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GNG2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 63
GCID: GC14P052292

Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma 2

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma 21 2
G Gamma-I2 3
Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Gamma 22
Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(O) Gamma-2 Subunit2
Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) Subunit Gamma-22

External Ids:    HGNC: 44041   Entrez Gene: 543312   Ensembl: ENSG000001864697   OMIM: 6069815   UniProtKB: P597683   

Export aliases for GNG2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14P049702 GC14M046231 GC14M050426 GC14P050303 GC14P051383 GC14P052327 GC14P032487


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GNG2 Gene:
This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in
signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different
signal molecules. (provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for GNG2 Gene:
GNG2 (guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GNG2 include familial hemiplegic migraine, and hemiplegic migraine. GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNG8.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GBG2_HUMAN, P59768
Function: Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various
transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement
of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity)

summary for GNG2 Gene:
Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein
contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand-receptor binding
results in detachment of the G protein, switching it to an 'on' state and permitting Galpha activation of
second messenger signalling cascades. There are several types of Galpha proteins; in addition, some
Gbetagamma subunits have active functions. Gbetagamma coupled to H1 receptors can activate PLA2 and
Gbetagamma coupled to M1 receptors can activate KIR channels.

Gene Wiki entry for GNG2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000014.9  NT_026437.13  NC_018925.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for GNG2
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGNG2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GNG2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GNG2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q22.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q21

GNG2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GNG2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14P052292:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
52,292,913 bp from pter      End:
52,446,060 bp from pter
Size:
153,148 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GBG2_HUMAN, P59768 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 precursor  
Size: 71 amino acids; 7850 Da
Subunit: G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1
and GNG2 interacts with PTH1R (via C-terminus)
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for GNG2:
4KFM (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q5JPE2 Q6P9A9

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GNG2: NX_P59768

Explore proteomics data for GNG2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys32
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GNG2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001230702.1  NP_001230703.1  NP_444292.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000451279   ENSP00000450904   ENSP00000450758   ENSP00000450586   ENSP00000334448  
     ENSP00000451102   ENSP00000451231   ENSP00000452014   ENSP00000451576   ENSP00000451536  
    Reactome Protein details: P59768

    GNG2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals GNG2 Protein
    Novus Biologicals GNG2 Lysate
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
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    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

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    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001770 Gprotein-gamma
     IPR015898 G-protein_gamma-like_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P59768

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P59768

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001770 Gamma G-protein (transducin) signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GBG2_HUMAN, P59768
    Similarity: Belongs to the G protein gamma family


    GNG2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GBG2_HUMAN, P59768
    Function: Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various
    transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement
    of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004871signal transducer activity IEA--
    GO:0031681G-protein beta-subunit binding IPI12606627
         
    GNG2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GNG2:
     Decreased melanin production  Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GNG2
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       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GNG2

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNG2:
    hsa-mir-30a-5p (MIRT028498)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GNG2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GNG2 (see all 62):
    hsa-miR-411* hsa-miR-3678-3p hsa-miR-379* hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-1258 hsa-miR-105 hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-298
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGNG2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GNG2

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GNG2 (NM_053064)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GNG2
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GNG2

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GNG2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GBG2_HUMAN, P59768: Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side (Potential)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    cytosol3
    extracellular2
    golgi apparatus1
    mitochondrion1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005834heterotrimeric G-protein complex ISS--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016020membrane ISS--
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA--

    GNG2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GNG2 About   (see all 73)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
    G-protein beta-gamma signalling0.90
    Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs)0.69
    G beta-gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma0.90
    Activation of Kainate Receptors upon glutamate binding0.68
    Signal amplification0.79
    Inhibition of Insulin Secretion by Adrenaline/Noradrenaline0.64
    ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 10.79
    Glucagon-type ligand receptors0.61
    2fMLP Pathway
    CCR3 Pathway in Eosinophils0.44
    CXCR4 Pathway0.39
    VEGF and S-1P Signaling0.44
    Alpha-Adrenergic Signaling0.38
    fMLP Pathway0.43
    Huntington's Disease Pathway0.30
    Signal transduction Activation of PKC via G Protein coupled receptor0.42
    3Development Dopamine D2 receptor transactivation of EGFR
    Development Dopamine D2 receptor transactivation of EGFR0.66
    Apoptosis and survival BAD phosphorylation0.41
    Development Alpha 2 adrenergic receptor activation of ERK0.66
    BAD Phosphorylation0.41
    Chemotaxis CXCR4 signaling pathway0.48
    4Regulation of Water Balance by Renal Aquaporins
    Regulation of Water Balance by Renal Aquaporins0.85
    Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation0.70
    Aquaporin-mediated transport0.85
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Role of PKA in cytoskeleton reorganisation0.40
    5EphB-EphrinB Signaling
    EphB-EphrinB Signaling0.58
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Reverse signaling by ephrin B0.34
    Ephrin-Eph Signaling0.58

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GNG2 (see all 70)
        Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Intracellular Calcium Signaling
    CDK5 Pathway
    JNK Pathway
    ERK5 Signaling

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for GNG2 (see all 34)
        Signal transduction cAMP signaling
    G-protein signaling Regulation of p38 and JNK signaling mediated by G-proteins
    G-protein signaling G-Protein alpha-i signaling cascades
    Inhibitory action of Lipoxins and Resolvin E1 on neutrophil functions
    Signal transduction Activation of PKC via G-Protein coupled receptor

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for GNG2 (see all 13)
        Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways
    Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons
    Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell
    TSH signaling pathway
    Rapid glucocorticoid signaling


    Selected Reactome Pathways for GNG2 (see all 22)
        G alpha (12/13) signalling events
    G alpha (z) signalling events
    G-protein activation
    Ca2+ pathway
    Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for GNG2
        Beta-agonist/Beta-blocker Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Nicotine Pathway (Dopaminergic Neuron), Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GNG2) (see all 12):
        Ras signaling pathway
    Chemokine signaling pathway
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Circadian entrainment
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling


    GNG2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for GNG2
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GNG2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GNG2 (P597682, 3 ENSP000003344484) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 384)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GNAI1P630962, 3, ENSP000003430274MINT-8189440 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000343027
    GNB1P628733, ENSP000003678724I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000367872
    CACNA1HO951803, ENSP000003341984I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000334198
    CHRM2P081723, ENSP000003199844I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000319984
    GNASQ5JWF23, ENSP000003601414I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000360141
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006112energy reserve metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0007191adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway ISS--
    GO:0007268synaptic transmission TAS--
    GO:0007596blood coagulation TAS--

    GNG2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for GNG2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    GalleinInhibitor of betagamma signaling[2103-64-2]
    Suramin hexasodium saltNon-selective P2 antagonist[129-46-4]
    G-Protein antagonist peptideInhibits G protein activation by GPCRs[143675-79-0]
    8-Bromo-cGMP, sodium salt cGMP analog; activates PKG[51116-01-9]
    Pertussis Toxin Catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of Gi, Go and Gt [70323-44-3]

    3 HMDB Compounds for GNG2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Guanosine diphosphate5'-GDP (see all 10)146-91-8--
    Guanosine monophosphate5'-GMP (see all 14)85-32-5--
    Guanosine triphosphate5'-GTP (see all 10)86-01-1--

    1 DrugBank Compound for GNG2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Halothane2-Bromo-2-Chloro-1,1,1-Trifluoroethane (see all 14)151-67-7targetother/unknown15175324 12657848 11961592 12826849 10913255



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GNG2 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001243773.1  NM_001243774.1  NM_053064.4  

    Unigene Cluster for GNG2:

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2
    Hs.187772  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_053064
    15 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000553432 ENST00000556522 ENST00000557376 ENST00000553560 ENST00000554832
    ENST00000553299 ENST00000335281(uc010aoc.2 uc001wzi.3 uc021rte.1 uc001wzj.3)
    ENST00000557208 ENST00000555472 ENST00000556766 ENST00000554840 ENST00000554736
    ENST00000556752(uc001wzh.3 uc001wzk.3) ENST00000556471 ENST00000554875

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    hsa-miR-411* hsa-miR-3678-3p hsa-miR-379* hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-1258 hsa-miR-105 hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-298
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    Primer
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GNG2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GNG2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF130106.2 AK001024.1 AK026424.1 AK026425.1 AK092371.1 AK307171.1 AK311334.1 AL832878.1 
    BC020774.1 BC060856.1 

    16 DOTS entries:

    DT.115864  DT.97767221  DT.95101239  DT.120792866  DT.100812746  DT.120792977  DT.120793040  DT.401432 
    DT.97773147  DT.99932825  DT.100658238  DT.100812745  DT.100812750  DT.95073569  DT.100640890  DT.95206964 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 226):

    BM479054 F01428 AI760175 CR621932 BU733060 BM917190 C01898 AI459446 
    AI879372 AI422400 Z39525 AA287782 BX332418 AL597169 BQ890029 AI932610 
    H97059 AW160428 AI468109 BX332417 BI857090 BX109709 AI610119 BQ950274 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNG2 (see all 9)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c
    SP1:                    -     -     -                 -     -     -           -                                       
    SP2:                                      -           -           -     -     -           -                           
    SP3:                                      -           -     -     -     -     -           -                           
    SP4:                                      -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -                           
    SP5:                                      -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                     


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GNG2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    GNG2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GNG2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GACAATGTAT
    GNG2 Expression
    About this image


    GNG2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Muscle Progenitor Cells Mandibular Arch Muscles
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             nGnG Amacrine Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
             Retina
     
     Neurons
             nGnG Amacrine Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
     
     Paraxial Mesoderm (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             PureStem 7PEND24, NCr-fac & Meso-prx Progenitor
     
     Neural Crest (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             PureStem 7PEND24, NCr-fac & Meso-prx Progenitor
    GNG2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GNG2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.187772

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GBG2_HUMAN, P59768
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in fetal tissues, including testis, adrenal gland, brain, white blood cells and
    brain

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for GNG2 gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gng21 , 5 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma more1, 5 92.49(n)1
    100(a)1
      14 (11.17 cM)5
    147021  NM_001038637.11  NP_001033726.11 
     198725595 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GNG21 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma more 85.92(n)
    98.59(a)
      423581  NM_001097528.1  NP_001090997.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GNG26
    guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), ga...
    99(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL344470.1(37989-41014)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia gng21 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma more 85.45(n)
    100(a)
      448567  NM_001005038.1  NP_001005038.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1003322961 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit more 82.63(n)
    94.37(a)
      100332296  XM_002664141.3  XP_002664187.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GNG2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GNG2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GNG2 gene
    GNG82  GNG72  GNG52  GNG5P22  GNG102  GNG32  GNG42  GNG122  
    10 SIMAP similar genes for GNG2 using alignment to 6 protein entries:     GBG2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GNG8    GNG4    GNG3    GNG7    GNG12    GNG5
    GNG10    GNGT2    GNG11    GNGT1

    GNG2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GNG2 (see all 2477)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs44685271,2
    C,F,A,H--52325131(+) GAACTG/AATTAA 3 -- us2k117Minor allele frequency- A:0.06NS EA NA WA CSA 795
    rs1126024561,2
    C--52325171(+) TATTGT/ATTGAA 3 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs71475431,2
    C,F,H--52325213(+) TACCAA/GCCTAT 3 -- us2k110Minor allele frequency- G:0.38NS EA NA WA 768
    rs1493246451,2
    --52325290(+) AAAAAA/TTTACT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1446063281,2
    C--52325342(+) AATTAA/GCCATA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs71483471,2
    C,F,H--52325397(+) ACTTGG/CCATCA 3 -- us2k120Minor allele frequency- C:0.39NA NS EA WA 2058
    rs1156144841,2
    --52325481(+) CATGTG/TGGTGG 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs101334311,2
    C,H--52325521(+) TTTCTA/GTCTGC 3 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NS EA 416
    rs1882914421,2
    --52325541(+) AAAGCA/TAGTTG 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1823013221,2
    --52325569(+) ATCAAC/TCCATT 3 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GNG2 (52292913 - 52446060 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for GNG2 (see all 15):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2672618CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2748713CNV Deletion23290073
    esv1005848CNV Deletion20482838
    esv2748712CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2675664CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2571786CNV Deletion19546169
    esv2748714CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2000663CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2514556CNV Deletion19546169
    esv2670027CNV Deletion23128226

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 606981    OMIM disorders: --

    12 diseases for GNG2:    About MalaCards
    familial hemiplegic migraine    hemiplegic migraine    migraine    agammaglobulinemia
    pertussis    huntington's disease    lymphoblastic leukemia    colorectal cancer
    melanoma    leukemia    breast cancer    neuronitis


    GNG2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GNG2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GNG2 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for GNG2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GNG2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 76):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GNG2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning, characterization, and mapping of the gene encoding the human G protein gamma 2 subunit. (PubMed id 10833460)1, 2, 3, 9 Modarressi M.H.... Wolfe J. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000)
    2. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Genome-wide association studies identify several new loci associated with pigmentation traits and skin cancer risk in European Americans. (PubMed id 23548203)1 Zhang M....Han J. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2013)
    5. Functional analysis of GNG2 in human malignant melanoma cells. (PubMed id 23031273)1 Yajima I....Kato M. (J. Dermatol. Sci. 2012)
    6. Topography of Gng2- and NetrinG2-expression suggests an insular origin of the human claustrum. (PubMed id 22957104)1 Pirone A....Castagna M. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    7. N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N- terminal acetyltransferase NatB. (PubMed id 22814378)2 Van Damme P....Aldabe R. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012)
    8. Methods for quantification of in vivo changes in protein ubiquitination following proteasome and deubiquitinase inhibition. (PubMed id 22505724)1 Udeshi N.D....Carr S.A. (amp 2012)
    9. The WD40 repeat protein WDR26 binds GI^I^ and promotes GI^I^-dependent signal transduction and leukocyte migration. (PubMed id 22065575)1 Sun Z....Chen S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2011)
    10. GI^I^ subunits inhibit Epac-induced melanoma cell migration. (PubMed id 21679469)1 Baljinnyam E....Iwatsubo K. (BMC Cancer 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 54331 HGNC: 4404 AceView: GNG2 Ensembl:ENSG00000186469 euGenes: HUgn54331
    ECgene: GNG2 Kegg: 54331 H-InvDB: GNG2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GNG2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GNG2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GNG2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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