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GREM1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 61
GCID: GC15P033010

Gremlin 1, DAN Family BMP Antagonist

(Previous names: cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1, gremlin 1,...)
(Previous symbols: CKTSF1B1, CRAC1)
  See GREM1-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Gremlin 1, DAN Family BMP Antagonist1 2     DAN Domain Family Member 22 3
CKTSF1B11 2 3 5     Gremlin 11
Cysteine Knot Superfamily 1, BMP Antagonist 11 2 3     Gremlin 1, Cysteine Knot Superfamily, Homolog (Xenopus Laevis)1
CRAC11 2     GREMLIN2
Colorectal Adenoma And Carcinoma 11 2     HMPS2
Cell Proliferation-Inducing Gene 2 Protein2 3     Gremlin 1, Cysteine Knot Superfamily, Homolog2
Down-Regulated In Mos-Transformed Cells Protein2 3     Gremlin 1-Like Protein2
DAND22 3     gremlin-12
DRM2 3     Increased In High Glucose-22
IHG-22 3     Increased In High Glucose Protein 23

External Ids:    HGNC: 20011   Entrez Gene: 265852   Ensembl: ENSG000001669237   OMIM: 6030545   UniProtKB: O605653   

Export aliases for GREM1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC15P030728 GC15P030797 GC15P009872


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GREM1 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the BMP (bone morphogenic protein) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists
contain cystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The CAN (cerberus and dan) subfamily of BMP
antagonists, to which this gene belongs, is characterized by a C-terminal cystine knot with an eight-membered
ring. The antagonistic effect of the secreted glycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to its
direct binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this gene may play a role in regulating organogenesis,
body patterning, and tissue differentiation. In mouse, this protein has been shown to relay the sonic hedgehog
(SHH) signal from the polarizing region to the apical ectodermal ridge during limb bud outgrowth. Alternatively
spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul
2010)

GeneCards Summary for GREM1 Gene:
GREM1 (gremlin 1, DAN family BMP antagonist) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GREM1 include pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, and colorectal adenoma. GO annotations related to this gene include protein tyrosine kinase activator activity and cytokine activity. An important paralog of this gene is GREM2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
Function: Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as
a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop.
Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis (By
similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000015.9  NT_010194.18  NT_187660.1  NC_018926.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GREM1 gene promoter:
         GATA-3   p53   AP-2alpha isoform 3   AP-2alpha isoform 2   STAT3   AP-2alpha isoform 4   AP-2alpha   ATF   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGREM1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GREM1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GREM1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 15q13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  15q13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 15q13.3

GREM1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GREM1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 15         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC15P033010:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
33,010,175 bp from pter      End:
33,026,870 bp from pter
Size:
16,696 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Gremlin-1 precursor  
Size: 184 amino acids; 20697 Da
Subunit: Interacts with SLIT1 and SLIT2 in a glycosylation-dependent manner (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: Q52LV3 Q8N914 Q8N936
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  O60565-1   O60565-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GREM1: NX_O60565

Explore proteomics data for GREM1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn42
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GREM1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001178251.1  NP_001178252.1  NP_037504.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000300177   ENSP00000453387   ENSP00000453141   ENSP00000323101  

    GREM1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for GREM1
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    GREM1 Antibody Products:

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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for GREM1 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR006207 Cys_knot_C
     IPR004133 DAN
     IPR017159 Gremlin_precursor

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O60565

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O60565

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB006207 Cystine knot

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
    Similarity: Belongs to the DAN family
    Similarity: Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain


    Find genes that share domains with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
    Function: Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as
    a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop.
    Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis (By
    similarity)
    Induction: By high glucose through TGFB1-mediated pathways in mesangial cell. Down-regulated in tumor cell lines

         Summary: 

    During embryonic development, GREM1 as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells:
                
    Kidney: Loose Mesenchyme Cells (Metanephric Mesenchyme), Metanephric Mesenchyme Cells (Metanephric Mesenchyme)

    It affects the following cells:
    Kidney: Ureteric Bud Tip Cells (Ureteric Bud)

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005125cytokine activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16545136
    GO:0016015morphogen activity ISS9660951
    GO:0030296protein tyrosine kinase activator activity ----
    GO:0030297transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity ISS--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         11 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 5 alleles(MGI details for Grem1):
     cellular  craniofacial  embryogenesis  homeostasis/metabolism  limbs/digits/tail 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  renal/urinary system  reproductive system  respiratory system 
     skeleton 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GREM1
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GREM1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GREM1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GREM1

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GREM1:
    hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT022737)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GREM1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GREM1 (see all 45):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-642a hsa-miR-199a-3p hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-218 hsa-miR-23a hsa-miR-3174 hsa-miR-181b
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GREM1

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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GREM1 (NM_013372)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GREM1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GREM1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GREM1

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    ESI BIO PureStem Progenitor for GREM1: 
    PureStem Z11, Meso Progenitor
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GREM1


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GREM1_HUMAN, O60565: Secreted (Probable)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular4

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005615extracellular space NAS9660951
    GO:0009986cell surface IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GREM1 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Signaling by BMP
    BMP receptor signaling0.31
    2TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
    TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
    3Angiogenesis (CST)
    Angiogenesis


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for GREM1
        Angiogenesis
    TGF-beta/Smad Signaling

    1 BioSystems Pathway for GREM1
        BMP receptor signaling



        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GREM1: 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Fibrosis in human mouse rat
              Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Common Cytokines in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GREM1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 10)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GREM1 (O605651, 2, 3 ENSP000003001774) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 10)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    YWHAHQ049171, 2, 3, ENSP000002489754EBI-944395,EBI-306940 MINT-8007394 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000248975
    BMP2P126433, ENSP000003681044I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000368104
    BAMBIENSP000003646834STRING: ENSP00000364683
    BMP4ENSP000002454514STRING: ENSP00000245451
    BMPR1BENSP000002645684STRING: ENSP00000264568
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 48):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000902cell morphogenesis IDA16545136
    GO:0001525angiogenesis ----
    GO:0001658branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis IEA--
    GO:0002042cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis ISS9660951
    GO:0002092positive regulation of receptor internalization ISS9660951

    Find genes that share ontologies with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GREM1

    5 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GREM1 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cystine 52.9 2 11179006 (1), 11984879 (1)
    cysteine 27.5 8 15254711 (2), 15806314 (1), 16816361 (1), 19715619 (1) (see all 5)
    dexamethasone 4.49 2 15268896 (1)
    glucose 0 11 10744662 (3), 12386293 (1), 15957132 (1)
    tyrosine 0 2 17077323 (1), 16545136 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GREM1 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001191322.1  NM_001191323.1  NM_013372.6  

    Unigene Cluster for GREM1:

    Gremlin 1, DAN family BMP antagonist
    Hs.40098  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AY232290
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000300177(uc010uby.2 uc001zhd.2 uc001zhe.2) ENST00000560677
    ENST00000560830 ENST00000322805
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GREM1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GREM1 (see all 45):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-642a hsa-miR-199a-3p hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-218 hsa-miR-23a hsa-miR-3174 hsa-miR-181b
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF045800.1 AF110137.2 AF154054.1 AK095741.1 AK095890.1 AK095972.1 AK312265.1 AL359059.1 
    AL359060.1 AY232290.1 BC069525.1 BC093778.1 BC101611.1 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.455758  DT.101971550  DT.95071440  DT.121024008  DT.102832129  DT.100025856  DT.100789439  DT.121024016 
    DT.70100915 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 279):

    BP376787 AI968107 AA599801 AL359060 AA669978 BQ028315 AI753523 AI811571 
    AA670070 AW069430 BM994968 AI753482 AI753050 AW069006 AI753593 AA670062 
    BX483074 NM_013372 AU280148 BF431876 BG108248 AI445339 AA373673 AL359059 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GREM1    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d
    SP1:                    -                           
    SP2:                          -                     
    SP3:                                                


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GREM1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GREM1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AATCTGTAAC
    GREM1 Expression
    About this image


    GREM1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 24) fully expand
     
     Fibroblasts (Uncategorized)    fully expand to see all 10 entries
             Detroit 551
             SR1 Dermal Fibroblasts   
     
     Dermis (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             SR1 Dermal Fibroblasts   
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)
             Detroit 551
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metanephric Mesenchyme Cells Metanephric Mesenchyme
             Metanephros
     
     Intestine
             Human Villous Mesenchymal Fibroblasts (HVMF)   
    GREM1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GREM1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.40098

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in small intestine, fetal brain and colon. Expression is restricted to
    intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) at the crypt base. In subjects with HMPS1, by contrast, GREM1 is
    expressed, not only in basal ISEMFs, but also at very high levels in epithelial cells (predominantly
    colonocytes), with expression extending most of the way up the sides of the crypt. Weakly expressed in brain,
    ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. In brain found in the region localized around the internal capsule
    in the large subcortical nuclei, including caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus.
    Predominantly expressed in normal cells including neurons, astrocytes and fibroblasts

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GREM1: 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Fibrosis in human mouse rat
              Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Common Cytokines in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GREM1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GREM1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GREM1
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GREM1
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GREM1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GREM1 gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Grem11 , 5 gremlin 11, 5 89.31(n)1
    97.83(a)1
      2 (57.43 cM)5
    238921  NM_011824.41  NP_035954.11 
     1137461645 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GREM11 gremlin 1 77.11(n)
    83.52(a)
      395826  NM_204978.2  NP_990309.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    (see all 3)
    Uncharacterized protein
    (see all 3)
    77(a)
    46(a)
    (see all 3)
    many → 1
    many → 1
    (see all 3)
    1(32878860-32879405)
    4(144540986-144541540)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Cktsf1b12 gremlin 75.47(n)    AF045798.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1000057281 gremlin-1-like 73.68(n)
    75.66(a)
      100005728  XM_005173572.1  XP_005173629.1 
    mosquito
    (Anopheles gambiae)
    Insecta AgaP_AGAP0079941 AgaP_AGAP007994 65.75(n)
    63.3(a)
      3291626  XM_555475.3  XP_555475.3 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F35B12.106
    Protein F35B12.10, isoform c
    13(a)
    1 → many
    V(11625970-11629322) WBGene00009389


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GREM1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GREM1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GREM1 gene
    GREM22  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for GREM1 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     GREM1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GREM2    MINOS1-NBL1

    Find genes that share paralogs with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GREM1 (see all 428)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 15 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs778650171,2
    F--33008231(+) ACAGAG/TAGGGG 3 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01EA 120
    rs1382916871,2
    --33008262(+) GTGGGA/GGCTCT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1438742761,2
    --33008348(+) ACAGTG/TTCAGG 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs116338621,2
    C,F,A,H--33008359(+) GCTCCC/AAAAAA 3 -- us2k1 trp33Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA 8
    rs667351641,2
    C--33008359(+) GCTCC-/A/CAAAAA 3 -- us2k12NA 4
    rs733769231,2
    C--33008596(+) GGTCAT/CCGCCT 3 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.10WA 120
    rs1472477071,2
    --33008682(+) ATGCTC/TCCATT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs352854861,2
    C--33008869(+) AATATC/TTATTT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs38129341,2
    C,F,A,H--33008870(-) GAAATA/GGATAT 3 -- us2k1 tfbs321Minor allele frequency- G:0.36NS EA NA WA CSA 2346
    rs740119441,2
    C,F--33008923(+) CCTAAC/TGCCGG 3 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- T:0.25WA CSA 122

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GREM1 (33010175 - 33026870 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for GREM1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2422296CNV Duplication17116639
    nsv483039CNV Gain15286789
    nsv832961CNV Gain17160897
    nsv456785CNV Gain19166990
    esv33337CNV Gain+Loss17666407

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GREM1
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GREM1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GREM1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 603054    OMIM disorders: --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GREM1_HUMAN, O60565
  • Polyposis syndrome, mixed hereditary 1 (HMPS1) [MIM:601228]: A disease characterized by apparent
    autosomal dominant inheritance of multiple types of colorectal polyp, with colorectal carcinoma occurring in a
    high proportion of affected individuals. Patients can develop polyps of multiple and mixed morphologies,
    including serrated lesions, Peutz-Jeghers polyps, juvenile polyps, conventional adenomas and colorectal carcinoma
    in the absence of any identifiable extra-colonic features. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the
    gene represented in this entry. HMPS1 is caused by a duplication spanning the 3' end of the SCG5 gene and a
    region upstream of the GREM1 locus. This duplication is associated with increased allele-specific GREM1
    expression that may cause reduced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway activity. This mechanism also
    underlies tumorigenesis in juvenile polyposis of the large bowel (PubMed:22561515)

  • 9 diseases for GREM1:    
    About MalaCards
    pauci-immune glomerulonephritis    colorectal adenoma    hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome 2    renal hypoplasia
    idiopathic interstitial pneumonia    norrie disease    asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy    proliferative vitreoretinopathy
    adenoma


    Find genes that share disorders with GREM1           About GenesLikeMe

    6 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GREM1 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    diabetic nephropathies 61.5 32 15957132 (4), 17980714 (4), 20150533 (3), 19303394 (3) (see all 11)
    renal disease 28.6 5 12885271 (2), 16582577 (1), 17980714 (1), 18455002 (1)
    gastric cancer 17 2 19121317 (1)
    tumors 0 7 9660951 (1), 19121317 (1), 17077323 (1), 15334466 (1) (see all 6)
    carcinoma 0 3 16545136 (2), 17003113 (1)
    cancer 0 4 16545136 (2), 16234815 (1), 17003113 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GREM1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GREM1 (12 documents)

    Export disorders for GREM1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GREM1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 128):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GREM1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The Xenopus dorsalizing factor Gremlin identifies a novel family of secreted proteins that antagonize BMP activities. (PubMed id 9660951)1, 2, 3, 9 Hsu D.R.... Harland R.M. (Mol. Cell 1998)
    2. Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome is caused by a 40-kb upstream duplication that leads to increased and ectopic expression of the BMP antagonist GREM1. (PubMed id 22561515)1, 2, 3 Jaeger E.... Tomlinson I. (Nat. Genet. 2012)
    3. Evaluation of gremlin 1 (GREM1) as a candidate susceptibility gene for albuminuria-related traits in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (PubMed id 19577778)1, 4, 9 Thameem F....Abboud H.E. (Metab. Clin. Exp. 2009)
    4. IHG-2, a mesangial cell gene induced by high glucose, is human gremlin. Regulation by extracellular glucose concentration, cyclic mechanical strain, and transforming growth factor-beta1. (PubMed id 10744662)1, 2, 9 McMahon R.... Brady H.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    5. A GREM1 gene variant associates with diabetic nephropathy. (PubMed id 20150533)1, 4, 9 McKnight A.J....Maxwell A.P. (J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2010)
    6. DRM/GREMLIN (CKTSF1B1) maps to human chromosome 15 and is highly expressed in adult and fetal brain. (PubMed id 10894942)1, 2, 9 Topol L.Z.... Blair D.G. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 2000)
    7. Genetic heterogeneity in colorectal cancer associations between African and European americans. (PubMed id 20659471)1, 4 Kupfer S.S....Ellis N.A. (Gastroenterology 2010)
    8. Genome-wide association study identifies two susceptibility loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. (PubMed id 20023658)1, 4 Mangold E....NAPthen M.M. (Nat. Genet. 2010)
    9. High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men. (PubMed id 19453261)1, 4 Yerges L.M....Zmuda J.M. (J. Bone Miner. Res. 2009)
    10. No breast cancer association for transforming growth factor-beta pathway colorectal cancer single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PubMed id 19505925)1, 4 Gibson L....Fletcher O. (amp 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 26585 HGNC: 2001 AceView: GREM1 Ensembl:ENSG00000166923 euGenes: HUgn26585
    ECgene: GREM1 H-InvDB: GREM1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GREM1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for GREM1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GREM1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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