Set Analyses:
Advanced Search

Advanced Search

 
Search By
Section (entire)
for


 
or upload a file of gene symbols


Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

GREM1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 60
GCID: GC15P033010

Gremlin 1, DAN Family BMP Antagonist

(Previous names: cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1, gremlin 1,...)
(Previous symbol: CKTSF1B1)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Gremlin 1, DAN Family BMP Antagonist1 2     Gremlin 11
CKTSF1B11 2 3 5     Gremlin 1, Cysteine Knot Superfamily, Homolog (Xenopus Laevis)1
Cysteine Knot Superfamily 1, BMP Antagonist 11 2 3     GREMLIN2
Cell Proliferation-Inducing Gene 2 Protein2 3     Gremlin 1, Cysteine Knot Superfamily, Homolog2
Down-Regulated In Mos-Transformed Cells Protein2 3     Gremlin 1-Like Protein2
DAND22 3     gremlin-12
DRM2 3     Increased In High Glucose-22
IHG-22 3     Increased In High Glucose Protein 23
DAN Domain Family Member 22 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 20011   Entrez Gene: 265852   Ensembl: ENSG000001669237   OMIM: 6030545   UniProtKB: O605653   

Export aliases for GREM1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC15P030728 GC15P030797 GC15P009872


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GREM1 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the BMP (bone morphogenic protein) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists
contain cystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The CAN (cerberus and dan) subfamily of BMP
antagonists, to which this gene belongs, is characterized by a C-terminal cystine knot with an eight-membered
ring. The antagonistic effect of the secreted glycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to its
direct binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this gene may play a role in regulating organogenesis,
body patterning, and tissue differentiation. In mouse, this protein has been shown to relay the sonic hedgehog
(SHH) signal from the polarizing region to the apical ectodermal ridge during limb bud outgrowth. Alternatively
spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul
2010)

GeneCards Summary for GREM1 Gene: 
GREM1 (gremlin 1, DAN family BMP antagonist) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GREM1 include pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, and renal hypoplasia, and among its related super-pathways are Signaling by BMP. GO annotations related to this gene include protein tyrosine kinase activator activity and cytokine activity. An important paralog of this gene is GREM2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
Function: Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as
a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop.
Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis (By
similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000015.9  NT_010194.17  NC_018926.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GREM1 gene promoter:
         GATA-3   p53   AP-2alpha isoform 3   AP-2alpha isoform 2   STAT3   AP-2alpha isoform 4   AP-2alpha   ATF   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGREM1 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GREM1

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 15q13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  15q13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 15q13.3

GREM1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GREM1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 15         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC15P033010:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
33,010,175 bp from pter      End:
33,026,870 bp from pter
Size:
16,696 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Gremlin-1 precursor  
Size: 184 amino acids; 20697 Da
Subunit: Interacts with SLIT1 and SLIT2 in a glycosylation-dependent manner (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Secreted (Probable)
Secondary accessions: Q52LV3 Q8N914 Q8N936
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  O60565-1   O60565-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GREM1: NX_O60565

Explore proteomics data for GREM1 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_O60565

  • GREM1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    GREM1 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001178251.1  NP_001178252.1  NP_037504.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000300177   ENSP00000453387   ENSP00000453141   ENSP00000323101  

    Human Recombinant Protein Products for GREM1: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for GREM1 (Gremlin)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GREM1
    OriGene Custom MassSpec 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for GREM1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for GREM1
    Novus Biologicals GREM1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GREM1 Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for GREM1
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for GREM1 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GREM1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GREM1 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005615extracellular space NAS9660951
    GO:0009986cell surface IEA--

    GREM1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    GREM1 Antibody Products: 
    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
    R&D Systems Antibodies for GREM1 (Gremlin)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GREM1 
    Browse OriGene Antibodies
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GREM1
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for GREM1
    Novus Biologicals GREM1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GREM1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GREM1 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for GREM1
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GREM1 

    Assay Products for GREM1: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for GREM1
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GREM1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GREM1 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GREM1


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR006207 Cys_knot_C
     IPR004133 DAN
     IPR017159 Gremlin_precursor

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O60565

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O60565

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB006207 Cystine knot

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
    Similarity: Belongs to the DAN family
    Similarity: Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain


    GREM1 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
    Function: Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as
    a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop.
    Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis (By
    similarity)
    Induction: By high glucose through TGFB1-mediated pathways in mesangial cell. Down-regulated in tumor cell lines

         Summary:

    During embryonic development, GREM1 as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells: Loose Mesenchyme Cells in Metanephric Mesenchyme, Metanephric Mesenchyme Cells in Metanephric Mesenchyme

    It affects the following cells: Ureteric Bud Tip Cells in Ureteric Bud

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/7 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005125cytokine activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16545136
    GO:0016015morphogen activity ISS9660951
    GO:0030296protein tyrosine kinase activator activity IEA--
    GO:0036122BMP binding ISS9660951
         
    GREM1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         11 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 5 alleles(MGI details for Grem1):
     cellular  craniofacial  embryogenesis  homeostasis/metabolism  limbs/digits/tail 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  renal/urinary system  reproductive system  respiratory system 
     skeleton 

    GREM1 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for GREM1 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for GREM1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GREM1 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GREM1 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat GREM1
    8/45 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate GREM1 (see all 45):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-642a hsa-miR-199a-3p hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-218 hsa-miR-23a hsa-miR-3174 hsa-miR-181b
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GREM1
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GREM1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GREM1
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of GREM1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GREM1 (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GREM1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GREM1 (NM_013372)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GREM1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GREM1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GREM1
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of GREM1 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of GREM1 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GREM1
    LifeMap BioReagents: cell line associated with GREM1: PureStem Z11, Meso Progenitor
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GREM1


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for GREM1 About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Signaling by BMP
    BMP receptor signaling0.31
    2TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
    TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
    3Angiogenesis
    Angiogenesis

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for GREM1
        Angiogenesis
    TGF-beta/Smad Signaling

    1 BioSystems Pathway for GREM1
        BMP receptor signaling




    GREM1 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for GREM1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 10)

    5/10 Interacting proteins for GREM1 (O605651, 2, 3 ENSP000003001774) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 10)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    YWHAHQ049171, 2, 3, ENSP000002489754EBI-944395,EBI-306940 MINT-8007394 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000248975
    BMP2P126433, ENSP000003681044I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000368104
    BAMBIENSP000003646834STRING: ENSP00000364683
    BMP4ENSP000002454514STRING: ENSP00000245451
    BMPR1BENSP000002645684STRING: ENSP00000264568
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/45 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 45):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000902cell morphogenesis IDA16545136
    GO:0001525angiogenesis ----
    GO:0001658branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis IEA--
    GO:0002042cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis ISS9660951
    GO:0002092positive regulation of receptor internalization ISS9660951

    GREM1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    GREM1 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for GREM1

    5 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GREM1 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cystine 52.9 2 11179006 (1), 11984879 (1)
    cysteine 27.5 8 15254711 (2), 15806314 (1), 16816361 (1), 19715619 (1) (see all 5)
    dexamethasone 4.49 2 15268896 (1)
    glucose 0 11 10744662 (3), 12386293 (1), 15957132 (1)
    tyrosine 0 2 17077323 (1), 16545136 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about GREM1

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GREM1 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001191322.1  NM_001191323.1  NM_013372.6  

    Unigene Cluster for GREM1:

    Gremlin 1, DAN family BMP antagonist
    Hs.40098  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AY232290
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000300177(uc010uby.2 uc001zhd.2 uc001zhe.2) ENST00000560677
    ENST00000560830 ENST00000322805
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat GREM1
    8/45 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate GREM1 (see all 45):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-642a hsa-miR-199a-3p hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-218 hsa-miR-23a hsa-miR-3174 hsa-miR-181b
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GREM1
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GREM1
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GREM1 (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GREM1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GREM1 (NM_013372)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GREM1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GREM1
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of GREM1 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of GREM1 
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GREM1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GREM1
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GREM1
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF045800.1 AF110137.2 AF154054.1 AK095741.1 AK095890.1 AK095972.1 AK312265.1 AL359059.1 
    AL359060.1 AY232290.1 BC069525.1 BC093778.1 BC101611.1 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.455758  DT.101971550  DT.95071440  DT.121024008  DT.102832129  DT.100025856  DT.100789439  DT.121024016 
    DT.70100915 

    24/279 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 279):

    AW069841 BG108248 AI811571 AI521673 NM_013372 AI753050 AI753523 AI302125 
    BU180797 BP376787 BC069525 BP377797 AA600003 AF045800 BQ020237 AI090390 
    BG939435 CB161671 AI753621 AA600104 AA373975 CB160772 CO247687 AA669978 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GREM1    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d
    SP1:                    -                           
    SP2:                          -                     
    SP3:                                                


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GREM1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    GREM1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GREM1 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AATCTGTAAC
    GREM1 Expression
    About this image


    GREM1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/32 selected tissues (see all 32) fully expand
     
     Fibroblast
             Detroit 551
             Human Prostate Fibroblasts (HPrF)   
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Stylopod
             Human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells
             Normal Human osteoblasts (NHOST)   
             BONE MARROW   
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Stylopod
             Meckel's Cartilage
             Human Annulus Fibrosus Cells (HAFC)   
     
     Limb (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Stylopod
     
     Dermis (Uncategorized)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Human Hair Outer Root Sheath Cells (HHORSC)   

    See GREM1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for GREM1

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.40098

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in small intestine, fetal brain and colon. Expression is restricted to
    intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) at the crypt base. In subjects with HMPS1, by contrast, GREM1 is
    expressed, not only in basal ISEMFs, but also at very high levels in epithelial cells (predominantly
    colonocytes), with expression extending most of the way up the sides of the crypt. Weakly expressed in brain,
    ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. In brain found in the region localized around the internal capsule
    in the large subcortical nuclei, including caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus.
    Predominantly expressed in normal cells including neurons, astrocytes and fibroblasts

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including GREM1: 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Fibrosis in human mouse rat
              Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Common Cytokines in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GREM1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GREM1
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GREM1
    QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GREM1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GREM1 gene from 7/12 species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Grem11 , 5 gremlin 11, 5 89.31(n)1
    97.83(a)1
      2 (57.43 cM)5
    238921  NM_011824.41  NP_035954.11 
     1137461645 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GREM11 gremlin 1 78.02(n)
    84.62(a)
      395826  NM_204978.1  NP_990309.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GREM16
    --
    (see all 3)
    Uncharacterized protein
    (see all 3)
    77(a)
    46(a)
    (see all 3)
    many → 1
    many → 1
    (see all 3)
    1(32878860-32879405)
    4(144540986-144541540)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Cktsf1b12 gremlin 75.47(n)    AF045798.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1000057281 gremlin-1-like 70.88(n)
    72.89(a)
      100005728  XM_001344664.2  XP_001344700.2 
    mosquito
    (Anopheles gambiae)
    Insecta AgaP_AGAP0079941 AGAP007994-PA 64.31(n)
    61.95(a)
      3291626  XM_555475.3  XP_555475.3 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F35B12.106
    Protein F35B12.10, isoform c
    13(a)
    1 → many
    V(11625970-11629322)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GREM1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GREM1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for GREM1 gene
    GREM22  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for GREM1 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     GREM1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GREM2

    GREM1 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/428 SNPs in GREM1 are shown (see all 428)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 15 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs778650171,2
    F--33008231(+) ACAGAG/TAGGGG 3 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01EA 120
    rs1382916871,2
    --33008262(+) GTGGGA/GGCTCT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1438742761,2
    --33008348(+) ACAGTG/TTCAGG 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs116338621,2
    C,F,A,H--33008359(+) GCTCCC/AAAAAA 3 -- us2k1 trp33Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA 8
    rs667351641,2
    C--33008359(+) GCTCC-/A/CAAAAA 3 -- us2k12NA 4
    rs733769231,2
    C--33008596(+) GGTCAT/CCGCCT 3 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.10WA 120
    rs1472477071,2
    --33008682(+) ATGCTC/TCCATT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs352854861,2
    C--33008869(+) AATATC/TTATTT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs38129341,2
    C,F,A,H--33008870(-) GAAATA/GGATAT 3 -- us2k1 tfbs321Minor allele frequency- G:0.36NS EA NA WA CSA 2346
    rs740119441,2
    C,F--33008923(+) CCTAAC/TGCCGG 3 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- T:0.25WA CSA 122

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GREM1 (33010175 - 33026870 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for GREM1:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2422296CNV Duplication17116639
    nsv483039CNV Gain15286789
    nsv832961CNV Gain17160897
    nsv456785CNV Gain19166990
    esv33337CNV Gain+Loss17666407


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GREM1
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GREM1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GREM1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 603054    OMIM disorders: --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
  • Polyposis syndrome, mixed hereditary 1 (HMPS1) [MIM:601228]: A disease characterized by apparent
    autosomal dominant inheritance of multiple types of colorectal polyp, with colorectal carcinoma occurring in a
    high proportion of affected individuals. Patients can develop polyps of multiple and mixed morphologies,
    including serrated lesions, Peutz-Jeghers polyps, juvenile polyps, conventional adenomas and colorectal carcinoma
    in the absence of any identifiable extra-colonic features. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the
    gene represented in this entry. HMPS1 is caused by a duplication spanning the 3' end of the SCG5 gene and a
    region upstream of the GREM1 locus. This duplication is associated with increased allele-specific GREM1
    expression that may cause reduced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway activity. This mechanism also
    underlies tumorigenesis in juvenile polyposis of the large bowel (PubMed:22561515)

  • 20/35 diseases for GREM1 (see all 35):    About MalaCards
    pauci-immune glomerulonephritis    renal hypoplasia    idiopathic interstitial pneumonia    asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy
    norrie disease    proliferative vitreoretinopathy    radioulnar synostosis    synostosis
    pulmonary sarcoidosis    clear cell renal cell carcinoma    idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis    pulmonary fibrosis
    sarcoidosis    malignant mesothelioma    pneumonia    cleft palate
    renal cell carcinoma    cleft lip    glomerulonephritis    endometriosis


    GREM1 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    6 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GREM1 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    diabetic nephropathies 61.5 32 15957132 (4), 17980714 (4), 20150533 (3), 19303394 (3) (see all 11)
    renal disease 28.6 5 12885271 (2), 16582577 (1), 17980714 (1), 18455002 (1)
    gastric cancer 17 2 19121317 (1)
    tumors 0 7 9660951 (1), 19121317 (1), 17077323 (1), 15334466 (1) (see all 6)
    carcinoma 0 3 16545136 (2), 17003113 (1)
    cancer 0 4 16545136 (2), 16234815 (1), 17003113 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GREM1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GREM1 (12 documents)

    Export disorders for GREM1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for GREM1 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 123):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GREM1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The Xenopus dorsalizing factor Gremlin identifies a novel family of secreted proteins that antagonize BMP activities. (PubMed id 9660951)1, 2, 3, 9 Hsu D.R.... Harland R.M. (1998)
    2. Evaluation of gremlin 1 (GREM1) as a candidate suscep tibility gene for albuminuria-related traits in Mexican Americans with type 2 d iabetes mellitus. (PubMed id 19577778)1, 4, 9 Thameem F....Abboud H.E. (2009)
    3. IHG-2, a mesangial cell gene induced by high glucose, is human gremlin. Regulation by extracellular glucose concentration, cyclic mechanical strain, and transforming growth factor-beta1. (PubMed id 10744662)1, 2, 9 McMahon R.... Brady H.R. (2000)
    4. A GREM1 gene variant associates with diabetic nephrop athy. (PubMed id 20150533)1, 4, 9 McKnight A.J....Maxwell A.P. (2010)
    5. DRM/GREMLIN (CKTSF1B1) maps to human chromosome 15 and is highly expressed in adult and fetal brain. (PubMed id 10894942)1, 2, 9 Topol L.Z.... Blair D.G. (2000)
    6. Genetic heterogeneity in colorectal cancer associatio ns between African and European americans. (PubMed id 20659471)1, 4 Kupfer S.S....Ellis N.A. (2010)
    7. Genome-wide association study identifies two suscepti bility loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. (PubMed id 20023658)1, 4 Mangold E....NAPthen M.M. (2010)
    8. High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men. (PubMed id 19453261)1, 4 Yerges L.M....Zmuda J.M. (2009)
    9. No breast cancer association for transforming growth factor-beta pathway colorectal cancer single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PubMed id 19505925)1, 4 Gibson L....Fletcher O. (2009)
    10. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 26585 HGNC: 2001 AceView: GREM1 Ensembl:ENSG00000166923 euGenes: HUgn26585
    ECgene: GREM1 H-InvDB: GREM1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GREM1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GREM1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GREM1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
    About This Section

     
     EMD Millipore Custom Antibody & Bulk Services
     EMD Millipore Preclinical / Clinical Development Services
     EMD Millipore Immunoassay Services
     EMD Millipore Target Screening & Profiling Services

      
     Antibodies for GREM1 (Gremlin)   Browse Cell Culture Products  
     Browse ELISAs   Browse Flow Cytometry Kits  
     Browse Primer Pairs   Browse Kinase Activity Assays/Reagents  
     Browse ELISpot Kits/Development Modules   Browse TFB/Immunoprecipitation Assays  
     Browse Apoptosis Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway (UPP) Assay Kits/Reagents  
     Browse DNA Damage/Repair Kits/Reagents   Browse Multiplex/Array Assay Kits/Reagents  
     Browse Cell Selection/Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Secondary Antibodies/Controls/Staining Reagents  
     Browse Protease Activity Assays and Reagents   Recombinant/Natural Proteins for GREM1 (Gremlin)  
     Browse Stem Cell Products   Browse Tocris Biochemicals & Compounds  
     Browse cDNA Clones   Browse Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays  
     Browse OriGene Antibodies   OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GREM1  
     OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GREM1   OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GREM1  
     OriGene Custom Mass Spec   OriGene clones in human, mouse for GREM1  
     OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GREM1   Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells  
     OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GREM1   OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling  
     OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GREM1   OriGene Custom Protein Services for GREM1  

     
     
     QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of in human, mouse, rat GREM1
     QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GREM1
     QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
     QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GREM1
     QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
     QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
     GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for GREM1 GenScript cDNA clones with any tag delivered in your preferred vector for GREM1
     GenScript Custom Assay Services for GREM1 GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for GREM1
     GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GREM1 CloneReady with Over 120,000 Genes
     Gene Synthesis: Any Gene in Any Vector Vector-based siRNA and miRNA, Ready for Transfection
     Gene Mutant Library, Variants up to 10^11 Plasmid Preparation
     Custom Peptide Services
     Antibodies & Assays for GREM1 

     Regulatory tfbs in GREM1 promoter
     Search Chromatin IP Primers for GREM1
     RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GREM1
     Search GNC Networks for GREM1
     SABiosciences PCR Arrays including human, mouse, rat GREM1
     Search Tocris compounds for GREM1
     Proteins and Antibodies for GREM1
     Cell Lysates for GREM1
     cDNA Clones for GREM1
     4000+ Proteins
     Search Sino Biological for antibodies, proteins & pathways
     Protein Production Services
     Transfection Reagents
     Protein A/G/L resins
     Isotyping reagents
     Search www.enzolifesciences.com for proteins, assays, substrates, inhibitors & antibodies
     Novus Tissue Slides
     GREM1 antibodies
     GREM1 proteins
     GREM1 lysates
     Antibodies for GREM1
     See all of Abcam's Antibodies, Kits and Proteins for GREM1
     Custom Antibody / Protein Production Service
     Bulk Purchasing
     Advantages of Rabbit Monoclonal antibodies
     Abcam protocols and scientific support
     Recombinant Protein for GREM1




     Proteins for GREM1
     Antibodies for GREM1
     ELISAs for GREM1
     CLIAs for GREM1
     Cell Line associated with GREM1: PureStem Z11, Meso Progenitor
     Gene Synthesis
     Protein Engineering
     Variant Library Synthesis
     Codon Optimization
     Protein Production and Purification
     Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GREM1
     Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for GREM1
     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for GREM1
     ThermoFisher Antibody for GREM1
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GREM1
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for GREM1
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for GREM1
    Customized:
     lentivirus for stable overexpression of GREM1
     lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of GREM1
     adenovirus for overexpression of GREM1
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GREM1
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

    View Random Gene

    Category
    (GIFtS: 73)
    transforming growth factor, beta 1
    GIFtS Group
    The GeneCards human gene database gene index: 1 3 5 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 


    Developed at the Crown Human Genome Center, Department of Molecular Genetics, the Weizmann Institute of Science

    Hot genes      Disease genes      GREM1 gene at Home site.
    hostname: 356980-web2.xennexinc.com index build: 106 solr: 1.4