Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for GPR139 Gene

Aliases for GPR139 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 139 2 3 5
  • G(Q)-Coupled Orphan Receptor GPRg1 3 4
  • GPRg1 3 4
  • PGR3 3 4
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor PGR3 3
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor PGR3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 139 3

External Ids for GPR139 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPR139 Gene

  • GC16M020010
  • GC16M019950
  • GC16M018579

Summaries for GPR139 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPR139 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors. The encoded protein is almost exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine may act as the physiologic ligands of the encoded protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for GPR139 Gene

GPR139 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor 139) is a Protein Coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and neuropeptide receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR142.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR139 Gene

  • Orphan receptor. Seems to act through a G(q/11)-mediated pathway.

Tocris Summary for GPR139 Gene

  • Orphan 7-TM receptors (orphan GPCRs) are receptors for which there are no defined ligands. Traditionally, receptors are characterized by specific ligands and stimuli; the search for ligands of orphan receptors is therefore akin to reverse-engineering this process.

Gene Wiki entry for GPR139 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPR139 Gene

Genomics for GPR139 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GPR139 Gene

Enhancers for GPR139 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GPR139 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GPR139 Gene

20,031,455 bp from pter
20,073,917 bp from pter
42,463 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GPR139 Gene

Genes around GPR139 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GPR139 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GPR139 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPR139 Gene

Proteins for GPR139 Gene

  • Protein details for GPR139 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable G-protein coupled receptor 139
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K5R9
    • Q86SP2
    • Q8TDU8

    Protein attributes for GPR139 Gene

    353 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    40679 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAB89307.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for GPR139 Gene

Proteomics data for GPR139 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GPR139 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 11
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GPR139 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GPR139 Gene

Domains & Families for GPR139 Gene

Gene Families for GPR139 Gene

Protein Domains for GPR139 Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPR139: view

Function for GPR139 Gene

Molecular function for GPR139 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Orphan receptor. Seems to act through a G(q/11)-mediated pathway.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPR139 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0046983 protein dimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR139: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPR139: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GPR139

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPR139 Gene

Localization for GPR139 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR139 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GPR139 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPR139 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPR139 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GPR139 Gene

SuperPathways for GPR139 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for GPR139 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000458791 for GPR139 Gene via STRING

Symbol External ID(s) Details

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPR139 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA,IDA 15845401
GO:0007200 phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR139: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for GPR139 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GPR139 Gene

(1) Drugs for GPR139 Gene - From: DGIdb

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
COMPOUND 1A [PMID: 24900311] Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GPR139 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Grifolic acid
PF9 tetrasodium salt
Prosaptide TX14(A)
TC-O 9311
TUG 891

(5) Tocris Compounds for GPR139 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Grifolic acid Selective partial FFA4 (GPR120) agonist 80557-12-6
PF9 tetrasodium salt Potent GPR17 agonist 851265-78-6
Prosaptide TX14(A) Potent GPR37 and GPR37L1 agonist 196391-82-9
TC-O 9311 Potent and selective GPR139 agonist 444932-31-4
TUG 891 Potent and selective FFA4 (GPR120) agonist 1374516-07-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GPR139: view

Transcripts for GPR139 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GPR139 Gene

(3) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GPR139 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 139:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPR139 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GPR139 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPR139 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GPR139 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GPR139 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x14.7), Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (x12.4), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x10.3), and Brain - Hypothalamus (x9.2).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPR139 Gene Hs.446875

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPR139 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed almost exclusively in the brain. Detected at very low levels in the peripheral tissues.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GPR139: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for GPR139 Gene

Orthologs for GPR139 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GPR139 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPR139 35
  • 92.61 (n)
  • 97.44 (a)
GPR139 36
  • 97 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPR139 35
  • 93.37 (n)
  • 98.86 (a)
GPR139 36
  • 99 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr139 35
  • 90.05 (n)
  • 96.23 (a)
Gpr139 16
Gpr139 36
  • 96 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR139 35
  • 99.72 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GPR139 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr139 35
  • 89.47 (n)
  • 96.23 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GPR139 36
  • 93 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPR139 36
  • 96 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPR139 35
  • 79.68 (n)
  • 92.31 (a)
GPR139 36
  • 92 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GPR139 36
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpr139 35
  • 76.05 (n)
  • 89.66 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC798482 35
  • 69.15 (n)
  • 75.4 (a)
GPR139 36
  • 71 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GPR139:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GPR139 Gene

Gene Tree for GPR139 (if available)
Gene Tree for GPR139 (if available)

Paralogs for GPR139 Gene

Paralogs for GPR139 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for GPR139 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPR139: view

Variants for GPR139 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPR139 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs4028367 -- 20,038,370(+) TGTGT(-/GTAT/GTGT/GTGTGTAT/GTGTGTGTGTAT)ATTCT intron-variant
rs8062580 -- 20,041,253(+) gaggg(A/G)aggag intron-variant
rs8062711 -- 20,041,260(+) GGAGA(A/G)AAGAA intron-variant
rs8062712 -- 20,041,261(+) GAGAA(A/G)AGAAA intron-variant
rs8062741 -- 20,041,320(+) CGCTT(A/G)TGTTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPR139 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv436835 CNV Insertion 17901297

Variation tolerance for GPR139 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 40.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.36; 26.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GPR139 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR139 Gene

Disorders for GPR139 Gene

Relevant External Links for GPR139

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for GPR139 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GPR139 Gene

Publications for GPR139 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel Gq-coupled orphan receptor GPRg1 exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. (PMID: 15845401) Matsuo A. … Shigeyoshi Y. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005) 3 4 23 67
  2. GPR139, an Orphan Receptor Highly Enriched in the Habenula and Septum, Is Activated by the Essential Amino Acids l-Tryptophan and l-Phenylalanine. (PMID: 26349500) Liu C. … Lovenberg T.W. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2015) 2 3
  3. Identification and SAR of Glycine Benzamides as Potent Agonists for the GPR139 Receptor. (PMID: 26396690) Dvorak C.A. … Carruthers N.I. (ACS Med Chem Lett 2015) 2 3
  4. Sequence-structure based phylogeny of GPCR Class A Rhodopsin receptors. (PMID: 24503482) Kakarala K.K. … Jamil K. (Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 2014) 3
  5. Copy number variation distribution in six monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia. (PMID: 24556202) Castellani C.A. … Singh S.M. (Twin Res Hum Genet 2014) 3

Products for GPR139 Gene

Sources for GPR139 Gene