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Aliases for GNGT2 Gene

Aliases for GNGT2 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Gamma Transducin 2 2 3 5
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma Transducing Activity Polypeptide 2 2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Gamma Transducing Activity Polypeptide 2 3 4
  • G Gamma-C 3 4
  • G-GAMMA-8 3 4
  • G-Gamma-9 3 4
  • GNGT8 3 4
  • GNG9 3 4
  • GNG8 3 4
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) Subunit Gamma-T2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Gamma 9 3
  • G Protein Cone Gamma 8 Subunit 3
  • Gamma-T2 Subunit 3
  • G-GAMMA-C 3

External Ids for GNGT2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNGT2 Gene

  • GC17M046994
  • GC17M049763
  • GC17M047626
  • GC17M047758
  • GC17M044638
  • GC17M047283
  • GC17M042649

Summaries for GNGT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNGT2 Gene

  • Phototransduction in rod and cone photoreceptors is regulated by groups of signaling proteins. The encoded protein is thought to play a crucial role in cone phototransduction. It belongs to the G protein gamma family and localized specifically in cones. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GNGT2 Gene

GNGT2 (G Protein Subunit Gamma Transducin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include GTPase activity and signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNG11.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNGT2 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Tocris Summary for GNGT2 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNGT2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNGT2 Gene

Genomics for GNGT2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GNGT2 Gene

Enhancers for GNGT2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17F049387 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 9.3 -179.2 -179227 5.2 PKNOX1 ATF1 ZNF133 FEZF1 DMAP1 GTF3C2 GATA2 FOS KAT8 HMBOX1 ZNF652 ENSG00000262837 LOC102724596 PHB ENSG00000207127 FLJ45513 ABI3 SNF8 PHOSPHO1 GNGT2
GH17F049106 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 10 +103.0 102953 3.0 ATF1 ARNT MLX ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 SLC30A9 GATA2 FOS ZNF202 ENSG00000262837 B4GALNT2 ENSG00000238804 ABI3 GNGT2 KAT7 B4GALNT2P1
GH17F049251 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 11 -41.7 -41736 1.9 HDAC1 PKNOX1 NFXL1 GATA2 FOS ZNF263 CEBPB ZEB2 SMARCA4 PBX2 PHOSPHO1 ABI3 GNGT2 ZNF652 FLJ40194 GC17P049267
GH17F049109 1.1 ENCODE 10.7 +99.3 99275 2.7 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARNT CREB3L1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 B4GALNT2 GNGT2 ABI3 ENSG00000238804 LOC284080 B4GALNT2P1
GH17F049337 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 -131.1 -131127 7.8 TBL1XR1 YBX1 BMI1 ZNF366 FOS CREM EGR2 ZNF362 CBFB USF2 ZNF652 RPL21P124 ENSG00000250186 PHB ABI3 GNGT2 FLJ40194 GC17M049339 PIR41840
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GNGT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GNGT2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001348398 -226 1601 HDGF ATF1 PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 SIN3A YBX1 ZNF766 ELK1 FOS

Genomic Location for GNGT2 Gene

Chromosome:
17
Start:
49,202,791 bp from pter
End:
49,210,574 bp from pter
Size:
7,784 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GNGT2 Gene

Genes around GNGT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNGT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNGT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNGT2 Gene

Proteins for GNGT2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNGT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O14610-GBGT2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2
    Protein Accession:
    O14610
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R746
    • D3DTW5

    Protein attributes for GNGT2 Gene

    Size:
    69 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    7747 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.

neXtProt entry for GNGT2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNGT2 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNGT2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNGT2 Gene

Protein Domains for GNGT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNGT2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O14610

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GBGT2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNGT2: view

No data available for Gene Families for GNGT2 Gene

Function for GNGT2 Gene

Molecular function for GNGT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) gamma subunit,retinal cone phosphoreceptor specific
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity NAS 9286705
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity NAS 9286705
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNGT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNGT2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GNGT2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNGT2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNGT2 Gene

Localization for GNGT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNGT2 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNGT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex IEA,NAS 9286705
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA,TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNGT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GNGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNGT2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA,NAS 9286705
GO:0007602 phototransduction NAS 9286705
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNGT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GNGT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GNGT2 Gene

(3) Drugs for GNGT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GNGT2 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
8-Bromo-cGMP, sodium salt
51116-01-9
CMPD101
865608-11-3
Gallein
2103-64-2
G-Protein antagonist peptide
143675-79-0
Pertussis Toxin
70323-44-3

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNGT2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
8-Bromo-cGMP, sodium salt cGMP analog; activates PKG 51116-01-9
CMPD101 Potent and selective GRK2/3 inhibitor 865608-11-3
Gallein Inhibitor of betagamma signaling 2103-64-2
G-Protein antagonist peptide Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs 143675-79-0
Pertussis Toxin Catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of Gi, Go and Gt 70323-44-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNGT2: view

Transcripts for GNGT2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNGT2 Gene

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNGT2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5:

Relevant External Links for GNGT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GNGT2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GNGT2

Expression for GNGT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GNGT2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x7.3) and Spleen (x5.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GNGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (66.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GNGT2 Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNGT2 Gene:

GNGT2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNGT2 Gene:

Hs.181781

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNGT2 Gene:

O14610-GBGT2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Retinal cones.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNGT2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNGT2 Gene

Orthologs for GNGT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNGT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNGT2 34 35
  • 100 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNGT2 34 35
  • 87.92 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNGT2 34 35
  • 87.44 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gngt2 34 16 35
  • 85.02 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gngt2 34
  • 84.54 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNGT2 35
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC100859179 34
  • 74.4 (n)
GNGT2 35
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GNGT2 35
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gngt2.1 34
  • 68.6 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gngt2a 34 35
  • 70.05 (n)
gngt2b 35
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
gngt2 34
Species where no ortholog for GNGT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GNGT2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GNGT2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GNGT2 (if available)

Paralogs for GNGT2 Gene

Paralogs for GNGT2 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GNGT2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNGT2: view

Variants for GNGT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNGT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs111300830 -- 49,206,900(+) AAAAA(A/G)TGTTT intron-variant
rs111952776 -- 49,211,939(+) CTGTG(C/T)CCAGC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs113806785 -- 49,210,909(+) CCAAG(G/T)GGGGC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs11870907 -- 49,208,441(+) aggcg(A/C)caaga intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs12450531 -- 49,209,085(+) AAACG(C/T)GAAAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNGT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv2074 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GNGT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 66.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.81; 47.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GNGT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GNGT2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNGT2 Gene

Disorders for GNGT2 Gene

Relevant External Links for GNGT2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GNGT2

No disorders were found for GNGT2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNGT2 Gene

Publications for GNGT2 Gene

  1. Gene structure and chromosome localization of the G gamma c subunit of human cone G-protein (GNGT2). (PMID: 9286705) Ong O.C. … Fung B.K.-K. (Genomics 1997) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  3. Identification of a region in G protein gamma subunits conserved across species but hypervariable among subunit isoforms. (PMID: 11714923) Cook L.A. … Hildebrandt J.D. (Protein Sci. 2001) 3 4 64
  4. SR protein kinases promote splicing of nonconsensus introns. (PMID: 26167880) Lipp J.J. … Guthrie C. (Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2015) 3 64
  5. Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array. (PMID: 23535732) Eeles R.A. … Easton D.F. (Nat. Genet. 2013) 3 64

Products for GNGT2 Gene

Sources for GNGT2 Gene

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