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Aliases for GPD1 Gene

Aliases for GPD1 Gene

  • Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase 1 (Soluble) 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • GPDH-C 3 4
  • HTGTI 3 6
  • GPD-C 3 4
  • Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], Cytoplasmic 3
  • Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase [NAD+], Cytoplasmic 3
  • Glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase 3
  • EC 1.1.1 63

External Ids for GPD1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPD1 Gene

  • GC12P050792
  • GC12P050553
  • GC12P050214
  • GC12P048784
  • GC12P050497
  • GC12P047531

Summaries for GPD1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPD1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by catalyzing the reversible conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and NAD+. The encoded cytosolic protein and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase also form a glycerol phosphate shuttle that facilitates the transfer of reducing equivalents from the cytosol to mitochondria. Mutations in this gene are a cause of transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GPD1 Gene

GPD1 (Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase 1 (Soluble)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GPD1 include hypertriglyceridemia, transient infantile and transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia and hepatosteatosis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD+] activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPD1L.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPD1 Gene

Genomics for GPD1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GPD1 Gene

Genomic Location for GPD1 Gene

50,103,819 bp from pter
50,111,320 bp from pter
7,502 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GPD1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GPD1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPD1 Gene

Proteins for GPD1 Gene

  • Protein details for GPD1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • F8W1L5
    • Q8N1B0

    Protein attributes for GPD1 Gene

    349 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37568 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GPD1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GPD1 Gene


neXtProt entry for GPD1 Gene

Proteomics data for GPD1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GPD1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GPD1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains for GPD1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GPD1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P21695
  • Belongs to the NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPD1: view

No data available for Gene Families for GPD1 Gene

Function for GPD1 Gene

Molecular function for GPD1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,NAD dependent,cytoplasmic
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + NAD(+) = glycerone phosphate + NADH
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by zinc ions and sulfate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GPD1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004367 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD+] activity IEA --
GO:0004368 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity IEA --
GO:0016616 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
GO:0051287 NAD binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPD1: view

Phenotypes for GPD1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPD1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GPD1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GPD1

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GPD1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GPD1 Gene

Localization for GPD1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPD1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GPD1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPD1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0009331 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase complex IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPD1: view

Pathways for GPD1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPD1: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process --
GO:0006072 glycerol-3-phosphate metabolic process --
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis IEA --
GO:0006116 NADH oxidation IEA --
GO:0006127 glycerophosphate shuttle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPD1: view

Compounds for GPD1 Gene

(4) HMDB Compounds for GPD1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
  • 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propanone phosphate
Glycerol 3-phosphate
  • 1-(dihydrogen phosphate) Glycerol
  • 3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • 1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

(1) Drugbank Compounds for GPD1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • beta-DPNH
606-68-8 target

(41) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GPD1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glycerol 3-phosphate 98 145
dhap 67 3
troglitazone 57.9 3
lipid 57.9 28
succinate 56.7 13
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GPD1: view

Transcripts for GPD1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GPD1 Gene

Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (soluble):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GPD1

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPD1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - -

Relevant External Links for GPD1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPD1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GPD1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GPD1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipose - Subcutaneous (12.5), Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (10.5), Muscle - Skeletal (7.0), and Breast - Mammary Tissue (6.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GPD1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasopharynx (41.8) and Adipocyte (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GPD1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPD1 Gene Hs.524418

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GPD1: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Expression partners for GPD1 Gene

Orthologs for GPD1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GPD1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPD1 35
  • 91.6 (n)
  • 92.55 (a)
GPD1 36
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPD1 35
  • 90.07 (n)
  • 90.26 (a)
GPD1 36
  • 90 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpd1 35
  • 89.59 (n)
  • 93.98 (a)
Gpd1 16
Gpd1 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPD1 35
  • 99.71 (n)
  • 99.71 (a)
GPD1 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpd1 35
  • 89.3 (n)
  • 94.27 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPD1 36
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC426881 35
  • 75.26 (n)
  • 79.37 (a)
GPD1 36
  • 77 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GPD1 36
  • 84 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpd1 35
  • 74.4 (n)
  • 82.32 (a)
Str.11109 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.2478 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gpd1a 35
  • 71.69 (n)
  • 78.55 (a)
wufc30a07 35
gpd1a 36
  • 77 (a)
gpd1b 36
  • 71 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3215 37
  • 45 (a)
Gpdh 37
  • 65 (a)
Gpdh 35
  • 67.91 (n)
  • 66.67 (a)
CG3215 36
  • 41 (a)
CG43343 36
  • 11 (a)
Gpdh 36
  • 60 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP007593 35
  • 66.57 (n)
  • 69.68 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F47G4.3 37
  • 50 (a)
gpdh-2 35
  • 59.58 (n)
  • 61.78 (a)
gpdh-1 36
  • 45 (a)
gpdh-2 36
  • 49 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR311C 35
  • 56.67 (n)
  • 52.94 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C04004g 35
  • 54.81 (n)
  • 53.99 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GPD1 35
  • 53.47 (n)
  • 50.76 (a)
GPD1 36
  • 41 (a)
GPD2 36
  • 35 (a)
GPD1 38
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.24891 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU00742 35
  • 55.45 (n)
  • 45.06 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes gpd1 35
  • 57.29 (n)
  • 55.39 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1608 36
  • 57 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GPD1:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GPD1 Gene

Gene Tree for GPD1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GPD1 (if available)

Paralogs for GPD1 Gene

Paralogs for GPD1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GPD1 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPD1: view

Variants for GPD1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPD1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs836178 -- 50,104,356(+) AGAAG(G/T)GGGGC intron-variant
rs836179 -- 50,109,299(+) CTCAC(A/G)GCCAT intron-variant
rs836180 -- 50,109,486(+) TTCAT(C/T)CACTG reference, synonymous-codon
rs1046194 -- 50,104,619(+) CAGCT(C/G)GCACA synonymous-codon, reference
rs1128867 - 50,105,665(+) CAAAC(C/G)CCACT missense, reference

Relevant External Links for GPD1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPD1 Gene

Disorders for GPD1 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for GPD1 Gene (138420)


  • Hypertriglyceridemia, transient infantile (HTGTI) [MIM:614480]: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of moderate to severe transient hypertriglyceridemia in infancy that normalizes with age. The hypertriglyceridemia is associated with hepatomegaly, moderately elevated transaminases, persistent fatty liver, and the development of hepatic fibrosis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22226083, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24549054}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(3) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GPD1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
obesity 53.9 2
necrosis 0.704 1
tumors 0 1
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GPD1: view

No data available for University of Copenhagen DISEASES , Genatlas and External Links for GPD1 Gene

Publications for GPD1 Gene

  1. Sequence conservation and structural organization of the glycerol-3- phosphate dehydrogenase promoter in mice and humans. (PMID: 2398890) Gwynn B. … Birkenmeier E.H. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1990) 3 4 23
  2. Crystal structures of human glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1). (PMID: 16460752) Ou X. … Rao Z. (J. Mol. Biol. 2006) 3 4 23
  3. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of a cDNA encoding a human liver NAD-dependent alpha-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (PMID: 7772607) Menaya J. … Ayuso M.S. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1995) 3 4
  4. Enhanced glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in adipose tissue of obese humans. (PMID: 14674682) Swierczynski J. … Sledzinski Z. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2003) 3 23
  5. GRB14, GPD1, and GDF8 as potential network collaborators in weight loss-induced improvements in insulin action in human skeletal muscle. (PMID: 16849634) Park J.J. … Hoffman E.P. (Physiol. Genomics 2006) 3 23

Products for GPD1 Gene

Sources for GPD1 Gene

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