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Aliases for GNRH1 Gene

Aliases for GNRH1 Gene

  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1 2 3 5
  • Leuteinizing-Releasing Hormone 2 3
  • Progonadoliberin-1 2 3
  • GNRH 3 4
  • LHRH 3 4
  • GRH 3 4
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (Luteinizing-Releasing Hormone) 3
  • Prolactin Release-Inhibiting Factor 3
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide 1 3
  • Progonadoliberin I 4
  • Luliberin I 3
  • LNRH 3

External Ids for GNRH1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GNRH1 Gene

  • GRH
  • GNRH
  • LHRH

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNRH1 Gene

  • GC08M025048
  • GC08M025630
  • GC08M025298
  • GC08M025332
  • GC08M023821
  • GC08M025276

Summaries for GNRH1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNRH1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate a peptide that is a member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) family of peptides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which is secreted and then cleaved to generate gonadoliberin-1 and GnRH-associated peptide 1. Gonadoliberin-1 stimulates the release of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, which are important for reproduction. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]

GeneCards Summary for GNRH1 Gene

GNRH1 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNRH1 include Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 12 With Or Without Anosmia and Gnrh1-Related Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Sweet Taste Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH1 Gene

  • Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.

Gene Wiki entry for GNRH1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNRH1 Gene

Genomics for GNRH1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GNRH1 Gene

Enhancers for GNRH1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH08F026189 0.2 ENCODE 13.8 -764.4 -764368 0.5 ZNF2 ZEB1 ZNF335 GLIS2 POLR3A SCRT2 ZBTB11 REST ZEB2 ZFP69B ENSG00000253476 GNRH1 LOC105379336 RNA5SP258
GH08F025392 0.7 ENCODE 12.6 +32.0 31971 1.3 SOX13 SAP130 ZNF140 ZNF384 RARA TEAD3 NR2F6 GATAD2A SOX5 HMG20B KCTD9 GNRH1 CDCA2 PIR37075 GC08P025414
GH08F025328 0.5 ENCODE 11.5 +96.3 96341 0.2 TFAP4 SAP130 TAF1 ARID4B SIN3A CEBPG ZNF384 RAD21 YY1 RARA GNRH1 CDCA2 KCTD9 GC08M025315 MIR6876
GH08F025329 0.2 ENCODE 11.5 +96.7 96661 0.2 KLF11 CHD1 DMAP1 SLC30A9 GLIS2 ZKSCAN8 ZNF600 ZXDB ZBTB17 GNRH1 CDCA2 KCTD9 GC08M025315 MIR6876
GH08F026395 0.4 Ensembl 11.3 -970.9 -970888 0.6 ZNF664 ZNF791 SP3 RBAK ZNF547 ZNF530 OVOL3 KLF7 ZNF558 ZXDB ENSG00000253476 GNRH1 SDAD1P1 ENSG00000253430
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GNRH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GNRH1 Gene

25,419,258 bp from pter
25,425,040 bp from pter
5,783 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GNRH1 Gene

Genes around GNRH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNRH1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNRH1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNRH1 Gene

Proteins for GNRH1 Gene

  • Protein details for GNRH1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AVP0

    Protein attributes for GNRH1 Gene

    92 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    10380 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GNRH1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNRH1 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for GNRH1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GNRH1

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNRH1 Gene

Domains & Families for GNRH1 Gene

Gene Families for GNRH1 Gene

Protein Domains for GNRH1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNRH1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNRH1: view

Function for GNRH1 Gene

Molecular function for GNRH1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gonadotropin releasing hormone 1,decapeptide expressed in hypothalamus,releasing form,involved in the regulation of reproduction,including a GNRH-associated peptide
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.

LifeMap Function Summary for GNRH1 Gene

During embryonic development, GNRH1 as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells
It affects the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS 2863757
GO:0005183 gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNRH1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GNRH1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GNRH1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNRH1

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNRH1 Gene

Localization for GNRH1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GNRH1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNRH1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 3
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 2
golgi apparatus 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005798 Golgi-associated vesicle IEA --
GO:0030425 dendrite IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view

Pathways & Interactions for GNRH1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNRH1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8692981
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 1310542
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA,TAS 2867548
GO:0007565 female pregnancy IEA --
GO:0007568 aging IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GNRH1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GNRH1 Gene

(89) Drugs for GNRH1 Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
GnRH pharmaccine Investigational Pharma 0
leuprolide acetate Pharma Pituitary GnRH receptors agonist 0
Alarelin Acetate Pharma Synthetic GnRH agonist 0
GnRH Associated Peptide (GAP) (1-13), human Pharma Asp-Ala-Glu-Asn-Leu-Ile-Asp-Ser-Phe-Gln-Glu-Ile-Val 0
Goserelin acetate Pharma GnRH receptor agonist 0

(40) Additional Compounds for GNRH1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) ApexBio Compounds for GNRH1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Alarelin Acetate Synthetic GnRH agonist 79561-22-1
GnRH Associated Peptide (GAP) (1-13), human Asp-Ala-Glu-Asn-Leu-Ile-Asp-Ser-Phe-Gln-Glu-Ile-Val 100111-07-7
Goserelin Acetate 65807-02-5
Leuprolide Acetate Pituitary GnRH receptors agonist 74381-53-6
Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone human acetate salt (LHRH) 71447-49-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNRH1: view

Transcripts for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNRH1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNRH1 Gene

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNRH1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GNRH1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNRH1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNRH1 Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNRH1: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNRH1 Gene

Orthologs for GNRH1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNRH1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNRH1 34 35
  • 99.28 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNRH1 34 35
  • 82.25 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gnrh1 34 16 35
  • 80.15 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNRH1 34 35
  • 78.26 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gnrh1 34
  • 78.26 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNRH1 35
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNRH1 35
  • 50 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GNRH1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GNRH1 Gene

Gene Tree for GNRH1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNRH1 (if available)

Paralogs for GNRH1 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GNRH1 Gene

Variants for GNRH1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNRH1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs587777758 Pathogenic 25,423,313(+) GGAGT(-/T)TTTTG reference, frameshift-variant
rs587777859 Uncertain significance 25,423,244(-) TATGG(-/A)CTGCG reference, frameshift-variant
rs1006949 -- 25,422,593(+) ACCAA(A/C)ACTAA intron-variant
rs1110444 -- 25,420,664(-) gatcc(A/T)cccaa intron-variant
rs111886860 -- 25,425,845(+) GACTC(A/G)TGTAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNRH1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv7148n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2759606 CNV loss 17122850
esv3616666 OTHER inversion 21293372
nsv1031153 CNV gain 25217958
nsv6125 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GNRH1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 80.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.38; 63.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GNRH1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH1 Gene

Disorders for GNRH1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(61) MalaCards diseases for GNRH1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNRH1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia (HH12) [MIM:614841]: A disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In some cases, it is associated with non-reproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss. Anosmia or hyposmia is related to the absence or hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. Hypogonadism is due to deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and probably results from a failure of embryonic migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is referred to as Kallmann syndrome, whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19535795, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting distinct genetic loci, including the gene represented in this entry. The genetics of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism involves various modes of transmission. Oligogenic inheritance has been reported in some patients carrying mutations in GNRH1 as well as in other HH-associated genes including PROKR2 and FGFR1 (PubMed:23643382). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382}.

Relevant External Links for GNRH1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNRH1: view

No data available for Genatlas for GNRH1 Gene

Publications for GNRH1 Gene

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). (PMID: 19640273) Canzian F. … Ziegler R.G. (BMC Cancer 2009) 3 22 46 64
  2. Characterization of cDNA for precursor of human luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. (PMID: 6090951) Seeburg P.H. … Adelman J.P. (Nature 1984) 2 3 4 64
  3. Screening of autosomal gene deletions in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: detection of a hemizygosis for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. (PMID: 19489874) Trarbach E.B. … Latronico A.C. (Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 2010) 3 46 64
  4. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PMID: 20424473) Yokoyama K. … Hosoya T. (Nephron Clin Pract 2010) 3 46 64
  5. Comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in 61 genes related to steroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I metabolism and breast cancer risk in the NCI breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium. (PMID: 20634197) Canzian F. … Feigelson H.S. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2010) 3 46 64

Products for GNRH1 Gene

Sources for GNRH1 Gene

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