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Aliases for GPNMB Gene

Aliases for GPNMB Gene

  • Glycoprotein Nmb 2 3
  • Hematopoietic Growth Factor Inducible Neurokinin-1 2 3
  • Glycoprotein Nonmetastatic Melanoma Protein B 2 3
  • Glycoprotein (Transmembrane) Nmb 2 3
  • Transmembrane Glycoprotein HGFIN 3 4
  • Glycoprotein Nmb-Like Protein 2 3
  • Glycoprotein NMB 2 5
  • Osteoactivin 2 3
  • HGFIN 3 4
  • NMB 3 4
  • Transmembrane Glycoprotein NMB 3
  • Transmembrane Glycoprotein 2

External Ids for GPNMB Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPNMB Gene

  • GC07P022928
  • GC07P022994
  • GC07P023028
  • GC07P023059
  • GC07P023252
  • GC07P023170

Summaries for GPNMB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPNMB Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein which shows homology to the pMEL17 precursor, a melanocyte-specific protein. GPNMB shows expression in the lowly metastatic human melanoma cell lines and xenografts but does not show expression in the highly metastatic cell lines. GPNMB may be involved in growth delay and reduction of metastatic potential. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GPNMB Gene

GPNMB (Glycoprotein Nmb) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GPNMB include Melanoma and Glioblastoma Multiforme. Among its related pathways are Adhesion and Signaling by PTK6. GO annotations related to this gene include heparin binding and integrin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PMEL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPNMB Gene

  • Could be a melanogenic enzyme.

Gene Wiki entry for GPNMB Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPNMB Gene

Genomics for GPNMB Gene

Regulatory Elements for GPNMB Gene

Enhancers for GPNMB Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH07G023205 0.8 ENCODE 12.8 -29.4 -29367 1.9 ELF3 SOX13 FOXA2 SAP130 SIN3A CEBPG ZNF48 CTBP1 POLR2A SCRT2 KLHL7-AS1 ENSG00000226816 GPNMB NUPL2 LOC101927890
GH07G023262 0.7 ENCODE 12.1 +26.1 26100 0.1 CTCF ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 RAD21 RFX5 ZNF143 SMC3 RCOR1 GPNMB NUPL2 IGF2BP3 LOC389473 MALSU1
GH07G023272 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 6.3 +37.5 37528 1.6 PKNOX1 ARNT WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 ZNF143 ZNF207 FOS DEK KLHL7-AS1 TRA2A GPNMB MALSU1
GH07G023062 1 Ensembl ENCODE 4.2 -173.2 -173207 0.4 CBX3 BACH1 FOSL1 ZNF316 EGR1 NFE2 MAFK NFE2L2 SMARCE1 NRF1 FAM126A TOMM7 ENSG00000226329 LOC541472 GPNMB LOC105375186 LOC105375185
GH07G022988 0.6 ENCODE 5.2 -246.2 -246201 3.0 PRDM6 MTA1 GATA2 POU5F1 FOS CREM FAM126A TOMM7 ENSG00000226329 GPNMB PIR51294
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GPNMB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GPNMB Gene

23,235,967 bp from pter
23,275,110 bp from pter
39,144 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GPNMB Gene

Genes around GPNMB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GPNMB Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GPNMB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPNMB Gene

Proteins for GPNMB Gene

  • Protein details for GPNMB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Transmembrane glycoprotein NMB
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D155
    • Q6UVX1
    • Q8N1A1

    Protein attributes for GPNMB Gene

    572 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    63923 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GPNMB Gene


neXtProt entry for GPNMB Gene

Post-translational modifications for GPNMB Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=293, posLast=134134, isoforms=2146, isoforms=2200, isoforms=2249, posLast=275275, isoforms=2296, isoforms=2300, isoforms=2306, isoforms=2312, isoforms=2459, and isoforms=2467
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GPNMB Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for GPNMB (Osteoactivin/GPNMB)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GPNMB (GPNMB)
  • Abcam antibodies for GPNMB

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GPNMB Gene

Domains & Families for GPNMB Gene

Protein Domains for GPNMB Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the PMEL/NMB family.
  • Belongs to the PMEL/NMB family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPNMB: view

No data available for Gene Families for GPNMB Gene

Function for GPNMB Gene

Molecular function for GPNMB Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Could be a melanogenic enzyme.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPNMB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005178 integrin binding IBA,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12609765
GO:0008201 heparin binding IDA 19350579
GO:0042056 chemoattractant activity NAS 20711474
GO:0045545 syndecan binding IPI 19350579
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPNMB: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPNMB: view

Animal Models for GPNMB Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GPNMB:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GPNMB Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GPNMB

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPNMB Gene

Localization for GPNMB Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPNMB Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Melanosome. Note=Identified by mass spectrometry in melanosome fractions from stage I to stage IV. Detected at the cell surface in different types of cancers cells, including glioblastoma multiforme cells and most melanoma cell lines.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPNMB gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 3
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
endosome 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPNMB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA,IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA,IDA 12609765
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPNMB: view

Pathways & Interactions for GPNMB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPNMB: view

Pathways by source for GPNMB Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for GPNMB Gene

Interacting Proteins for GPNMB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPNMB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001649 osteoblast differentiation IEA --
GO:0001818 negative regulation of cytokine production IDA 19350579
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA 22891158
GO:0007155 cell adhesion IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IMP 19350579
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPNMB: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GPNMB Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GPNMB Gene

(14) Drugs for GPNMB Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and DGIdb

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Capecitabine Approved, Investigational Pharma RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor, F-pyrimidines 1342
Docetaxel Approved May 1996, Investigational Pharma Microtubulin disassembly inhibitor, Tubulin and VEGF inhibitor, Taxanes, Microtubule stabilizer 1967
Doxil Approved June 1999 Pharma DNA intercalator and TOPO II inhibitor, Topoisomerase 2 Inhibitors 1751
Doxorubicin Approved, Investigational Pharma Topo II inhibitor,immunosuppresive antineoplastic antibiotic 1751
Gemcitabine Approved Pharma Ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis inhibitor, Nucleoside Analogs 2018
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GPNMB: view

Transcripts for GPNMB Gene

Unigene Clusters for GPNMB Gene

Glycoprotein (transmembrane) nmb:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPNMB Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP8: - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - -
SP10: - - - -

ExUns: 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b · 15c · 15d · 15e
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP12: -
SP13: -

Relevant External Links for GPNMB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPNMB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GPNMB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GPNMB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GPNMB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Hair follicle (20.1), Nasal epithelium (13.2), and Amniocyte (10.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GPNMB Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GPNMB Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPNMB Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPNMB Gene:

Tissue specificity: Up-regulated in various cancer cells, including in glioblastoma multiforme. Expressed in many melanoma cells, as well as in tissue macrophages, including liver Kuppfer cells and lung alveolar macrophages, in podocytes and in some cells of the ciliary body of the eye (at protein level). Hardly detectable in healthy brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GPNMB Gene

  • Blood(5)
  • Nervous system(5)
  • Skin(4.6)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Heart(4.1)
  • Lung(3.9)
  • Intestine(3.8)
  • Kidney(3.2)
  • Lymph node(3)
  • Muscle(2.9)
  • Eye(2.8)
  • Pancreas(2.8)
  • Spleen(2.5)
  • Gall bladder(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GPNMB: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GPNMB Gene

Orthologs for GPNMB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GPNMB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPNMB 34 35
  • 99.42 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPNMB 34 35
  • 85.31 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPNMB 34 35
  • 82.97 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpnmb 34 16 35
  • 76.85 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpnmb 34
  • 76.55 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GPNMB 35
  • 60 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPNMB 35
  • 60 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPNMB 34 35
  • 61.92 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GPNMB 35
  • 50 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpnmb 34
  • 59.8 (n)
Str.6500 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6913 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gpnmb 34 35
  • 48.8 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GPNMB was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GPNMB Gene

Gene Tree for GPNMB (if available)
Gene Tree for GPNMB (if available)

Paralogs for GPNMB Gene

Paralogs for GPNMB Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for GPNMB Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPNMB: view

Variants for GPNMB Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPNMB Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs755767733 A breast cancer sample 23,254,274(+) AGATG(A/C)CAATG reference, missense
VAR_036263 A breast cancer sample
rs1000155455 -- 23,265,651(+) AGAAA(G/T)AAACT intron-variant
rs1000257382 -- 23,272,100(+) GGACT(C/T)GGATG intron-variant
rs1000308499 -- 23,259,564(+) ATAGC(A/G)GAAAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPNMB Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3612541 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1016316 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1027363 CNV gain 25217958
nsv520600 CNV loss 19592680
nsv5661 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv7393 OTHER inversion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GPNMB Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 87.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.36; 63.36% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GPNMB Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPNMB Gene

Disorders for GPNMB Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for GPNMB Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • malignant melanoma
glioblastoma multiforme
  • adult glioblastoma multiforme
  • glioblastoma multiforme
lymph node cancer
  • lymph node neoplasm
breast cancer
  • breast cancer, invasive ductal
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GPNMB in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Note=Glioblastoma multiforme patients that exhibit increased mRNA and protein levels (>3-fold over normal brain) in biopsy samples have a significantly higher risk of death (PubMed:16609006). In the context of cancer immunotherapy, including that of melanoma, has been proposed to be used as a cell surface protein antigen targeted by antibodies coupled to cytotoxic drugs (PubMed:16489096). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16489096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16609006}.

Relevant External Links for GPNMB

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GPNMB: view

No data available for Genatlas for GPNMB Gene

Publications for GPNMB Gene

  1. NMB, a novel gene, is expressed in low-metastatic human melanoma cell lines and xenografts. (PMID: 7814155) Weterman M.A.J. … Bloemers H.P.J. (Int. J. Cancer 1995) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Hematopoietic growth factor inducible neurokinin-1 type: a transmembrane protein that is similar to neurokinin 1 interacts with substance P. (PMID: 12609765) Bandari P.S. … Rameshwar P. (Regul. Pept. 2003) 3 4 22 64
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 3 46 64
  4. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein b, a melanocytic cell marker, is a melanosome-specific and proteolytically released protein. (PMID: 20056711) Hoashi T. … Hearing V.J. (FASEB J. 2010) 3 22 64
  5. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic B is an independent prognostic indicator of recurrence and a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer. (PMID: 20215530) Rose A.A. … Siegel P.M. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2010) 3 22 64

Products for GPNMB Gene

Sources for GPNMB Gene

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