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Aliases for GPT Gene

Aliases for GPT Gene

  • Glutamic-Pyruvate Transaminase (Alanine Aminotransferase) 2 3
  • AAT1 3 4 6
  • GPT1 3 4 6
  • Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase 1 3 4
  • Glutamic--Alanine Transaminase 1 3 4
  • Glutamic--Pyruvic Transaminase 1 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GPT 1 3 4
  • ALT1 3 4
  • Glutamic-Alanine Transaminase 1 3
  • Alanine Aminotransferase 1 3

External Ids for GPT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPT Gene

  • GC08P143295
  • GC08P145766
  • GC08P145333
  • GC08P145733
  • GC08P145734
  • GC08P145699
  • GC08P145632
  • GC08P145700
  • GC08P140843
  • GC08P145728

Summaries for GPT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPT Gene

  • This gene encodes cytosolic alanine aminotransaminase 1 (ALT1); also known as glutamate-pyruvate transaminase 1. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to generate pyruvate and glutamate and, therefore, plays a key role in the intermediary metabolism of glucose and amino acids. Serum activity levels of this enzyme are routinely used as a biomarker of liver injury caused by drug toxicity, infection, alcohol, and steatosis. A related gene on chromosome 16 encodes a putative mitochondrial alanine aminotransaminase.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GeneCards Summary for GPT Gene

GPT (Glutamic-Pyruvate Transaminase (Alanine Aminotransferase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GPT include typhus and viral hepatitis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Carbon metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include pyridoxal phosphate binding and L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPT2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPT Gene

  • Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPT Gene

Genomics for GPT Gene

Regulatory Elements for GPT Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GPT Gene

144,502,973 bp from pter
144,507,174 bp from pter
4,202 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GPT Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GPT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPT Gene

Proteins for GPT Gene

  • Protein details for GPT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Alanine aminotransferase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0YJ18
    • D3DWM7
    • P78398
    • Q93076

    Protein attributes for GPT Gene

    496 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54637 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer

neXtProt entry for GPT Gene

Proteomics data for GPT Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GPT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GPT Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for GPT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GPT Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P24298
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. Alanine aminotransferase subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPT: view

No data available for Gene Families for GPT Gene

Function for GPT Gene

Molecular function for GPT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: By glucocorticoids

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GPT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004021 L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity NAS 1931970
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPT: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GPT

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Phenotypes , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GPT Gene

Localization for GPT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPT Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GPT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPT gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPT: view

Pathways for GPT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPT: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P24298-ALAT1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-alanine degradation via transaminase pathway; pyruvate from L-alanine: step 1/1

Interacting Proteins for GPT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008652 cellular amino acid biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0009058 biosynthetic process --
GO:0034641 cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS --
GO:0042853 L-alanine catabolic process IEA --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPT: view

Compounds for GPT Gene

(6) HMDB Compounds for GPT Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Amfamox
  • (2S)-2-Aminopropanoate
L-Glutamic acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
Oxoglutaric acid
  • 2-Ketoglutarate
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
  • Apolon B6

(4) Drugbank Compounds for GPT Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • (2S)-2-Aminopropanoic acid
56-41-7 target
L-Glutamic Acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
56-86-0 target
51-71-8 target inhibitor
Pyridoxal Phosphate
  • Codecarboxylase
54-47-7 target cofactor

(133) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GPT Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
alanine 98.5 303
aspartate 96.2 211
lamivudine 86.9 72
entecavir 81.7 16
adefovir 80.4 19
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GPT: view

Transcripts for GPT Gene

Unigene Clusters for GPT Gene

Glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GPT

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPT Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - -

Relevant External Links for GPT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GPT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GPT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (14.3) and Colon - Transverse (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GPT Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPT Gene Hs.103502

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPT Gene

Tissue specificity: Liver, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscles. Expressed at moderate levels in the adipose tissue.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GPT: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GPT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GPT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPT 35
  • 99.06 (n)
  • 99.39 (a)
GPT 36
  • 98 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPT 35
  • 86.69 (n)
  • 88.51 (a)
GPT 36
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPT 35
  • 87.09 (n)
  • 88.74 (a)
GPT 36
  • 80 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpt 35
  • 83 (n)
  • 87.3 (a)
Gpt 16
Gpt 36
  • 87 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GPT 36
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPT 36
  • 75 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpt 35
  • 84.14 (n)
  • 87.9 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 71 (a)
-- 36
  • 70 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpt2 35
  • 70.46 (n)
  • 72.88 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gpt2l 35
  • 68.33 (n)
  • 70.62 (a)
gpt2l 36
  • 60 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1640 36
  • 45 (a)
CG1640 37
  • 53 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C32F10.8 36
  • 54 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR085W 35
  • 51.15 (n)
  • 47.18 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ALT1 36
  • 37 (a)
ALT2 35
  • 48.36 (n)
  • 47.77 (a)
ALT2 36
  • 43 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GGT1 35
  • 50.65 (n)
  • 46.98 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0108300 35
  • 51.68 (n)
  • 46.88 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 62 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GPT:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GPT Gene

Gene Tree for GPT (if available)
Gene Tree for GPT (if available)

Paralogs for GPT Gene

Paralogs for GPT Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GPT Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPT: view

Variants for GPT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1063739 Benign, - 144,504,344(+) TGAGG(A/C/G)ATGGA reference, missense
rs2101039 -- 144,504,947(+) GGGAG(A/C/G)GCTGA intron-variant
rs2620629 -- 144,503,895(+) AGGTG(C/G)TCAGC upstream-variant-2KB
rs3891233 -- 144,504,742(+) CATGT(A/G)CCCTG intron-variant
rs3891234 -- 144,504,981(+) ATCCT(G/T)TCCTG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv470249 CNV Loss 18288195
nsv515809 CNV Gain+Loss 19592680
nsv891807 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv428208 CNV Gain 18775914
nsv891817 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7959n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv891846 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv831489 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv7966n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7968n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7969n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7972n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv907n27 CNV Loss 19166990
dgv7975n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7976n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7977n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7978n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv891897 CNV Loss 21882294
esv29999 CNV Loss 17803354
nsv891911 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv891912 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7981n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7982n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv7983n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1207n67 CNV Gain 20364138
dgv7984n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv824810 CNV Loss 20364138

Relevant External Links for GPT Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPT Gene

Disorders for GPT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (50) Diseases for GPT Gene including...

Search for GPT Gene in MalaCards »

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GPT Gene

(98) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GPT Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hepatitis b chronic 92 68
hepatitis c chronic 89.7 90
hepatitis b 89.6 115
hepatitis c 89.5 114
liver diseases 88.7 104

Relevant External Links for GPT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GPT: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPT Gene

Publications for GPT Gene

  1. Complete amino acid sequence of human liver cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (GPT) determined by a combination of conventional and mass spectral methods. (PMID: 1931970) Ishiguro M. … Titani K. (Biochemistry 1991) 3 4 23
  2. Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites. (PMID: 9119391) Sohocki M.M. … Daiger S.P. (Genomics 1997) 3 4 23
  3. cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase. (PMID: 11863375) Yang R.-Z. … Gong D.-W. (Genomics 2002) 3 4 23
  4. Typing classical polymorphisms by real-time PCR: analysis of the GPT and ALAD protein polymorphisms in the Jewish populations. (PMID: 18432999) Zoossmann-Diskin A. … Turner D. (Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2008) 3 23 48
  5. Elevated liver enzymes in women with a family history of diabetes. (PMID: 18242760) Inoue K. … Kobayashi Y. (Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2008) 3 23

Products for GPT Gene

Sources for GPT Gene

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