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Aliases for GNRH2 Gene

Aliases for GNRH2 Gene

  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 2 2 3 5
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 2 3
  • Progonadoliberin II 3 4
  • Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone II 3
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide II 3
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide 2 3
  • Gonadoliberin II 3
  • Gonadoliberin-2 3
  • Luliberin II 3
  • GnRH-II 3
  • LH-RHII 3

External Ids for GNRH2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNRH2 Gene

  • GC20P003012
  • GC20P002972
  • GC20P003019
  • GC20P003033
  • GC20P003038
  • GC20P003043

Summaries for GNRH2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNRH2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted peptide hormone and member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) family of proteins. The encoded protein regulates reproductive function by stimulating the production and release of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The encoded protein may inhibit endometrial, ovarian, prostate, and breast cancer cell proliferation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]

GeneCards Summary for GNRH2 Gene

GNRH2 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNRH2 include Breast Cancer. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and p70S6K Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH2 Gene

  • Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.

Gene Wiki entry for GNRH2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNRH2 Gene

Genomics for GNRH2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GNRH2 Gene

Enhancers for GNRH2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GNRH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GNRH2 Gene

3,039,061 bp from pter
3,045,860 bp from pter
6,800 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GNRH2 Gene

Genes around GNRH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNRH2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNRH2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNRH2 Gene

Proteins for GNRH2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNRH2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14C68
    • Q14C69
    • Q9BYN9
    • Q9BYP0

    Protein attributes for GNRH2 Gene

    120 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12918 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GNRH2 Gene


neXtProt entry for GNRH2 Gene

Proteomics data for GNRH2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GNRH2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GNRH2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNRH2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNRH2 Gene

Gene Families for GNRH2 Gene

Protein Domains for GNRH2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNRH2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNRH2: view

Function for GNRH2 Gene

Molecular function for GNRH2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gonadotropin releasing hormone 2,mesencephalic form,expressed in midbrain,kidney,bone marrow prostate,including a GNRH-associated peptide
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNRH2: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNRH2 Gene

Localization for GNRH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GNRH2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNRH2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
cytosol 1
mitochondrion 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNRH2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GNRH2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNRH2: view

Interacting Proteins for GNRH2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GNRH2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GNRH2 Gene

(4) Drugs for GNRH2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(2) Additional Compounds for GNRH2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNRH2: view

Transcripts for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNRH2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNRH2 Gene

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNRH2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GNRH2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNRH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellum (x5.1) and Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.9).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNRH2 Gene Hs.129715

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNRH2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Midbrain; expressed at significantly higher levels outside the brain (up to 30-fold), particularly in the kidney, bone marrow and prostate.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNRH2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNRH2 Gene

Orthologs for GNRH2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for GNRH2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNRH2 35
  • 74.19 (n)
  • 60.22 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNRH2 35
  • 97.3 (n)
  • 94.59 (a)
GNRH2 36
  • 93 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GNRH2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GNRH2 Gene

Gene Tree for GNRH2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNRH2 (if available)

Paralogs for GNRH2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GNRH2 Gene

Variants for GNRH2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNRH2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_053109 -
rs2296236 -- 3,039,444(+) CACCC(C/T)GCATT utr-variant-5-prime
rs3761243 -- 3,042,376(+) AGGCA(A/C)CCATC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs3761244 -- 3,042,535(+) TCCGC(A/G)TATTT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs3761245 -- 3,042,587(+) TTTCC(A/G)GTCCC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNRH2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv912603 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv833896 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv833897 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv482064 CNV Gain 20164927

Variation tolerance for GNRH2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 74.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 8.17; 84.77% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for GNRH2 Gene

Disorders for GNRH2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GNRH2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
breast cancer
  • breast cancer, invasive ductal
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNRH2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GNRH2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNRH2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNRH2 Gene

Publications for GNRH2 Gene

  1. Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans. (PMID: 9419371) White R.B. … Fernald R.D. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. The neuropeptides GnRH-II and GnRH-I are produced by human T cells and trigger laminin receptor gene expression, adhesion, chemotaxis and homing to specific organs. (PMID: 12447356) Chen A. … Levite M. (Nat. Med. 2002) 2 3 23
  3. GnRH I and II up-regulate MMP-26 expression through the JNK pathway in human cytotrophoblasts. (PMID: 20074375) Liu J. … Wang Y.L. (Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 2010) 3 23
  4. Expression of hCG and GnRHs and their receptors in endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. (PMID: 20130508) Jankowska A.G. … Warchol P.J. (Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 2010) 3 23
  5. GnRH-II antagonists induce apoptosis in human endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer cells via activation of stress-induced MAPKs p38 and JNK and proapoptotic protein Bax. (PMID: 19638591) Fister S. … GrA1ndker C. (Cancer Res. 2009) 3 23

Products for GNRH2 Gene

Sources for GNRH2 Gene