Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for GRIA2 Gene

Aliases for GRIA2 Gene

  • Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2 2 3
  • GLUR2 3 4 6
  • AMPA-Selective Glutamate Receptor 2 3 4
  • GluR-K2 3 4
  • GluR-2 3 4
  • GluR-B 3 4
  • GluA2 3 4
  • Glutamate Receptor Ionotropic, AMPA 2 4
  • Glutamate Receptor 2 3
  • GLURB 3
  • HBGR2 3

External Ids for GRIA2 Gene

Previous Symbols for GRIA2 Gene

  • GLUR2

Summaries for GRIA2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRIA2 Gene

  • Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled from 4 related subunits, GRIA1-4. The subunit encoded by this gene (GRIA2) is subject to RNA editing (CAG->CGG; Q->R) within the second transmembrane domain, which is thought to render the channel impermeable to Ca(2+). Human and animal studies suggest that pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function, and defective GRIA2 RNA editing at the Q/R site may be relevant to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology. Alternative splicing, resulting in transcript variants encoding different isoforms, (including the flip and flop isoforms that vary in their signal transduction properties), has been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GRIA2 Gene

GRIA2 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRIA2 include status epilepticus and fraser syndrome. Among its related pathways are CREB Pathway and CREB Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity and kainate selective glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRID2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRIA2 Gene

  • Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.

Tocris Summary for GRIA2 Gene

  • AMPA receptors are members of the ionotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes NMDA and kainate receptors. AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and play a key role in hippocampal synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). AMPA receptors consist of GluR1-4 subunits which assemble as homomers or heteromers to form functional AMPA receptors. The subunit composition determines the physiological properties of AMPA receptors: those containing the GluR2 subunit show low permeability to Ca2+ whereas those lacking this subunit show high Ca2+ permeability.

Gene Wiki entry for GRIA2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRIA2 Gene

Genomics for GRIA2 Gene

Genomic Location for GRIA2 Gene

Start:
157,204,182 bp from pter
End:
157,366,075 bp from pter
Size:
161,894 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRIA2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GRIA2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRIA2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRIA2 Gene

Proteins for GRIA2 Gene

  • Protein details for GRIA2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P42262-GRIA2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutamate receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    P42262
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MT92
    • I6L997
    • Q96FP6

    Protein attributes for GRIA2 Gene

    Size:
    883 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    98821 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer or heterotetramer of pore-forming glutamate receptor subunits. Tetramers may be formed by the dimerization of dimers. May interact with MPP4. Forms a ternary complex with GRIP1 and CSPG4. Interacts with ATAD1 in an ATP-dependent manner. ATAD1-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis disrupts binding to ATAD1 and to GRIP1 and leads to AMPAR complex disassembly (By similarity). Interacts with PICK1 (via PDZ domain). Interacts with PRKCABP and GRIP2 (By similarity). Interacts with GRIA1 and SYNDIG1 (By similarity). Interacts with LRFN1. Interacts with SNX27 (via PDZ domain); the interaction is required for recycling to the plasma membrane when endocytosed and prevent degradation in lysosomes (By similarity). Found in a complex with GRIA1, GRIA3, GRIA4, CNIH2, CNIH3, CACNG2, CACNG3, CACNG4, CACNG5, CACNG7 and CACNG8. Interacts with CACNG5 (By similarity).
    Miscellaneous:
    • The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists. This receptor binds AMPA (quisqualate) > glutamate > kainate

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRIA2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GRIA2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GRIA2 Gene

Proteomics data for GRIA2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRIA2 Gene

  • Palmitoylated. Depalmitoylated upon glutamate stimulation. Cys-610 palmitoylation leads to Golgi retention and decreased cell surface expression. In contrast, Cys-836 palmitoylation does not affect cell surface expression but regulates stimulation-dependent endocytosis (By similarity).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Asn256, Asn370, Asn406, and Asn413

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRIA2 Gene

Domains for GRIA2 Gene

Gene Families for GRIA2 Gene

HGNC:
  • GRI :Ligand-gated ion channels / Glutamate receptors, ionotropic
  • GR :Glutamate receptors
IUPHAR :

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRIA2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P42262

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GRIA2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The M4 transmembrane segment mediates tetramerization and is required for cell surface expression:
    • P42262
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutamate-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.10.1) family. GRIA2 subfamily.:
    • P42262
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRIA2: view

Function for GRIA2 Gene

Molecular function for GRIA2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glutamate receptor,subunit 2,ionotropic,AMPA (amino-3-hydroxy 5 methyl-isoxazole-propionic) class,with flip and flop isoforms,mediating the fast component of excitatory post synaptic currents in the central nervous system,interacting with and signaling through the protein-kinase LYN
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004970 ionotropic glutamate receptor activity IDA 20614889
GO:0004971 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate selective glutamate receptor activity ISS --
GO:0005234 extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16724110
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRIA2: view

Animal Models for GRIA2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRIA2:

miRNA for GRIA2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRIA2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GRIA2 Gene

Localization for GRIA2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRIA2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Interaction with CACNG2, CNIH2 and CNIH3 promotes cell surface expression. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GRIA2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRIA2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane ISS --
GO:0008021 synaptic vesicle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view

Pathways for GRIA2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRIA2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8003671
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS --
GO:0034220 ion transmembrane transport IEA --
GO:0035235 ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway IDA 20614889
GO:0035249 synaptic transmission, glutamatergic IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view

Compounds for GRIA2 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRIA2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
CNQX disodium salt Potent AMPA/kainate antagonist. More water soluble form of CNQX (Cat. No. 0190) [115066-14-3]
DNQX disodium salt Selective non-NMDA antagonist. Water-soluble salt of DNQX (Cat. No. 0189) [2379-57-9]
Naspm trihydrochloride Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor antagonist [122306-11-0]
NBQX Potent AMPA antagonist. More selective than CNQX (Cat. No. 0190) [118876-58-7]
NBQX disodium salt Potent AMPA antagonist. More water soluble form of NBQX (Cat. No. 0373) [118876-58-7]

(1) HMDB Compounds for GRIA2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Calcium
  • Ca
7440-70-2

(20) IUPHAR Ligand for GRIA2 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
S18986 Allosteric regulator Positive
LY392098 Allosteric regulator Positive
CX546 Allosteric regulator Positive
CX516 Allosteric regulator Positive
argiotoxin Channel blocker None
piracetam Allosteric regulator Positive
[3H]CNQX None None
ATPO Antagonist Antagonist
GYKI53655 Antagonist Antagonist
NBQX Antagonist Antagonist
GYKI53784 Antagonist Antagonist
AMPA Agonist Full agonist
[3H]AMPA None None
aniracetam Allosteric regulator Positive
LY293558 Antagonist Antagonist
(S)-5-fluorowillardiine Agonist Full agonist
cyclothiazide Allosteric regulator Positive
LY404187 Allosteric regulator Positive
IDRA-21 Allosteric regulator Positive
LY503430 Allosteric regulator Positive

(20) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GRIA2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid 86.1 14
glutamate 83.3 91
kainate 78.6 34
cyclothiazide 74.3 3
nmda 71.4 22
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRIA2: view

Transcripts for GRIA2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRIA2 Gene

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRIA2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5:
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for GRIA2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GRIA2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GRIA2

Expression for GRIA2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRIA2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRIA2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (6.5), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (6.0), Brain - Cortex (4.8), and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (4.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRIA2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRIA2 Gene Hs.32763

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GRIA2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRIA2 Gene

Orthologs for GRIA2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRIA2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRIA2 35
  • 99.66 (n)
  • 99.89 (a)
GRIA2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRIA2 35
  • 94.41 (n)
  • 99.89 (a)
GRIA2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRIA2 35
  • 93.8 (n)
  • 96.48 (a)
GRIA2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gria2 35
  • 93.85 (n)
  • 99.77 (a)
Gria2 16
Gria2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRIA2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRIA2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gria2 35
  • 93.92 (n)
  • 99.55 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRIA2 35
  • 88.41 (n)
  • 95.92 (a)
GRIA2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRIA2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.8583 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gria2 35
  • 84.05 (n)
  • 93.97 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gria2.2 35
gria2a 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToMany
gria2b 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4226 37
  • 27 (a)
CG15627 37
  • 33 (a)
Glu-RIIA 37
  • 30 (a)
Glu-RIB 37
  • 35 (a)
Glu-RI 37
  • 41 (a)
CG9935 37
  • 39 (a)
Kai-RIA 37
  • 35 (a)
CG11155 37
  • 51 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glr-1 37
  • 38 (a)
glr-4 37
  • 31 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GRIA2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRIA2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GRIA2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GRIA2 (if available)

Paralogs for GRIA2 Gene

Paralogs for GRIA2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRIA2: view

Variants for GRIA2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRIA2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1131848 -- 157,321,439(+) TCTGG(A/G)ATTTA missense, reference
rs3813296 -- 157,360,371(+) CCTTT(G/T)TTTTT intron-variant
rs3924507 -- 157,359,805(-) AAAAC(A/G)TAGAT intron-variant
rs4131622 -- 157,227,591(+) AGCAG(A/C)GAGTG intron-variant
rs4260586 -- 157,236,315(+) CCTCA(A/T)TTCTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRIA2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv880748 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv830123 CNV Gain 17160897
dgv1700e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv1631445 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv293530 CNV Insertion 16902084
essv14215 CNV CNV 17122850
nsv881583 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv881114 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv5788n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for GRIA2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GRIA2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GRIA2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRIA2 Gene

Disorders for GRIA2 Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GRIA2 Gene

(15) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GRIA2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 60.1 2
neurodegeneration 43.6 9
motor neuron disease 30.2 2
ischemia 27.7 19
status epilepticus 26.8 5

Relevant External Links for GRIA2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GRIA2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GRIA2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRIA2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRIA2 Gene

Publications for GRIA2 Gene

  1. Primary structure and functional expression of the AMPA/kainate receptor subunit 2 from human brain. (PMID: 8003671) Sun W. … Montal M. (NeuroReport 1994) 3 4 23
  2. Crystal structure of the GluR2 amino-terminal domain provides insights into the architecture and assembly of ionotropic glutamate receptors. (PMID: 19651138) Clayton A. … Aricescu A.R. (J. Mol. Biol. 2009) 3 4 23
  3. Molecular cloning, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of human brain glutamate receptors. (PMID: 1311100) Sun W. … Montal M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1992) 2 3
  4. Glutamatergic plasticity by synaptic delivery of GluR-B(long)- containing AMPA receptors. (PMID: 14687553) Kolleker A. … Osten P. (Neuron 2003) 3 4
  5. RNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR6 in human brain tissue. (PMID: 7523595) Paschen W. … Ross C.A. (J. Neurochem. 1994) 3 4

Products for GRIA2 Gene

Sources for GRIA2 Gene

Back to Top

Content