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GREM2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 57
GCID: GC01M240652

Gremlin 2, DAN Family BMP Antagonist

(Previous names: gremlin 2, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis),...)
  See GREM2-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Gremlin 2, DAN Family BMP Antagonist1 2     DAN Domain Family Member 32 3
Protein Related To DAN And Cerberus1 2 3     Gremlin 21
PRDC2 3 5     Gremlin 2, Cysteine Knot Superfamily, Homolog (Xenopus Laevis)1
Cysteine Knot Superfamily 1, BMP Antagonist 22 3     Gremlin 2, Cysteine Knot Superfamily, Homolog2
CKTSF1B22 3     gremlin-22
DAND32 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 176551   Entrez Gene: 643882   Ensembl: ENSG000001808757   OMIM: 6088325   UniProtKB: Q9H7723   

Export aliases for GREM2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M236979 GC01M238719 GC01M211110


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GREM2 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the BMP (bone morphogenic protein) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists
contain cystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The CAN (cerberus and dan) subfamily of BMP
antagonists, to which this gene belongs, is characterized by a C-terminal cystine knot with an eight-membered
ring. The antagonistic effect of the secreted glycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to its
direct binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this gene may play a role in regulating organogenesis,
body patterning, and tissue differentiation. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GREM2 Gene:
GREM2 (gremlin 2, DAN family BMP antagonist) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GREM2 include accommodative esotropia, and esotropia. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity. An important paralog of this gene is GREM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM2_HUMAN, Q9H772
Function: Cytokine that inhibits the activity of BMP2 and BMP4 in a dose-dependent manner, and thereby modulates
signaling by BMP family members. Contributes to the regulation of embryonic morphogenesis via BMP family members.
Antagonizes BMP4-induced suppression of progesterone production in granulosa cells (By similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NT_167186.2  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GREM2 gene promoter:
         USF1   HOXA3   CUTL1   RORalpha1   S8   IRF-2   GATA-6   FOXO1a   SEF-1 (1)   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGREM2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GREM2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GREM2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q43   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q43   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q43

GREM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GREM2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M240652:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
240,652,873 bp from pter      End:
240,775,462 bp from pter
Size:
122,590 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM2_HUMAN, Q9H772 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Gremlin-2 precursor  
Size: 168 amino acids; 19320 Da
Subunit: Homodimer. Interacts with BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7, but has lower affinity for BMP7 than for BMP2 and BMP4.
Binds heparin; this impairs the interaction with BMP2 (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: Q86UD9

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GREM2: NX_Q9H772

Explore proteomics data for GREM2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • N-glycosylated (By similarity)1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn40, Asn161
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GREM2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_071914.3  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000318650  
    Reactome Protein details: Q9H772

    GREM2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GREM2
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    antibodies-online proteins for GREM2 (6 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for GREM2

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    antibodies-online antibodies for GREM2 (23 products) 

    GREM2 Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GREM2
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for GREM2 
    antibodies-online kits for GREM2 (2 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR006207 Cys_knot_C
     IPR004133 DAN
     IPR017159 Gremlin_precursor

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9H772

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9H772

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM2_HUMAN, Q9H772
    Similarity: Belongs to the DAN family
    Similarity: Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain


    Find genes that share domains with GREM2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GREM2_HUMAN, Q9H772
    Function: Cytokine that inhibits the activity of BMP2 and BMP4 in a dose-dependent manner, and thereby modulates
    signaling by BMP family members. Contributes to the regulation of embryonic morphogenesis via BMP family members.
    Antagonizes BMP4-induced suppression of progesterone production in granulosa cells (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005125cytokine activity IEA--
    GO:0008201heparin binding ISS--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GREM2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GREM2:
     Decreased viability with pacli  Large nuclei 

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for GREM2

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GREM2:
    hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029946)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GREM2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GREM2 (see all 50):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-1260b hsa-miR-374a hsa-miR-500a hsa-miR-449a hsa-miR-10b*
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    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GREM2
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GREM2

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GREM2_HUMAN, Q9H772: Secreted (Probable)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular4
    cytoskeleton1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GREM2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GREM2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Signaling by GPCR
    Signal Transduction0.58
    2Signaling by BMP
    Signaling by BMP0.35


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GREM2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1 Reactome Pathway for GREM2
        Signaling by BMP


        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including GREM2: 
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GREM2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 6)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GREM2 (Q9H7723 ENSP000003186504) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 6)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    BMP4P126443, ENSP000002454514I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000245451
    BMP2P126433, ENSP000003681044I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000368104
    CER1ENSP000003702974STRING: ENSP00000370297
    FSTL1ENSP000002956334STRING: ENSP00000295633
    NOGENSP000003281814STRING: ENSP00000328181
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0010172embryonic body morphogenesis ISS--
    GO:0019221cytokine-mediated signaling pathway ISS--
    GO:0030509BMP signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0060300regulation of cytokine activity ISS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GREM2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GREM2

    2 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GREM2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cystine 58.8 1 11179006 (1)
    cysteine 37.3 7 15254711 (2), 15806314 (1), 14525956 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with GREM2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GREM2 gene: 
    NM_022469.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GREM2:

    Gremlin 2, DAN family BMP antagonist
    Hs.98206  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_022469
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000318160(uc001hys.3)
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GREM2 (see all 50):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-1260b hsa-miR-374a hsa-miR-500a hsa-miR-449a hsa-miR-10b*
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK024848.1 BC046632.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.40197615 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 38):

    AK024848 BQ005641 F02679 CA437861 AI097232 Z43228 BU158631 CA448413 
    H87673 BC046632 T78690 AI597757 BG150451 BF793224 BQ949853 AI200117 
    AA628953 N30655 AI151500 AA760931 BM805883 BF064283 AA778005 NM_022469 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GREM2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAACCCACAC
    GREM2 Expression
    About this image


    GREM2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 7) fully expand
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Testicular Interstitial Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Fibroblasts (Uncategorized)
             Detroit 551
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)
             Detroit 551
     
     NULL (Uncategorized)
             Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced embryoid bodies
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)
             Mesencephalic Basal Plate
    GREM2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GREM2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.98206
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including GREM2: 
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GREM2 gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Grem21 , 5 gremlin 2 homolog, cysteine knot superfamily (Xenopus more1, 5 92.26(n)1
    95.24(a)1
      1 (81.08 cM)5
    238931  NM_011825.11  NP_035955.11 
     1748337855 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GREM21 gremlin 2 83.63(n)
    83.83(a)
      421507  XM_419552.4  XP_419552.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GREM26
    gremlin 2, DAN family BMP antagonist
    81(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(216843464-216895144)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii prdc2 protein related to DAN and cerberus homolog (mouse) 80.77(n)   378455  BI896369.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F35B12.106
    Protein F35B12.10, isoform c
    13(a)
    1 → many
    V(11625970-11629322) WBGene00009389


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GREM2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GREM2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GREM2 gene
    GREM12  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for GREM2 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     GREM2_HUMAN:
    GREM1    NBL1

    Find genes that share paralogs with GREM2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GREM2 (see all 2811)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs168402501,2
    C,F,H--240652415(+) CCTCCA/GCTAAA 1 -- ds500110Minor allele frequency- G:0.23NA NS EA CSA 786
    rs1406140061,2
    C--240652523(+) TACAC-/TATATAT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs97283141,2
    C,A--240652532(+) tatatA/Tttgtg 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs97286071,2
    C,A--240652533(+) atataG/Ttgtgt 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1431577961,2
    --240652624(+) AAACTC/TGGGAT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1861000221,2
    --240652646(+) TATGGC/TAGTGA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1478606091,2
    --240652647(+) TGGCA-/GGTGAT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1475078481,2
    --240652673(+) TGTTTC/TGCCTT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1401203391,2
    --240652710(+) TCAGTA/GACATC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs97296681,2
    C,F,A,H--240652757(+) TTCCCG/TTGTTT 1 -- ds500110Minor allele frequency- T:0.18NS EA NA WA 772

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GREM2 (240652873 - 240775462 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for GREM2 (see all 13):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2726040CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2178515CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2726029CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2304550CNV Deletion18987734
    esv1005597CNV Deletion20482838
    esv2675840CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2657340CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2741207CNV Deletion23290073
    esv1001491CNV Insertion20482838
    nsv873363CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GREM2
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 608832    OMIM disorders: --

    3 diseases for GREM2:    
    About MalaCards
    accommodative esotropia    esotropia    norrie disease

    4 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GREM2:
    Astigmatism     Myopia     Accommodative esotropia     Keratoconus

    Find genes that share disorders with GREM2           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GREM2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GREM2 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for GREM2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GREM2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 25):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GREM2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Identification and characterization of human CKTSF1B2 and CKTSF1B3 genes in silico. (PubMed id 15254711)1, 2, 9 Katoh M. and Katoh M. (Oncol. Rep. 2004)
    2. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    3. Follow-up examination of linkage and association to chromosome 1q43 in multiple sclerosis. (PubMed id 19626040)1, 4 McCauley J.L....Haines J.L. (Genes Immun. 2009)
    4. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PubMed id 16710414)1, 2 Gregory S.G.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006)
    5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    6. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    7. Protein related to DAN and cerberus is a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist that participates in ovarian paracrine regulation. (PubMed id 15039429)1, 3 Sudo S....Hsueh A.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    8. Comparative genomic analysis of the eight-membered ring cystine knot-containing bone morphogenetic protein antagonists. (PubMed id 14525956)1, 9 Avsian-Kretchmer O. and Hsueh A.J. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2004)
    9. Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human protein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS. (PubMed id 23455922)1 Varjosalo M....Superti-Furga G. (Nat. Methods 2013)
    10. Genetic determinants of trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral densities and bone microstructure. (PubMed id 23437003)1 Paternoster L....Ohlsson C. (PLoS Genet. 2013)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 64388 HGNC: 17655 AceView: GREM2 Ensembl:ENSG00000180875 euGenes: HUgn64388
    ECgene: GREM2 H-InvDB: GREM2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GREM2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GREM2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GREM2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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