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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

GRHL2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 53
GCID: GC08P102575

Grainyhead-Like 2 (Drosophila)

(Previous names: deafness, autosomal dominant 28, transcription factor CP2-like...)
(Previous symbols: DFNA28, TFCP2L3)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Grainyhead-Like 2 (Drosophila)1 2     Brother Of Mammalian Grainyhead2 3
TFCP2L31 2 3 5     BOM2 3
Transcription Factor CP2-Like 31 2 3     Deafness, Autosomal Dominant 281
DFNA281 2 5     Grainyhead-Like Protein 2 Homolog2

External Ids:    HGNC: 27991   Entrez Gene: 799772   Ensembl: ENSG000000833077   OMIM: 6085765   UniProtKB: Q6ISB33   

Export aliases for GRHL2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC08P097702


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GRHL2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with
either GRHL1 or GRHL3. Defects in this gene are a cause of non-syndromic sensorineural deafness autosomal
dominant type 28 (DFNA28).(provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009)

GeneCards Summary for GRHL2 Gene: 
GRHL2 (grainyhead-like 2 (Drosophila)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GRHL2 include dfna28 nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness, and deafness, autosomal dominant 28. GO annotations related to this gene include DNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is UBP1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRHL2_HUMAN, Q6ISB3
Function: May function as a transcription factor




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000008.10  NC_018919.2  NT_008046.16  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GRHL2 gene promoter:
         E2F-4   E2F-3a   Sox5   E2F-5   E2F-1   E2F   FOXD1   E2F-2   E4BP4   NF-AT   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGRHL2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GRHL2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GRHL2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8q22.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8q22.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8q22.3

GRHL2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GRHL2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08P102575:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
102,504,660 bp from pter      End:
102,681,954 bp from pter
Size:
177,295 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRHL2_HUMAN, Q6ISB3 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Grainyhead-like protein 2 homolog  
Size: 625 amino acids; 71105 Da
Subunit: Homodimer, also forms heterodimers with GRHL1 or GRHL3
Subcellular location: Nucleus
Secondary accessions: A1L303 Q6NT03 Q9H8B8
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q6ISB3-1   Q6ISB3-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GRHL2: NX_Q6ISB3

Explore proteomics data for GRHL2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q6ISB3

  • GRHL2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    GRHL2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_079191.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000251808   ENSP00000430473   ENSP00000379260  

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    Novus Biologicals GRHL2 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GRHL2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--

    GRHL2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR007604 CP2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q6ISB3

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q6ISB3

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRHL2_HUMAN, Q6ISB3
    Similarity: Belongs to the grh/CP2 family. Grainyhead subfamily


    GRHL2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GRHL2_HUMAN, Q6ISB3
    Function: May function as a transcription factor

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding IEA--
         
    GRHL2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for GRHL2:
     Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         11 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 5 alleles(MGI details for Grhl2):
     cardiovascular system  craniofacial  embryogenesis  growth/size  limbs/digits/tail 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  reproductive system  respiratory system  skeleton 
     vision/eye 

    GRHL2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for GRHL2 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for GRHL2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GRHL2 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GRHL2 

    miRNA
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGRHL2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Gene Editing
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GRHL2


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section



    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for GRHL2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    3 Interacting proteins for GRHL2 (Q6ISB33 ENSP000002518084) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GRHL3Q8TE853, ENSP000002362554I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000236255
    SALL4Q9UJQ43I2D: score=1 
    TFCP2L1Q9NZI63I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001701in utero embryonic development IEA--
    GO:0001843neural tube closure IEA--
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-dependent IEA--
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent IEA--

    GRHL2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for GRHL2

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about GRHL2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GRHL2 gene: 
    NM_024915.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GRHL2:

    Grainyhead-like 2 (Drosophila)
    Hs.661088  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_024915
    6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000251808(uc011lhi.1 uc010mbu.3) ENST00000521085 ENST00000472106(uc010mbt.1)
    ENST00000395927 ENST00000517674 ENST00000474338
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-3678-3p hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-3653 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-138-2* hsa-miR-30a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGRHL2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
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      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GRHL2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK002034.1 AK023844.1 AK292853.1 AK296817.1 AK310221.1 BC069618.1 BC069638.1 BC129822.1 
    BC129823.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.40115323  DT.102825435  DT.92338051  DT.97834707  DT.99976851  DT.121467928  DT.95308823 

    24/39 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 39):

    BC069618 BX505717 AW473832 AW074330 AI918478 BX950928 BM827172 BC069633 
    BC069638 CB852269 BP356683 AW009496 AI078772 AU140918 AU137827 AK002034 
    NM_024915 AI868682 AI186564 AK023844 AI861964 BI057280 AA169379 AA337026 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    2 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRHL2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16
    SP1:        -                                                                                             
    SP2:                                                                                                      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GRHL2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    GRHL2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GRHL2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGAAATGAGC
    GRHL2 Expression
    About this image


    GRHL2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/20 selected tissues (see all 20) fully expand
     
     Tooth
             visceral organ/oral region/upper jaw   
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Trachea
             visceral organ/lung/right lung   
     
     Gut Tube (Gastrointestinal Tract)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Hindgut
     
     Nose (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             sensory organ/nose/nasal cavity   
     
     Lower Urinary Tract (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             visceral organ   

    See GRHL2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for GRHL2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.661088

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRHL2_HUMAN, Q6ISB3
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in placenta, prostate, brain and kidney. Lower-level expression in a variety
    of epithelial tissues such as thymus, kidney, lung, salivary gland, mammary gland and digestive tract. Expressed
    in the cochlear

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GRHL2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GRHL2 gene from 6/13 species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Grhl21 , 5 grainyhead-like 2 (Drosophila)1, 5 88.53(n)1
    94.72(a)1
      15 (14.84 cM)5
    2529731  NM_026496.41  NP_080772.21 
     372330365 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GRHL21 grainyhead-like 2 (Drosophila) 80.69(n)
    87.89(a)
      429506  XM_427063.3  XP_427063.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GRHL26
    grainyhead-like 2 (Drosophila)
    77(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(14254642-14344506)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii grhl2b1 grainyhead-like 2b (Drosophila) 71.56(n)
    73.73(a)
      100034503  NM_001083072.1  NP_001076541.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta grh6
    grainy head
    13(a)
    1 → many
    2R(13690294-13729584)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea grh-16
    Protein GRH-1
    29(a)
    1 → many
    I(1259489-1268155)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GRHL2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GRHL2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for GRHL2 gene
    UBP12  GRHL32  GRHL12  TFCP22  TFCP2L12  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for GRHL2 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     GRHL2_HUMAN:
    GRHL1    GRHL3

    GRHL2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/3971 SNPs in GRHL2 are shown (see all 3971)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs6883241,2
    C,F,A--97704119(-) GCCGGG/ACCGGG 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- A:0.33NA CSA EA 131
    rs339235241,2
    C--97711125(+) ATGGT-/A/AAAA
            
    AAAAA
    1 -- int11CSA 2
    rs2011293701,2
    --97718177(+) CTTGA-/ATCTC 
            
    TTAGC
    1 -- int10--------
    rs40023291,2
    C--97718178(-) AGCTA-/AGAGA 
            
    TTCAA
    1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- AGAGA:0.50CSA 2
    rs40023281,2
    C--97718660(-) AAAAA-/A/AA  
            
    NCCTG
    1 -- int1 trp30--------
    rs350776401,2
    C--97721442(+) GTCTC-/AAAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs2014686121,2
    C--97722814(+) AATAT-/TTTTA 
            
    TTTAT
    1 -- int10--------
    rs669223931,2
    C--97729368(+) ATTTC-/TGTC  
      CATTTT
    TGTTA
    1 -- int10--------
    rs787400771,2
    C--97729371(+) TCTGTC/TCATTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs625191171,2
    C--97780940(+) TCTGAC/ACCTCA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GRHL2 (102504660 - 102681954 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 10/16 variations for GRHL2 (see all 16):    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2421697CNV Deletion20811451
    esv2252185CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2657338CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2677466CNV Deletion23128226
    esv991268CNV Insertion20482838
    esv1282337CNV Insertion17803354
    nsv396225CNV Insertion16902084
    nsv396957CNV Loss16902084
    nsv8370CNV Loss18304495
    esv28138CNV Loss19812545


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GRHL2
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GRHL2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GRHL2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 608576   
    OMIM disorders: 608641  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GRHL2_HUMAN, Q6ISB3
  • Deafness, autosomal dominant, 28 (DFNA28) [MIM:608641]: A form of non-syndromic sensorineural hearing
    loss. Sensorineural deafness results from damage to the neural receptors of the inner ear, the nerve pathways to
    the brain, or the area of the brain that receives sound information. DFNA28 is characterized by mild to moderate
    hearing loss across most frequencies that progresses to severe loss in the higher frequencies by the fifth
    decade. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 9 diseases for GRHL2:    About MalaCards
    dfna28 nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness    deafness, autosomal dominant 28    nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness, autosomal dominant    spina bifida
    sensorineural hearing loss    oral squamous cell carcinoma    squamous cell carcinoma    hepatocellular carcinoma
    prostatitis


    GRHL2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GRHL2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GRHL2 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for GRHL2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for GRHL2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 21):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GRHL2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Mutation of a transcription factor, TFCP2L3, causes progressive autosomal dominant hearing loss, DFNA28. (PubMed id 12393799)1, 2, 3 Peters L.M.... Morell R.J. (2002)
    2. The grainyhead like 2 gene (GRHL2), alias TFCP2L3, is associated with age-related hearing impairment. (PubMed id 17921507)1, 4, 9 Van Laer L....Van Camp G. (2008)
    3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (2010)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)
    6. The identification and characterization of human sister-of-mammalian grainyhead (SOM) expands the grainyhead-like family of developmental transcription factors. (PubMed id 12549979)1, 2 Ting S.B....Jane S.M. (2003)
    7. A highly conserved novel family of mammalian developmental transcription factors related to Drosophila grainyhead. (PubMed id 12175488)1, 2 Wilanowski T.... Jane S.M. (2002)
    8. Regulation of the hTERT promoter activity by MSH2, the hnRNPs K and D, and GRHL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. (PubMed id 19015635)1, 9 Kang X....Park N.H. (2009)
    9. Evidence for multiple roles for grainyheadlike 2 in th e establishment and maintenance of human mucociliary airway epithelium. (PubMed id 23690579)1 Gao X....Hogan B.L. (2013)
    10. Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) inhibits keratinocyte differ entiation through epigenetic mechanism. (PubMed id 23254293)1 Chen W....Kang M.K. (2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 79977 HGNC: 2799 AceView: TFCP2L3 Ensembl:ENSG00000083307 euGenes: HUgn79977
    ECgene: GRHL2 H-InvDB: GRHL2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GRHL2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GRHL2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GRHL2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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