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Aliases for GPI Gene

Aliases for GPI Gene

  • Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase 2 3
  • Neuroleukin 3 4 6
  • Glucose Phosphate Isomerase 2 3
  • Autocrine Motility Factor 3 4
  • Phosphoglucose Isomerase 3 4
  • Phosphohexose Isomerase 3 4
  • Sperm Antigen 36 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • SA-36 3 4
  • AMF 3 4
  • NLK 3 4
  • PGI 3 4
  • PHI 3 4
  • Hexose Monophosphate Isomerase 3
  • Hexosephosphate Isomerase 3
  • Phosphosaccharomutase 3
  • Phosphohexomutase 3
  • Sperm Antigen-36 3
  • Oxoisomerase 3
  • GNPI 3
  • SA36 3

External Ids for GPI Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPI Gene

  • GC19P035473
  • GC19P035305
  • GC19P039531
  • GC19P039547
  • GC19P034855
  • GC19P031360

Summaries for GPI Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPI Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the glucose phosphate isomerase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. In the cytoplasm, the gene product functions as a glycolytic enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) that interconverts glucose-6-phophsate and fructose-6-phosphate. Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. The encoded protein is also referred to as autocrine motility factor based on an additional function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and angiogenic factor. Defects in this gene are the cause of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and a severe enzyme deficiency can be associated with hydrops fetalis, immediate neonatal death and neurological impairment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GeneCards Summary for GPI Gene

GPI (Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GPI include hemolytic anemia, nonspherocytic, due to glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency and hemolytic anemia due to glucophosphate isomerase deficiency. Among its related pathways are MAPK signaling pathway and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and monosaccharide binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPI Gene

  • Besides its role as a glycolytic enzyme, mammalian GPI can function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and an angiogenic factor (AMF) that stimulates endothelial cell motility. GPI is also a neurotrophic factor (Neuroleukin) for spinal and sensory neurons.

Gene Wiki entry for GPI Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPI Gene

Genomics for GPI Gene

Regulatory Elements for GPI Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GPI Gene

34,359,480 bp from pter
34,402,413 bp from pter
42,934 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GPI Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GPI Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPI Gene

Proteins for GPI Gene

  • Protein details for GPI Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DG39
    • Q9BRD3
    • Q9BSK5
    • Q9UHE6

    Protein attributes for GPI Gene

    558 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    63147 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer in the catalytically active form, monomer in the secreted form.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GPI Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GPI Gene


neXtProt entry for GPI Gene

Proteomics data for GPI Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GPI Gene

  • ISGylated.
  • Phosphorylation at Ser-185 by CK2 has been shown to decrease enzymatic activity and may contribute to secretion by a non-classical secretory pathway.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys12, Lys73, Lys89, Lys124, Lys194, Lys226, Lys234, Lys241, Lys362, Lys423, and Lys466
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains for GPI Gene

Protein Domains for GPI Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GPI Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GPI family.
  • Belongs to the GPI family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPI: view

No data available for Gene Families for GPI Gene

Function for GPI Gene

Molecular function for GPI Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glucose phosphate isomerase (neuroleukin),glycolysis,gluconeogenesis,energy pathways
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
D-glucose 6-phosphate = D-fructose 6-phosphate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Besides its role as a glycolytic enzyme, mammalian GPI can function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and an angiogenic factor (AMF) that stimulates endothelial cell motility. GPI is also a neurotrophic factor (Neuroleukin) for spinal and sensory neurons.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GPI Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPI Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004347 glucose-6-phosphate isomerase activity TAS --
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA --
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
GO:0016866 intramolecular transferase activity IEA --
GO:0048029 monosaccharide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPI: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPI: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPI Gene

Localization for GPI Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPI Gene

Cytoplasm. Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GPI Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPI gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 4
chloroplast 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPI Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPI: view

Pathways for GPI Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPI: view

PCR Array Products

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P06744-G6PI_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and glycerone phosphate from D-glucose: step 2/4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPI Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPI: view

Drugs for GPI Gene

(8) Drugbank Compounds for GPI Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
5-Phosphoarabinonic Acid
46936563 Target experimental
5-Phospho-D-Arabinohydroxamic Acid
46936302 Target experimental
6-Phosphogluconic Acid
22820300 Target experimental
46936284 Target experimental
46936836 Target experimental

(5) HMDB Compounds for GPI Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
  • beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
  • beta-D-Glucose 6-(dihydrogen phosphate)
  • Roferose ST
Fructose 6-phosphate
  • D-Fructose 6-phosphate
Glucose 6-phosphate
  • a-D-Glucose 6- phosphate

(43) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GPI Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glucose 6-phosphate 89.2 127
6-phosphogluconate 75.8 9
fructose-6-phosphate 74.6 13
malate 54.9 9
erythrose 4-phosphate 54.1 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GPI: view

Transcripts for GPI Gene

Unigene Clusters for GPI Gene

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPI Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16a ·
SP1: - - -
SP2: -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - -
SP8: - - -

ExUns: 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^ 19a · 19b
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for GPI Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPI Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GPI Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GPI Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPI Gene Hs.466471

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GPI: view

Expression partners for GPI Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPI Gene

Orthologs for GPI Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GPI Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPI 35
  • 90.41 (n)
  • 91.55 (a)
GPI 36
  • 87 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPI 35
  • 90.32 (n)
  • 92.83 (a)
GPI 36
  • 88 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpi1 35
  • 86.26 (n)
  • 88.89 (a)
Gpi1 16
Gm1840 36
  • 86 (a)
Gpi1 36
  • 84 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPI 35
  • 99.66 (n)
  • 99.66 (a)
GPI 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpi 35
  • 86.18 (n)
  • 88.33 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 80 (a)
-- 36
  • 71 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPI 36
  • 80 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPI 35
  • 75.7 (n)
  • 82.55 (a)
GPI 36
  • 78 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GPI 36
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpi 35
  • 73.2 (n)
  • 79.85 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.5194 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gpia 35
gpib 35
  • 73.3 (n)
  • 79.56 (a)
gpia 36
  • 75 (a)
gpib 36
  • 74 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8771 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pgi 37
  • 68 (a)
Pgi 35
  • 67.21 (n)
  • 68.67 (a)
Pgi 36
  • 64 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012167 35
  • 66.42 (n)
  • 68.36 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y87G2A.8 37
  • 68 (a)
gpi-1 35
  • 62.04 (n)
  • 68.19 (a)
gpi-1 36
  • 61 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL249C 35
  • 61.04 (n)
  • 57.97 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E23519g 35
  • 57.19 (n)
  • 58.18 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PGI1 35
  • 57.93 (n)
  • 59.11 (a)
PGI1 36
  • 53 (a)
PGI1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G42740 35
  • 52.98 (n)
  • 50.39 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.2000 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0776000 35
  • 52.36 (n)
  • 49.08 (a)
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.3318 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3328 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07281 35
  • 62.19 (n)
  • 57.35 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pgi1 35
  • 58.64 (n)
  • 59.51 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 64 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GPI:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GPI Gene

Gene Tree for GPI (if available)
Gene Tree for GPI (if available)

Paralogs for GPI Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GPI Gene

Variants for GPI Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPI Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs445993 -- 34,362,983(-) TTTCT(A/C)GTAGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs1062480 -- 34,377,851(+) AACCC(C/G)GAGTC reference, synonymous-codon
rs1135465 -- 34,384,797(+) CAGCA(A/C)TTTGG intron-variant
rs1138409 -- 34,399,923(+) AGCTG(G/T)CTAAG reference, missense
rs1138438 -- 34,400,271(+) CTTTT(C/T)TGACC utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPI Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv509738 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv2864 CNV Complex 18987735

Relevant External Links for GPI Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPI Gene

Disorders for GPI Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for GPI Gene (172400)


  • Hemolytic anemia, non-spherocytic, due to glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency (HA-GPID) [MIM:613470]: A form of anemia in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis. It is caused by glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(40) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GPI Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia 81 5
anemia hemolytic 66.5 22
anemia hemolytic congenital 62.5 3
arthritis 59.6 31
rheumatoid arthritis 57.6 26

Genatlas disease for GPI Gene

hemolytic anemia,hydrops fetalis

Relevant External Links for GPI

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GPI: view

Publications for GPI Gene

  1. Glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency mutations associated with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA). (PMID: 9446754) Beutler E. … Forman L. (Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 1997) 3 4 23 48
  2. Characterization of the 5' end of the gene for human glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI). (PMID: 2387591) Walker J.I.H. … Morgan M.J. (Genomics 1990) 2 3 4 23
  3. Molecular basis of neurological dysfunction coupled with haemolytic anaemia in human glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency. (PMID: 9856489) Kugler W. … Lakomek M. (Hum. Genet. 1998) 3 4 23
  4. Human glucose phosphate isomerase: exon mapping and gene structure. (PMID: 8575767) Xu W. … Beutler E. (Genomics 1995) 2 3 23
  5. The characterization of gene mutations for human glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic anemia. (PMID: 7989588) Xu W. … Beutler E. (J. Clin. Invest. 1994) 3 4 23

Products for GPI Gene

Sources for GPI Gene

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