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GRIA2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC04P158141

Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2


(Previous symbol: GLUR2)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 21 2     gluR-22
GLUR21 2 3 5     gluR-B2
GluA22 3     Glutamate Receptor 22
GluR-K22 3     GluR-23
AMPA-Selective Glutamate Receptor 22 3     GluR-B3
GLURB2     Glutamate Receptor Ionotropic, AMPA 23
HBGR22     

External Ids:    HGNC: 45721   Entrez Gene: 28912   Ensembl: ENSG000001202517   OMIM: 1382475   UniProtKB: P422623   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for GRIA2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04P159021 GC04P158572 GC04P158719 GC04P158499 GC04P158361 GC04P153892


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GRIA2 Gene:
Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are
activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate
receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as
ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled from 4 related subunits, GRIA1-4. The subunit
encoded by this gene (GRIA2) is subject to RNA editing (CAG->CGG; Q->R) within the second transmembrane
domain, which is thought to render the channel impermeable to Ca(2+). Human and animal studies suggest that
pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function, and defective GRIA2 RNA editing at the Q/R site may be relevant
to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology. Alternative splicing, resulting in transcript variants encoding
different isoforms, (including the flip and flop isoforms that vary in their signal transduction properties), has
been noted for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GRIA2 Gene:
GRIA2 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GRIA2 include status epilepticus, and motor neuron disease. GO annotations related to this gene include extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity and kainate selective glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRIA3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRIA2_HUMAN, P42262
Function: Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and
plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter
at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a
conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an
electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized
by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is
characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate

summary for GRIA2 Gene:
AMPA receptors are members of the ionotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes NMDA and
kainate receptors. AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and play a key
role in hippocampal synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). AMPA receptors consist of
GluR1-4 subunits which assemble as homomers or heteromers to form functional AMPA receptors. The subunit
composition determines the physiological properties of AMPA receptors: those containing the GluR2 subunit
show low permeability to Ca2+ whereas those lacking this subunit show high Ca2+ permeability.

Gene Wiki entry for GRIA2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000004.12  NC_018915.2  NT_016354.20  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GRIA2 gene promoter:
         p53   Chx10   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5b)   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5a)   POU6F1 (c2)   POU3F2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGRIA2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GRIA2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GRIA2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q32.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q32.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q32.1

GRIA2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GRIA2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04P158141:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
158,125,334 bp from pter      End:
158,287,227 bp from pter
Size:
161,894 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRIA2_HUMAN, P42262 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutamate receptor 2 precursor  
Size: 883 amino acids; 98821 Da
Subunit: Homotetramer or heterotetramer of pore-forming glutamate receptor subunits. Tetramers may be formed by
the dimerization of dimers. May interact with MPP4. Forms a ternary complex with GRIP1 and CSPG4. Interacts with
ATAD1 in an ATP-dependent manner. ATAD1-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis disrupts binding to ATAD1 and to GRIP1 and leads
to AMPAR complex disassembly (By similarity). Interacts with PICK1 (via PDZ domain). Interacts with PRKCABP and
GRIP2 (By similarity). Interacts with GRIA1 and SYNDIG1 (By similarity). Interacts with LRFN1. Interacts with
SNX27 (via PDZ domain); the interaction is required for recycling to the plasma membrane when endocytosed and
prevent degradation in lysosomes (By similarity). Found in a complex with GRIA1, GRIA3, GRIA4, CNIH2, CNIH3,
CACNG2, CACNG3, CACNG4, CACNG5, CACNG7 and CACNG8. Interacts with CACNG5 (By similarity)
Rna editing: Modified_positions=607; Note=Partially edited. Fully edited in the brain. Heteromerically expressed
edited GLUR2 (R) receptor complexes are impermeable to calcium, whereas the unedited (Q) forms are highly
permeable to divalent ions
Miscellaneous: The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to
their selective agonists. This receptor binds AMPA (quisqualate) > glutamate > kainate
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GRIA2 (see all 7):
2WJW (3D)        2WJX (3D)        2XHD (3D)        3R7X (3D)        3RN8 (3D)        3RNN (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q96FP6
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P42262-1   P42262-2   P42262-3   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GRIA2: NX_P42262

Explore proteomics data for GRIA2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Palmitoylated. Depalmitoylated upon glutamate stimulation. Cys-610 palmitoylation leads to Golgi retention and
    decreased cell surface expression. In contrast, Cys-836 palmitoylation does not affect cell surface expression
    but regulates stimulation-dependent endocytosis (By similarity)1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn256, Asn370, Asn406, Asn413
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GRIA2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000817.2  NP_001077088.1  NP_001077089.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000423988   ENSP00000426845   ENSP00000377403   ENSP00000425217   ENSP00000296526  
     ENSP00000264426   ENSP00000426513   ENSP00000318144   ENSP00000422038   ENSP00000426784  
     ENSP00000423229   ENSP00000389837  
    Reactome Protein details: P42262

    GRIA2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GRIA2
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    Novus Biologicals GRIA2 Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GRIA2

    GRIA2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GRIA2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for GRIA2 (GluR2)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GRIA2  (GluR2)
    OriGene Antibodies for GRIA2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GRIA2
    Novus Biologicals GRIA2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GRIA2 (P42263, P42262)
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GRIA2
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for GRIA2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GRIA2

    GRIA2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GRIA2
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GRIA2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GRIA2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    GRI: Ligand-gated ion channels / Glutamate receptors, ionotropic
    GR: Glutamate receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: GluA2
    Ionotropic glutamate receptors

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR028082 Peripla_BP_I
     IPR019594 Glu_rcpt_Glu/Gly-bd
     IPR001320 Iontro_glu_rcpt
     IPR001828 ANF_lig-bd_rcpt
     IPR001508 NMDA_rcpt

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P42262

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P42262

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001320 Ionotropic glutamate receptor
    IPB001508 NMDA receptor signature
    IPB001828 Extracellular ligand-binding receptor


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRIA2_HUMAN, P42262
    Domain: The M4 transmembrane segment mediates tetramerization and is required for cell surface expression
    Similarity: Belongs to the glutamate-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.10.1) family. GRIA2 subfamily


    GRIA2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GRIA2_HUMAN, P42262
    Function: Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and
    plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter
    at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a
    conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an
    electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized
    by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is
    characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GRIA2:
    glutamate receptor,subunit 2,ionotropic,AMPA (amino-3-hydroxy 5 methyl-isoxazole-propionic) class,with flip and
    flop isoforms,mediating the fast component of excitatory post synaptic currents in the central nervous
    system,interacting with and signaling through the protein-kinase LYN

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004970ionotropic glutamate receptor activity IDA--
    GO:0004971alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate selective glutamate receptor activity ISS--
    GO:0005215transporter activity ----
    GO:0005234extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity IBA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16724110
         
    GRIA2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for GRIA2:
     Increased circadian rhythm amp 

         11 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 12 alleles(MGI details for Gria2):
     behavior/neurological  cellular  growth/size/body  hearing/vestibular/ear  homeostasis/metabolism 
     integument  mortality/aging  nervous system  no phenotypic analysis  normal 
     reproductive system 

    GRIA2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for GRIA2: Gria2tm1Rod Gria2tm2.1Rsp Gria2tm1Ksak Gria2tm2Rsp Gria2tm1Rsp Gria2tm1Sans
                                                         Gria2tm1Rlh Gria2tm3.1Rsp

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GRIA2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GRIA2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GRIA2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GRIA2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRIA2:
    hsa-mir-181b-5p (MIRT003035)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GRIA2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GRIA2 (see all 83):
    hsa-miR-576-3p hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-30a hsa-miR-376a* hsa-miR-1243 hsa-miR-4326
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGRIA2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GRIA2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GRIA2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
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    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GRIA2 (see all 20)
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GRIA2 (NM_000826)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GRIA2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GRIA2

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GRIA2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GRIA2_HUMAN, P42262: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass
    membrane protein (By similarity). Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane
    protein. Note=Interaction with CACNG2, CNIH2 and CNIH3 promotes cell surface expression (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    endoplasmic reticulum5
    plasma membrane5
    cytosol2
    nucleus2
    cytoskeleton1
    extracellular1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005783endoplasmic reticulum ----
    GO:0005789endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane ISS--
    GO:0008021synaptic vesicle IEA--

    GRIA2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GRIA2 About   (see all 20)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Post NMDA receptor activation events
    Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events0.90
    Unblocking of NMDA receptor, glutamate binding and activation0.00
    Long-term potentiation0.35
    2Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)0.63
    Pathogenesis of ALS0.31
    3Trafficking of AMPA receptors
    Trafficking of AMPA receptors1.00
    Trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors0.00
    Glutamate Binding, Activation of AMPA Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity1.00
    Activation of AMPA receptors0.00
    4Circadian entrainment
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling0.51
    Glutamatergic synapse0.39
    Circadian entrainment0.40
    Dopaminergic synapse0.37
    5Transmission across Chemical Synapses
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses0.72
    Neuronal System0.68
    Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell0.72

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    5 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GRIA2
        Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
    Pathogenesis of ALS
    CREB Pathway
    Intracellular Calcium Signaling
    Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback onto cAMP Pathway

    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for GRIA2
        Ca, cAMP and Lipid Signaling
    Neuroscience

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for GRIA2
        Neurophysiological process Glutamate regulation of Dopamine D1A receptor signaling

    3 BioSystems Pathways for GRIA2
        Hypothetical Network for Drug Addiction
    BDNF signaling pathway
    N-cadherin signaling events

    3 Reactome Pathways for GRIA2
        Unblocking of NMDA receptor, glutamate binding and activation
    Trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors
    Activation of AMPA receptors


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GRIA2) (see all 11):
        Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    Circadian entrainment
    Long-term potentiation
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling
    Glutamatergic synapse


    GRIA2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GRIA2: 
              Neurotransmitter Receptors in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Synaptic Plasticity in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GRIA2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GRIA2 (P422621, 2, 3 ENSP000002644264) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 99)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    NSFP464591, 2, 3, ENSP000003812934EBI-3909876,EBI-712251 MINT-2791974 MINT-2791723 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000381293
    ENSG00000183311P074373I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224156P074373I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000227739P074373I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000229684P074373I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006810transport ----
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS8003671
    GO:0007268synaptic transmission TAS--
    GO:0034220ion transmembrane transport IBA--
    GO:0035235ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway IDA--

    GRIA2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Compounds for GRIA2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    CNQX disodium saltPotent AMPA/kainate antagonist. More water soluble form of CNQX (Cat. No. 0190)[115066-14-3]
    Naspm trihydrochlorideCa2+-permeable AMPA receptor antagonist[122306-11-0]
    NBQXPotent AMPA antagonist. More selective than CNQX (Cat. No. 0190)[118876-58-7]
    DNQX disodium saltSelective non-NMDA antagonist. Water-soluble salt of DNQX (Cat. No. 0189)[2379-57-9]
    NBQX disodium saltPotent AMPA antagonist. More water soluble form of NBQX (Cat. No. 0373)[118876-58-7]

    1 HMDB Compound for GRIA2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for GRIA2 (see all 38)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Glutamic Acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid (see all 15)56-86-0target--1279377 7679210 7838123 17139284 17016423
    (S)-2-Amino-3-(1,3,5,7-Pentahydro-2,4-Dioxo-Cyclopenta[E]Pyrimidin-1-Yl) Proionic Acid-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    (S)-ATPA-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    (S)-Des-Me-Ampa-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    2-Amino-3-(3-Hydroxy-7,8-Dihydro-6h-Cyclohepta[D]-4-Isoxazolyl)Propionic Acid-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    2-Amino-3-(5-Tert-Butyl-3-(Phosphonomethoxy)-4-Isoxazolyl)Propionic Acid-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    AMPA-- 1066-51-9target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Bromo-Willardiine-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Dnqx-- 2379-57-9target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Fluoro-Willardiine-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235

    Selected IUPHAR Ligands for GRIA2 (GluA2) (see all 20)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    S18986
    Allosteric regulatorPositive--
    LY392098
    Allosteric regulatorPositive--
    CX546
    Allosteric regulatorPositive--
    CX516
    Allosteric regulatorPositive--
    argiotoxin
    Channel blockerNone--
    piracetam
    Allosteric regulatorPositive--
    [3H]CNQX
    NoneNone--
    ATPO
    AntagonistAntagonist--
    GYKI53655
    AntagonistAntagonist--
    NBQX
    AntagonistAntagonist--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GRIA2 gene (see all 20)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid 86.1 16 8003671 (1), 10101246 (1), 7878468 (1), 12654500 (1) (see all 14)
    glutamate 83.3 122 15100219 (2), 8968949 (2), 10501226 (2), 19729452 (2) (see all 80)
    kainate 78.6 47 16701950 (6), 8003671 (3), 9849678 (3), 11388900 (2) (see all 22)
    cyclothiazide 74.3 3 9166736 (1), 7511109 (1), 19673491 (1)
    nmda 71.4 33 18077702 (3), 19279258 (3), 19644508 (2), 15996549 (2) (see all 16)
    dnqx 59 1 20155979 (1)
    cnqx 55.6 2 11388900 (1)
    aniracetam 50.8 2 11834304 (1)
    calcium 45.4 74 9246466 (6), 9849678 (4), 9236229 (4), 8616634 (3) (see all 32)
    inosine 39.3 2 7878468 (1), 9149227 (1)



    GRIA2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GRIA2 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000826.3  NM_001083619.1  NM_001083620.1  

    Unigene Cluster for GRIA2:

    Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2
    Hs.32763  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000826
    15 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000504801 ENST00000512774 ENST00000507898 ENST00000393815(uc003ipk.4)
    ENST00000509417 ENST00000296526(uc021xtr.1 uc003ipm.4 uc003ipl.4)
    ENST00000471736 ENST00000264426(uc011civ.1 uc011ciw.1) ENST00000506284
    ENST00000323661(uc010iqh.1 uc011ciu.1) ENST00000505888 ENST00000503437
    ENST00000510854(uc011cix.1 uc011ciy.1 uc011ciz.1) ENST00000503980
    ENST00000449365(uc011cit.2)

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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GRIA2 (see all 83):
    hsa-miR-576-3p hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-30a hsa-miR-376a* hsa-miR-1243 hsa-miR-4326
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GRIA2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB209567.1 AK294458.1 AK308775.1 AK309067.1 BC010574.1 BC028736.1 FJ460422.1 FJ460423.1 
    FJ460424.1 FJ460425.1 FJ460426.1 FJ460427.1 FJ460428.1 FJ460429.1 FJ460430.1 FJ460431.1 
    FJ460432.1 JN547408.1 L20814.1 X64829.1 X64830.1 

    10 DOTS entries:

    DT.412775  DT.75100690  DT.75100845  DT.40118112  DT.95130075  DT.40296098  DT.121266665  DT.121266666 
    DT.40118111  DT.91843633 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 79):

    AI963223 AI422996 AI421661 CA946925 CA946928 BX645164 BQ271776 CB143535 
    AI939470 BM510013 BX951591 BX951367 AI687064 CD557008 AL832605 D54324 
    BF531018 AL707042 AI955511 BC028736 BX478848 AL707619 AW951863 AL708924 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRIA2 (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19 ^ 20
    SP1:              -     -           -     -                                                                       -     -                           
    SP2:                                -     -                                                                       -     -                           
    SP3:                                -     -                                                                                   -     -               
    SP4:                                -     -                                                                       -     -                           
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GRIA2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GRIA2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTCTTACAAA
    GRIA2 Expression
    About this image


    GRIA2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 17 entries
             Thalamus
             Oligodendrocyte-like cells
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Endocrine Progenitor Cells Ventral Pancreatic Bud
     
     Spinal Cord (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Oligodendrocyte-like cells
     
     Oligodendrocytes (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Oligodendrocyte-like cells
     
     Peripheral Nervous System (Nervous System)
             Schwann Precursor Cells Peripheral Nerve Domain
    GRIA2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GRIA2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.32763
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GRIA2: 
              Neurotransmitter Receptors in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Synaptic Plasticity in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GRIA2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for GRIA2 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gria21 , 5 glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA2 (alpha 2)1, 5 93.85(n)1
    99.77(a)1
      3 (35.50 cM)5
    148001  NM_001083806.11  NP_001077275.11 
     806849365 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GRIA21 glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 88.41(n)
    95.92(a)
      414894  NM_001001775.3  NP_001001775.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GRIA26
    glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2
    93(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(128785188-128886518)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.85832 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with strong similarity more 86.34(n)    CD324781.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii gria2.22 glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2.2 76.29(n)   170451  AF525744.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GRIA2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GRIA2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GRIA2 gene
    GRIA32  GRIK52  GRIK12  GRIA42  GRIK22  GRID12  GRIA12  GRIK42  
    GRIK32  GRID22  
    11 SIMAP similar genes for GRIA2 using alignment to 11 protein entries:     GRIA2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GluR4c    GRIA1    GRIA4    GRIA3    GRIK2    GRIK3
    GRIK1    GRIK4    GRIK5    GRID2    GRID1

    GRIA2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GRIA2 (see all 2439)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 4 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs362101421,2
    C--153920991(+) TTCAC-/TATATATA/
    TATATATATATA
    TATAT
    3 -- int10--------
    rs1914304461,2
    --158139738(+) TTCACC/TTGAAC 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs68488291,2
    C,F,H--158139759(+) AACATC/TAAATT 2 -- us2k110Minor allele frequency- T:0.02NS EA NA WA 906
    rs1836992671,2
    --158139771(+) TTTTCA/GTATTG 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1461024201,2
    --158139839(+) TAAAGC/TTTTCC 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs68262851,2
    C,F,A,H--158139939(+) ATAGGG/TAATAA 3 -- us2k1 tfbs319Minor allele frequency- T:0.20NS EA NA WA CSA 1970
    rs68493451,2
    C,F,A,H--158140129(+) TAAATA/GCATTT 3 -- us2k117Minor allele frequency- G:0.14NS EA NA CSA WA 2129
    rs100035711,2
    C,F,H--158140192(+) TAAAAT/GTCTAA 3 -- us2k1 tfbs34Minor allele frequency- G:0.03NS EA WA 394
    rs623315181,2
    C,F--158140242(+) GCTTAA/TTAATA 3 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.13NA 122
    rs68502721,2
    C,F,H--158140296(+) AGAGGG/TAAAGG 3 -- us2k1 trp37Minor allele frequency- T:0.03NS EA CSA WA NA 634

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GRIA2 (158125334 - 158287227 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 9 variations for GRIA2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv293530CNV Insertion16902084
    esv1631445CNV Insertion17803354
    nsv881114CNV Loss21882294
    nsv881583CNV Loss21882294
    dgv5788n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv880748CNV Loss21882294
    nsv830123CNV Gain17160897
    essv14215CNV CNV17122850
    dgv1700e1CNV Complex17122850

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GRIA2
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GRIA2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GRIA2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 138247    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for GRIA2 (see all 26):    
    About MalaCards
    status epilepticus    motor neuron disease    lateral sclerosis    drug addiction
    nicotine addiction    fraser syndrome    alcohol abuse    tetanus
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis    brain disease    neuroendocrine carcinoma    temporal lobe epilepsy
    ischemia    mood disorder    major depressive disorder    schizophrenia
    anorexia nervosa    bipolar disorder    alzheimer's disease    cerebritis

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GRIA2:
    Schizophrenia     Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    GRIA2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GRIA2 gene (see all 15)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 60.1 2 16042312 (1), 10589532 (1)
    neurodegeneration 43.6 11 16042312 (2), 10531425 (2), 8182436 (2), 20153402 (1) (see all 6)
    motor neuron disease 30.2 2 16523673 (2)
    ischemia 27.7 27 11935066 (3), 8898712 (3), 9236229 (3), 12654500 (2) (see all 11)
    status epilepticus 26.8 6 9825961 (3), 9246466 (1), 10531425 (1)
    neurological disorders 26.2 3 9347614 (1), 10589532 (1)
    neurodegenerative diseases 23.5 1 17544687 (1)
    schizophrenia 21.8 11 7609609 (3), 8616634 (2), 9030702 (2), 9099808 (1)
    epilepsy 9.05 4 20188170 (1), 9347614 (1), 7798948 (1)
    glioblastoma 8.27 2 12172541 (1), 19618852 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GRIA2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GRIA2 (8 documents)

    Export disorders for GRIA2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

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    PubMed articles for GRIA2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 300):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GRIA2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Primary structure and functional expression of the AMPA/kainate receptor subunit 2 from human brain. (PubMed id 8003671)1, 2, 9 Sun W.... Montal M. (NeuroReport 1994)
    2. Crystal structure of the GluR2 amino-terminal domain provides insights into the architecture and assembly of ionotropic glutamate receptors. (PubMed id 19651138)1, 2, 9 Clayton A.... Aricescu A.R. (J. Mol. Biol. 2009)
    3. MicroRNAs and target site screening reveals a pre-microRNA-30e variant associated with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 20347265)1, 4 Xu Y....Liu P. (Schizophr. Res. 2010)
    4. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa. (PubMed id 20468064)1, 4 Pinheiro A.P....Woodside D.B. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010)
    5. Comprehensive copy number variant (CNV) analysis of neuronal pathways genes in psychiatric disorders identifies rare variants within patients. (PubMed id 20398908)1, 4 Saus E....Estivill X. (J Psychiatr Res 2010)
    6. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis. (PubMed id 19156168)1, 4 Need A.C....Goldstein D.B. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2009)
    7. A genomewide association study of response to lithium for prevention of recurrence in bipolar disorder. (PubMed id 19448189)1, 4 Perlis R.H....Purcell S. (Am J Psychiatry 2009)
    8. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PubMed id 19086053)1, 4 GratacA^s M....Carracedo A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2009)
    9. Study on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 genes highlights a positive association between schizophrenia and GRIA3 in female patients. (PubMed id 18163426)1, 4 Magri C....Barlati S. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2008)
    10. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2891 HGNC: 4572 AceView: GRIA2 Ensembl:ENSG00000120251 euGenes: HUgn2891
    ECgene: GRIA2 Kegg: 2891 H-InvDB: GRIA2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GRIA2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for GRIA2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GRIA2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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