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GPT Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 64
GCID: GC08P145728

Glutamic-Pyruvate Transaminase (Alanine Aminotransferase)

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glutamic-Pyruvate Transaminase (Alanine Aminotransferase)1 2     ALT12 3
AAT12 3 5     GPT 12 3
GPT12 3 5     EC 2.6.1.23 8
Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase 12 3     Alanine Aminotransferase 12
Glutamic--Alanine Transaminase 12 3     Glutamic-Alanine Transaminase 12
Glutamic--Pyruvic Transaminase 12 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 45521   Entrez Gene: 28752   Ensembl: ENSG000001677017   OMIM: 1382005   UniProtKB: P242983   

Export aliases for GPT gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC08P143295 GC08P145766 GC08P145333 GC08P145733 GC08P145734 GC08P145699 GC08P145632 GC08P145700 GC08P140843


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GPT Gene:
This gene encodes cytosolic alanine aminotransaminase 1 (ALT1); also known as glutamate-pyruvate transaminase 1.
This enzyme catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to generate pyruvate and
glutamate and, therefore, plays a key role in the intermediary metabolism of glucose and amino acids. Serum
activity levels of this enzyme are routinely used as a biomarker of liver injury caused by drug toxicity,
infection, alcohol, and steatosis. A related gene on chromosome 16 encodes a putative mitochondrial alanine
aminotransaminase.(provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009)

GeneCards Summary for GPT Gene:
GPT (glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GPT include viral hepatitis, and hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include pyridoxal phosphate binding and L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPT2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ALAT1_HUMAN, P24298
Function: Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and
glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with
precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000008.11  NC_018919.2  NT_008046.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GPT gene promoter:
         Sp1   p53   COUP   Nkx2-5   E47   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGPT promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GPT

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GPT


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8q24.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8q24.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8q24.3

GPT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GPT gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08P145728:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
145,728,356 bp from pter      End:
145,732,557 bp from pter
Size:
4,202 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ALAT1_HUMAN, P24298 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Alanine aminotransferase 1  
Size: 496 amino acids; 54637 Da
Cofactor: Pyridoxal phosphate
Subunit: Homodimer
Secondary accessions: B0YJ18 D3DWM7 P78398 Q93076

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GPT: NX_P24298

Explore proteomics data for GPT at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for GPT (P24298) (see all 13)
     ELASFHS  SVRLCPP  YAVRGPIV  RILQACGG 


    See GPT Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_005300.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000433586   ENSP00000378408  
    Reactome Protein details: P24298

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    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR015422 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2
     IPR004839 Aminotransferase_I/II
     IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
     IPR015421 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P24298

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P24298

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001176 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase signature
    IPB004839 Aminotransferase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ALAT1_HUMAN, P24298
    Similarity: Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. Alanine aminotransferase
    subfamily


    GPT for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ALAT1_HUMAN, P24298
    Function: Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and
    glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with
    precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity)
    Catalytic activity: L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate
    Induction: By glucocorticoids

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GPT:
    glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase)

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.6.1.21 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004021L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity NAS1931970
    GO:0030170pyridoxal phosphate binding IEA--
         
    GPT for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GPT
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GPT
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GPT
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ALAT1_HUMAN, P24298: Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol4
    mitochondrion2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA19056867

    GPT for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GPT About   (see all 6)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    2Carbon metabolism
    Carbon metabolism0.38
    2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism0.00
    Biosynthesis of amino acids0.38
    3Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives
    Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives
    Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)0.00
    4alanine degradation
    alanine degradation
    alanine biosynthesis II0.00
    5Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
    Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    3 BioSystems Pathways for GPT
        Alanine and aspartate metabolism
    alanine degradation
    alanine biosynthesis II


    1 Reactome Pathway for GPT
        Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)


    5 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GPT):
        Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism
    2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
    Biosynthesis of amino acids

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ALAT1_HUMAN, P24298
    Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-alanine degradation via transaminase pathway; pyruvate from L-alanine: step 1/1


    GPT for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GPT: 

              Amino Acid Metabolism II in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GPT

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 14)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GPT (P242983 ENSP000003784084) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 14)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CAPN1P073843, ENSP000002792474I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000279247
    CAPN3ENSP000003803494STRING: ENSP00000380349
    RRP1ENSP000004174644STRING: ENSP00000417464
    RRP1BENSP000003391454STRING: ENSP00000339145
    THNSL1ENSP000003655344STRING: ENSP00000365534
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006094gluconeogenesis ----
    GO:0006807nitrogen compound metabolic process ----
    GO:0008652cellular amino acid biosynthetic process TAS--
    GO:0009058biosynthetic process ----
    GO:0034641cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS--

    GPT for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GPT (ALAT1)

    6 HMDB Compounds for GPT    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    FamotidineAmfamox (see all 83)76824-35-6--
    L-Alanine(2S)-2-Aminopropanoate (see all 35)56-41-7--
    L-Glutamic acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate (see all 49)56-86-0--
    Oxoglutaric acid2-Ketoglutarate (see all 9)328-50-7--
    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphateApolon B6 (see all 27)54-47-7--
    Pyruvic acid2-Oxopropanoate (see all 14)127-17-3--

    4 DrugBank Compounds for GPT    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Pyridoxal PhosphateCodecarboxylase (see all 9)54-47-7targetcofactor11330835 12537583 15347780 14688239 16179747
    L-Alanine(2S)-2-Aminopropanoic acid (see all 15)56-41-7target--17353078 17163821 17319845 17403374
    Phenelzine-- 51-71-8targetinhibitor11775064 1881457 19203467
    L-Glutamic Acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid (see all 15)56-86-0target--16854580

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GPT gene (see all 133)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    alanine 98.5 5513 17058711 (6), 9551672 (5), 8831054 (5), 8740843 (5) (see all 99)
    aspartate 96.2 2037 8831054 (5), 18339592 (5), 16917217 (4), 1352485 (4) (see all 99)
    lamivudine 86.9 82 18931274 (2), 18094378 (2), 16393286 (2), 16525138 (2) (see all 68)
    entecavir 81.7 19 16525138 (2), 20028815 (2), 19053898 (1), 16525137 (1) (see all 14)
    adefovir 80.4 23 12606735 (2), 17321635 (2), 18771054 (1), 18367858 (1) (see all 17)
    creatinine 78.7 589 17938134 (4), 12241024 (3), 19084848 (3), 9526816 (3) (see all 99)
    ribavirin 76.3 36 7865717 (2), 10342322 (2), 17971091 (2), 17412448 (2) (see all 27)
    telbivudine 73.7 10 18094378 (2), 20028815 (2), 19408969 (1), 19225726 (1) (see all 6)
    ursodeoxycholic acid 72.3 37 8808432 (1), 9641646 (1), 10680665 (1), 17763401 (1) (see all 33)
    lactate 71.2 339 12241024 (3), 20017420 (3), 2205108 (2), 11601675 (2) (see all 99)



    GPT for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GPT gene: 
    NM_005309.2  

    Unigene Cluster for GPT:

    Glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase)
    Hs.103502  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005309
    7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000528431 ENST00000527165(uc011llj.1) ENST00000531330 ENST00000354769
    ENST00000534702 ENST00000527961 ENST00000394955(uc003zdh.4)
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GPT

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK225562.1 BC018207.1 BT006992.1 D10355.1 

    5 DOTS entries:

    DT.121491846  DT.108879  DT.95368785  DT.87046215  DT.91806472 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 30):

    AW001265 BC018207 D10355 NM_005309 BI820187 CB266898 BG740047 BP342813 
    AI016602 BP334517 BT006992 BG697397 BG741866 BF529332 AU076466 BG698409 
    R49523 AI283141 AW242645 AA862992 BE267022 AA862636 BP381463 AI271988 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPT    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
    SP1:        -     -     -                 -                 -                                                         
    SP2:                                      -                 -                                                         
    SP3:                                      -     -           -                                                         
    SP4:                                                                                                                  
    SP5:                                                                                                                  


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GPT

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GPT expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CCAAGTTCAC
    GPT Expression
    About this image


    GPT expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Myelinating Oligodendrocyte Cells Forebrain White Matter
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Hepatocytes Liver Lobule
             Immature hepatocytes
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
    GPT Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GPT Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.103502

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ALAT1_HUMAN, P24298
    Tissue specificity: Liver, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscles. Expressed at moderate levels in the adipose tissue

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GPT: 
              Amino Acid Metabolism II in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GPT

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for GPT gene from Selected species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gpt1 , 5 glutamic pyruvic transaminase, soluble1, 5 83(n)1
    87.3(a)1
      15 (36.28 cM)5
    762821  NM_182805.21  NP_877957.11 
     766967645 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    Uncharacterized protein
    71(a)
    70(a)
    many → 1
    many → 1
    AAWZ02036629(2465-23878)
    GL343750.1(4321-26696)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia AL883531.22   -- 74.8(n)    AL883531.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii gpt2l1 glutamic pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase) more 68.33(n)
    70.62(a)
      403086  NM_001142774.1  NP_001136246.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG16403 alanine aminotransferase 53(a)   11F1   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C32F10.86
    Protein C32F10.8, isoform a
    54(a)
    1 → many
    I(5822841-5826148) WBGene00016333
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes ALT21 ALT2 48.36(n)
    47.77(a)
      851690   NP_010396.1 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons GGT11 GGT1 50.65(n)
    46.98(a)
      838940  NM_102180.3  NP_564192.2 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os07g01083001 Os07g0108300 51.68(n)
    46.88(a)
      4342210  NM_001065251.1  NP_001058716.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GPT (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GPT (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GPT gene
    GPT22  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for GPT using alignment to 1 protein entry:     ALAT1_HUMAN:
    GPT2

    GPT for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GPT (see all 229)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs10637391,2,,4
    C,F,A,Hnon-pathogenic1146002486(+) TGAGGA/C/GATGGA 2 H D mis1 ese325MN NS EA NA CSA WA EU 7995
    rs1845071751,2
    --146000307(+) CCCACA/GGTGGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1893935851,2
    --146000368(+) AAGCCC/TGTAGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs27211971,2
    C,F,A,H--146000464(-) GAGCAT/CGGGAG 1 -- us2k123Minor allele frequency- C:0.37NS EA NA WA 2562
    rs1157002651,2
    C,F--146000655(+) AGAGGG/AGCAAA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.15WA 118
    rs1822269761,2
    --146000672(+) ACAAGC/GCTGTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs454928951,2
    C,F--146000897(+) GTGGGC/TGGCTT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.05NS 38
    rs1436415151,2
    --146000946(+) GTTCTC/TCCTCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1891102091,2
    --146000969(+) GGCCCA/GTCAGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1439427221,2
    C--146001077(+) AGTGT-/GGGGGG 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GPT (145728356 - 145732557 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for GPT (see all 27):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv907n27CNV Loss19166990
    dgv7966n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7977n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7976n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7978n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7983n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7982n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv891911CNV Loss21882294
    nsv891846CNV Loss21882294
    nsv891817CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GPT
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GPT
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GPT

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 138200    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for GPT (see all 265):    
    About MalaCards
    viral hepatitis    hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome    typhus    epidemic typhus
    kidney cortex necrosis    tinea unguium    pyomyositis    paraquat poisoning
    hepatitis a    afferent loop syndrome    fatty liver disease    hepatitis e
    coronary aneurysm    non-a-e hepatitis    choledocholithiasis    nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    hemorrhagic fever    hepatitis b virus infection    scrub typhus    bile duct disease

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GPT:
    Vitelliform macular dystrophy

    GPT for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GPT gene (see all 98)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hepatitis b chronic 92 78 16042881 (2), 19585616 (2), 19032864 (2), 12828081 (2) (see all 59)
    hepatitis c chronic 89.7 95 16487620 (4), 15921043 (2), 10773739 (2), 9641644 (2) (see all 83)
    hepatitis b 89.6 350 20028815 (3), 8243482 (2), 10192613 (2), 12584227 (2) (see all 99)
    hepatitis c 89.5 203 12870728 (3), 8243482 (2), 11426070 (2), 16460486 (2) (see all 99)
    liver diseases 88.7 141 10500955 (2), 18763311 (2), 17272484 (2), 15810122 (2) (see all 99)
    fatty liver 87.3 103 16917217 (3), 7643460 (2), 18763311 (2), 17272484 (2) (see all 84)
    hepatitis 86.7 148 17639161 (2), 8803450 (2), 15462195 (2), 8158817 (2) (see all 99)
    liver damage 84.8 50 7516951 (2), 8395606 (1), 17591075 (1), 12430760 (1) (see all 42)
    hepatitis chronic 83.6 33 11895556 (1), 10336003 (1), 10342322 (1), 2132352 (1) (see all 32)
    cirrhosis 82.4 73 9443106 (2), 18339592 (2), 7845310 (1), 9118030 (1) (see all 62)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GPT
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GPT (70 documents)

    Export disorders for GPT gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GPT gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 2481):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GPT)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites. (PubMed id 9119391)1, 2, 9 Sohocki M.M.... Daiger S.P. (Genomics 1997)
    2. cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase. (PubMed id 11863375)1, 2, 9 Yang R.-Z.... Gong D.-W. (Genomics 2002)
    3. Complete amino acid sequence of human liver cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (GPT) determined by a combination of conventional and mass spectral methods. (PubMed id 1931970)1, 2, 9 Ishiguro M.... Titani K. (Biochemistry 1991)
    4. Typing classical polymorphisms by real-time PCR: analysis of the GPT and ALAD protein polymorphisms in the Jewish populations. (PubMed id 18432999)1, 4, 9 Zoossmann-Diskin A....Turner D. (Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2008)
    5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    6. Usefulness of GPT for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in obese Japanese children. (PubMed id 20032584)1, 9 Abe Y....Uchiyama M. (J. Atheroscler. Thromb. 2009)
    7. Expression, purification, and initial characterization of human alanine aminotransferase (ALT) isoenzyme 1 and 2 in High-five insect cells. (PubMed id 18508279)1, 9 Liu L....Gong D.W. (Protein Expr. Purif. 2008)
    8. Determination of the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase in a microfluidic system. (PubMed id 16854580)7, 9 Ohgami N....Suzuki H. (amp 2007)
    9. A better parameter in predicting insulin resistance: obesity plus elevated alanine aminotransferase. (PubMed id 19938201)1, 9 Chen P.H....Lin Y.C. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2009)
    10. Relationship between alanine aminotransferase levels and metabolic syndrome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (PubMed id 18763311)1, 9 Chen Z.W....Fang L.Z. (J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2875 HGNC: 4552 AceView: GPT Ensembl:ENSG00000167701 euGenes: HUgn2875
    ECgene: GPT Kegg: 2875 H-InvDB: GPT

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GPT Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    SHMPDhttp://shmpd.bii.a-star.edu.sg/gene.php?genestart=A&genename=GPT
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alanine_transaminase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GPT gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GPT

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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