsumoto K. (Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2010) 23 67
  2. AMPA receptor-mediated neuronal death in sporadic ALS. (PMID: 20102521) Kwak S. … Aizawa H. (Neuropathology 2010) 23 67
  3. The effects of alcoholism on the human basolateral amygdala. (PMID: 20153402) Kryger R. … Wilce P.A. (Neuroscience 2010) 23 67
  4. Energy transfer ligands of the GluR2 ligand binding core. (PMID: 20155979) Petrik A.F. … Lee J.C. (Biochemistry 2010) 23 67
  5. Dorsal horn alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor trafficking in inflammatory pain. (PMID: 20395828) Tao Y.X. (Anesthesiology 2010) 23 67

Products for GRIA2 Gene

Sources for GRIA2 Gene

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