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Aliases for GPR21 Gene

Aliases for GPR21 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 21 2 3 5

External Ids for GPR21 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPR21 Gene

  • GC09P116901
  • GC09U900008
  • GC09P121172
  • GC09P122876
  • GC09P124836
  • GC09P125795
  • GC09P095411

Summaries for GPR21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPR21 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor 1 family. G-protein coupled receptors are membrane proteins which activate signaling cascades as a response to extracellular stress. The encoded protein activates a Gq signal transduction pathway which mobilizes calcium. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GPR21 Gene

GPR21 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor 21) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Vesicle-mediated transport and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and G-protein coupled amine receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR52.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR21 Gene

  • Orphan receptor.

Gene Wiki entry for GPR21 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPR21 Gene

Genomics for GPR21 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GPR21 Gene

Enhancers for GPR21 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH09F123171 0.4 FANTOM5 2.8 +141.9 141915 0.0 OR1L4 OR1L6 GPR21 GC09M123162 PIR44660 STRBP
GH09F123239 0.5 FANTOM5 2.2 +210.0 209950 0.1 GATA3 FOS STRBP MIR600 MIR600HG OR1L6 GPR21 RC3H2 ZBTB26 ZBTB6 GC09M123162 PIR44660
GH09F123425 0.4 FANTOM5 2.2 +395.6 395616 0.2 GPR21 RABGAP1 CRB2 GC09P123406 MIR7150
GH09F123438 0.7 FANTOM5 ENCODE 1.8 +408.9 408923 1.2 SREBF1 HLF TEAD4 DENND1A GPR21 RABGAP1 GC09P123406 MIR7150
GH09F123106 0.3 FANTOM5 1.7 +77.0 77009 0.1 RABGAP1 OR1L3 OR1K1 GPR21 GC09M123149 LOC100422501
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GPR21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GPR21 Gene

123,030,013 bp from pter
123,039,101 bp from pter
9,089 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GPR21 Gene

Genes around GPR21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GPR21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GPR21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPR21 Gene

Proteins for GPR21 Gene

  • Protein details for GPR21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable G-protein coupled receptor 21
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R8W9
    • Q6NXU2

    Protein attributes for GPR21 Gene

    349 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39515 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GPR21 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GPR21 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 2 and Asn 8
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GPR21 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GPR21 Gene

Domains & Families for GPR21 Gene

Gene Families for GPR21 Gene

Protein Domains for GPR21 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GPR21 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPR21: view

Function for GPR21 Gene

Molecular function for GPR21 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
G protein coupled receptor 21,expressed in brain
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Orphan receptor.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPR21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001588 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gs IBA --
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0035240 dopamine binding IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR21: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPR21: view

Animal Models for GPR21 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GPR21:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GPR21

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GPR21

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPR21 Gene

Localization for GPR21 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR21 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GPR21 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPR21 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPR21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR21: view

Pathways & Interactions for GPR21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPR21: view

Pathways by source for GPR21 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for GPR21 Gene
2 Reactome pathways for GPR21 Gene

Interacting Proteins for GPR21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPR21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001963 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic IBA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007191 adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007612 learning IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR21: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GPR21 Gene

Transcripts for GPR21 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GPR21 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GPR21 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 21:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GPR21

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPR21 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GPR21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPR21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GPR21 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GPR21 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPR21 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPR21 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Not detected in the brain regions thalamus, putamen, caudate, frontal cortex, pons, hypothalamus, hippocampus.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GPR21: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for GPR21 Gene

Orthologs for GPR21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GPR21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR21 34
  • 99.62 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPR21 34 35
  • 94.17 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPR21 34
  • 93.31 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr21 34 16 35
  • 89.21 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr21 34
  • 88.63 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPR21 35
  • 85 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPR21 34
  • 78.35 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 18 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpr21 34
  • 69.16 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC101884949 34
  • 63.73 (n)
zgc:162592 35
  • 19 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta DopEcR 35
  • 22 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F59D12.1 35
  • 21 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GPR21 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GPR21 Gene

Gene Tree for GPR21 (if available)
Gene Tree for GPR21 (if available)

Paralogs for GPR21 Gene

Paralogs for GPR21 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for GPR21 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPR21: view

Variants for GPR21 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPR21 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs10818778 -- 123,027,472(+) ATTTT(G/T)CTAGT intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs10985868 -- 123,025,379(+) CTGCC(A/G)TAAAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs10985869 -- 123,037,648(+) TAGTT(C/T)AGAAA intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs10985870 -- 123,040,152(+) AAATT(C/T)TGTGA intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs111387543 -- 123,027,344(+) CTCTT(A/C/G)ACCTT intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPR21 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831717 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for GPR21 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 20.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.19; 39.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GPR21 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR21 Gene

Disorders for GPR21 Gene

Relevant External Links for GPR21

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for GPR21 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GPR21 Gene

Publications for GPR21 Gene

  1. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  2. Cloning and chromosomal mapping of four putative novel human G- protein-coupled receptor genes. (PMID: 9073069) O'Dowd B.F. … George S.R. (Gene 1997) 3 4 64
  3. Identification of novel ATP13A2 interactors and their role in I+-synuclein misfolding and toxicity. (PMID: 22645275) Usenovic M. … Krainc D. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2012) 3 64
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 4 64
  5. Identification of signal transduction pathways used by orphan g protein-coupled receptors. (PMID: 15090189) Bresnick J.N. … McAllister G. (Assay Drug Dev Technol 2003) 3 64

Products for GPR21 Gene

Sources for GPR21 Gene

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