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Aliases for GNG2 Gene

Aliases for GNG2 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Gamma 2 2 3 5
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma 2 2
  • G Gamma-I 4

External Ids for GNG2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNG2 Gene

  • GC14P049702
  • GC14M046231
  • GC14M050426
  • GC14P050303
  • GC14P051383
  • GC14P052327
  • GC14P032487
  • GC14P052292

Summaries for GNG2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNG2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different signal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GNG2 Gene

GNG2 (G Protein Subunit Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNG2 include Hemiplegic Migraine. Among its related pathways are CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages and Aquaporin-mediated transport. GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity and G-protein beta-subunit binding. An important paralog of this gene is GNG4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG2 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for GNG2 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNG2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNG2 Gene

Genomics for GNG2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GNG2 Gene

Enhancers for GNG2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH14G051859 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 42.4 +36.3 36281 5.9 HDGF TBP PKNOX1 WRNIP1 SIN3A RAD21 EGR1 ZNF366 FOS RELB GNG2 C14orf166 PTGER2 LOC102723604
GH14G051905 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 27.7 +79.6 79618 1.5 ZNF146 JUN ZBTB40 RELA ARID3A CBX5 EED ZNF143 FOS ETV6 GNG2 C14orf166 RNU6-301P PTGER2 LOC102723604
GH14G051871 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 26 +46.8 46789 2.5 PKNOX1 TBL1XR1 WRNIP1 BMI1 PLRG1 ZBTB7B ZNF366 SCRT2 FOS RELB GNG2 C14orf166 PTGER2 PTGDR LOC102723604
GH14G051884 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 24.1 +58.3 58286 1.5 HDAC1 TBP PKNOX1 RAD21 ZSCAN5C RELB ETV6 IKZF2 OVOL3 ZNF488 GNG2 C14orf166 PTGER2 LOC102723604
GH14G051843 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 22.6 +20.6 20637 5.7 HDGF PKNOX1 SIN3A ZNF2 GLIS2 CBX5 ELK1 ZNF143 ZNF207 SP3 GNG2 C14orf166 PTGDR PTGER2 LOC102723604
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GNG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GNG2 Gene

Chromosome:
14
Start:
51,826,195 bp from pter
End:
51,979,342 bp from pter
Size:
153,148 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GNG2 Gene

Genes around GNG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNG2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNG2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNG2 Gene

Proteins for GNG2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNG2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P59768-GBG2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2
    Protein Accession:
    P59768
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5JPE2
    • Q6P9A9

    Protein attributes for GNG2 Gene

    Size:
    71 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    7850 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1 and GNG2 interacts with ARHGEF5 (PubMed:19713215).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GNG2 Gene

neXtProt entry for GNG2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNG2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=32
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNG2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNG2 Gene

Gene Families for GNG2 Gene

Protein Domains for GNG2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNG2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P59768

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GBG2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNG2: view

Function for GNG2 Gene

Molecular function for GNG2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0031681 G-protein beta-subunit binding IPI 12606627
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNG2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GNG2
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for GNG2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNG2 Gene

Localization for GNG2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG2 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNG2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 2
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex ISS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane ISS,IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GNG2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Development Angiotensin activation of ERK
2 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
3 fMLP Pathway
4 Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors
5 Development Dopamine D2 receptor transactivation of EGFR
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNG2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GNG2 Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007191 adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway ISS --
GO:0007223 Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG2: view

Drugs & Compounds for GNG2 Gene

(4) Drugs for GNG2 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Halothane Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Activator, Target, other/unknown 2
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(6) Additional Compounds for GNG2 Gene - From: HMDB and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
trifluoroacetic acid
  • Acide trifluoroacetique
  • CF3COOH
  • Kyselina trifluoroctova
  • Perfluoroacetic acid
  • Trifluoracetic acid
76-05-1
8-Bromo-cGMP, sodium salt
51116-01-9
CMPD101
865608-11-3
Gallein
2103-64-2
G-Protein antagonist peptide
143675-79-0

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNG2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
8-Bromo-cGMP, sodium salt cGMP analog; activates PKG 51116-01-9
CMPD101 Potent and selective GRK2/3 inhibitor 865608-11-3
Gallein Inhibitor of betagamma signaling 2103-64-2
G-Protein antagonist peptide Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs 143675-79-0
Pertussis Toxin Catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of Gi, Go and Gt 70323-44-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNG2: view

Transcripts for GNG2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNG2 Gene

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GNG2
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for GNG2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNG2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: -

Relevant External Links for GNG2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GNG2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GNG2

Expression for GNG2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GNG2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x10.0) and Testis (x8.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GNG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (11.2), Frontal cortex (10.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.4), and Fetal Brain (6.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GNG2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNG2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNG2 Gene:

GNG2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNG2 Gene:

Hs.187772

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNG2 Gene:

P59768-GBG2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in fetal tissues, including testis, adrenal gland, brain, white blood cells and brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNG2 Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Lymph node(4.3)
  • Skin(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNG2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNG2 Gene

Orthologs for GNG2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNG2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNG2 34 35
  • 100 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GNG2 35
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNG2 34 35
  • 95.31 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gng2 34 16 35
  • 92.49 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNG2 34 35
  • 92.02 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gng2 34
  • 91.55 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNG2 34 35
  • 85.92 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GNG2 35
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gng2 34
  • 85.45 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gng2 35 35
  • 94 (a)
OneToMany
LOC100332296 34
  • 82.63 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GNG2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GNG2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GNG2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GNG2 (if available)

Paralogs for GNG2 Gene

Paralogs for GNG2 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GNG2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNG2: view

Variants for GNG2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNG2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000025234 -- 51,869,528(+) GGTTT(C/G)TTGAA intron-variant
rs1000068383 -- 51,884,711(+) ACAAG(A/T)TAAGG intron-variant
rs1000082234 -- 51,903,936(+) ATCCA(C/T)CATGG intron-variant
rs1000082809 -- 51,863,705(+) CAGCT(-/C)CTGGA intron-variant
rs1000085235 -- 51,911,493(+) TTAGT(A/G)AACTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNG2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv35n6 CNV deletion 16902084
esv1005848 CNV deletion 20482838
esv2000663 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2514556 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2571786 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2670027 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2672618 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2675664 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2748712 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2748713 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2748714 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3347905 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3551556 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3551557 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3581204 CNV loss 25503493
esv3581206 CNV loss 25503493
esv3581207 CNV loss 25503493
esv3584437 CNV gain 25503493
esv3634507 CNV loss 21293372
esv3634509 CNV loss 21293372
esv3634510 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1108899 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1116026 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1122901 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1122902 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1138300 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv456317 CNV loss 19166990
nsv564842 CNV loss 21841781
nsv7252 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv826952 CNV loss 20364138
nsv952840 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv952841 CNV duplication 24416366

Variation tolerance for GNG2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.97; 19.93% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GNG2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GNG2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG2 Gene

Disorders for GNG2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GNG2 Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hemiplegic migraine
  • migraine hemiplegic
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNG2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GNG2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GNG2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GNG2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GNG2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNG2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNG2 Gene

Publications for GNG2 Gene

  1. Cloning, characterization, and mapping of the gene encoding the human G protein gamma 2 subunit. (PMID: 10833460) Modarressi M.H. … Wolfe J. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey S.D. … Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010) 3 46 64
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  4. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. (PMID: 26186194) Huttlin E.L. … Gygi S.P. (Cell 2015) 3 64
  5. A Non-Canonical Function of GI^ as a Subunit of E3 Ligase in Targeting GRK2A Ubiquitylation. (PMID: 25982117) Zha Z. … Xiong Y. (Mol. Cell 2015) 3 64

Products for GNG2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GNG2

Sources for GNG2 Gene

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