Aliases for GRHL2 Gene
External Ids for GRHL2 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for GRHL2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRHL2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with either GRHL1 or GRHL3. Defects in this gene are a cause of non-syndromic sensorineural deafness autosomal dominant type 28 (DFNA28).[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
GeneCards Summary for GRHL2 Gene
GRHL2 (Grainyhead-Like 2 (Drosophila)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRHL2 include deafness, autosomal dominant 28 and ectodermal dysplasia/short stature syndrome. An important paralog of this gene is UBP1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRHL2 Gene
Transcription factor playing an important role in primary neurulation and in epithelial development (PubMed:25152456). Binds directly to the consensus DNA sequence 5-AACCGGTT-3 acting as an activator and repressor on distinct target genes (By similarity). During embryogenesis, plays unique and cooperative roles with GRHL3 in establishing distinct zones of primary neurulation. Essential for closure 3 (rostral end of the forebrain), functions cooperatively with GRHL3 in closure 2 (forebrain/midbrain boundary) and posterior neuropore closure (By similarity). Regulates epithelial morphogenesis acting as a target gene-associated transcriptional activator of apical junctional complex components. Up-regulates of CLDN3 and CLDN4, as well as of RAB25, which increases the CLDN4 protein and its localization at tight junctions (By similarity). Comprises an essential component of the transcriptional machinery that establishes appropriate expression levels of CLDN4 and CDH1 in different types of epithelia. Exhibits functional redundancy with GRHL3 in epidermal morphogenetic events and epidermal wound repair (By similarity). In lung, forms a regulatory loop with NKX2-1 that coordinates lung epithelial cell morphogenesis and differentiation (By similarity). In keratinocytes, plays a role in telomerase activation during cellular proliferation, regulates TERT expression by binding to TERT promoter region and inhibiting DNA methylation at the 5-CpG island, possibly by interfering with DNMT1 enzyme activity (PubMed:19015635, PubMed:20938050). In addition, impairs keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal function by inhibiting the expression of genes clustered at the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) as well as GRHL1 and GRHL3 through epigenetic mechanisms (PubMed:23254293).