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Aliases for GREM2 Gene

Aliases for GREM2 Gene

  • Gremlin 2, DAN Family BMP Antagonist 2 3
  • Protein Related To DAN And Cerberus 2 3 4
  • PRDC 3 4 6
  • Cysteine Knot Superfamily 1, BMP Antagonist 2 3 4
  • DAN Domain Family Member 3 3 4
  • CKTSF1B2 3 4
  • DAND3 3 4
  • Gremlin 2, Cysteine Knot Superfamily, Homolog (Xenopus Laevis) 2
  • Gremlin 2, Cysteine Knot Superfamily, Homolog 3
  • Gremlin 2 2
  • Gremlin-2 3

External Ids for GREM2 Gene

Summaries for GREM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GREM2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the BMP (bone morphogenic protein) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists contain cystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The CAN (cerberus and dan) subfamily of BMP antagonists, to which this gene belongs, is characterized by a C-terminal cystine knot with an eight-membered ring. The antagonistic effect of the secreted glycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to its direct binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this gene may play a role in regulating organogenesis, body patterning, and tissue differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GREM2 Gene

GREM2 (Gremlin 2, DAN Family BMP Antagonist) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GREM2 include accommodative esotropia and esotropia. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by BMP. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GREM2 Gene

  • Cytokine that inhibits the activity of BMP2 and BMP4 in a dose-dependent manner, and thereby modulates signaling by BMP family members. Contributes to the regulation of embryonic morphogenesis via BMP family members. Antagonizes BMP4-induced suppression of progesterone production in granulosa cells (By similarity).

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GREM2 Gene

Genomics for GREM2 Gene

Genomic Location for GREM2 Gene

Start:
240,489,573 bp from pter
End:
240,612,162 bp from pter
Size:
122,590 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GREM2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GREM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GREM2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GREM2 Gene

Proteins for GREM2 Gene

  • Protein details for GREM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9H772-GREM2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Gremlin-2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9H772
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q86UD9

    Protein attributes for GREM2 Gene

    Size:
    168 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    19320 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7, but has lower affinity for BMP7 than for BMP2 and BMP4. Binds heparin; this impairs the interaction with BMP2 (By similarity).

neXtProt entry for GREM2 Gene

Proteomics data for GREM2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GREM2 Gene

Other Protein References for GREM2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GREM2 Gene

Domains for GREM2 Gene

Protein Domains for GREM2 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GREM2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain.:
    • Q9H772
Family:
  • Belongs to the DAN family.:
    • Q9H772
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GREM2: view

No data available for Gene Families for GREM2 Gene

Function for GREM2 Gene

Molecular function for GREM2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Cytokine that inhibits the activity of BMP2 and BMP4 in a dose-dependent manner, and thereby modulates signaling by BMP family members. Contributes to the regulation of embryonic morphogenesis via BMP family members. Antagonizes BMP4-induced suppression of progesterone production in granulosa cells (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GREM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA --
GO:0008201 heparin binding ISS --
GO:0036122 BMP binding IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GREM2: view

Phenotypes for GREM2 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GREM2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GREM2: view

miRNA for GREM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GREM2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GREM2 Gene

Localization for GREM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GREM2 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GREM2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GREM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 4
cytoskeleton 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GREM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GREM2: view

Pathways for GREM2 Gene

SuperPathways for GREM2 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Signaling by GPCR
2 Signaling by BMP
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GREM2: view

Pathways by source for GREM2 Gene

2 Reactome pathways for GREM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GREM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0010172 embryonic body morphogenesis ISS --
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway ISS --
GO:0030509 BMP signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0030514 negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway --
GO:0038098 sequestering of BMP from receptor via BMP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GREM2: view

Compounds for GREM2 Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GREM2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
cystine 58.8 1
cysteine 37.3 4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GREM2: view

Transcripts for GREM2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GREM2 Gene

(3) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Additional mRNA sequences :
(38) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GREM2 Gene

Gremlin 2, DAN family BMP antagonist:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GREM2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GREM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GREM2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GREM2

Expression for GREM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GREM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GREM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (7.5) and Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (4.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GREM2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GREM2 Gene Hs.98206

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GREM2: view

Orthologs for GREM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GREM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GREM2 36
  • 99.8 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GREM2 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GREM2 36
  • 95.63 (n)
  • 98.21 (a)
GREM2 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grem2 36
  • 92.26 (n)
  • 95.24 (a)
Grem2 16
Grem2 37
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GREM2 37
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GREM2 37
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grem2 36
  • 91.07 (n)
  • 94.64 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GREM2 36
  • 83.63 (n)
  • 83.83 (a)
GREM2 37
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GREM2 37
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grem2 36
  • 73.09 (n)
  • 70.48 (a)
grem2 37
  • 72 (a)
OneToMany
GREM2 (2 of 2) 37
  • 52 (a)
OneToMany
prdc 36
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F35B12.10 37
  • 13 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for GREM2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GREM2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GREM2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GREM2 (if available)

Paralogs for GREM2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GREM2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GREM2: view

No data available for Paralogs for GREM2 Gene

Variants for GREM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GREM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs9697 -- 240,489,647(-) GAAAA(C/T)TTTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs15985 -- 240,490,811(-) CTGCA(A/G)AGCCA utr-variant-3-prime
rs951617 -- 240,504,589(+) TATAT(C/T)GCCTA intron-variant
rs1320589 -- 240,553,212(+) GAGAG(C/T)GTTAG intron-variant
rs1320590 -- 240,553,410(+) TATAC(A/G)AATTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GREM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv873361 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2726029 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2178515 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv1001491 CNV Insertion 20482838
nsv873362 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2304550 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2726040 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2741207 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv873363 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv523917 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2657340 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv1005597 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv2675840 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for GREM2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GREM2

Disorders for GREM2 Gene

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GREM2 Gene

Relevant External Links for GREM2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GREM2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GREM2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GREM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GREM2 Gene

Publications for GREM2 Gene

  1. Identification and characterization of human CKTSF1B2 and CKTSF1B3 genes in silico. (PMID: 15254711) Katoh M. … Katoh M. (Oncol. Rep. 2004) 3 4 23
  2. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4
  3. Protein related to DAN and cerberus is a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist that participates in ovarian paracrine regulation. (PMID: 15039429) Sudo S. … Hsueh A.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 2 3
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4
  5. Follow-up examination of linkage and association to chromosome 1q43 in multiple sclerosis. (PMID: 19626040) McCauley J.L. … Haines J.L. (Genes Immun. 2009) 3 49

Products for GREM2 Gene

Sources for GREM2 Gene

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