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GNAI2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC03P050263

Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Alpha Inhibiting...


(Previous symbol: GNAI2B)
  See GNAI2-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Alpha Inhibiting
Activity Polypeptide 21 2
     H_LUCA15.12
GNAI2B1 2 3 5     H_LUCA16.12
GTP-Binding Regulatory Protein Gi Alpha-2 Chain1 2     Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I) Subunit Alpha-22
Adenylate Cyclase-Inhibiting G Alpha Protein2 3     Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I), Alpha-2 Subunit2
GIP2 5     

External Ids:    HGNC: 43851   Entrez Gene: 27712   Ensembl: ENSG000001143537   OMIM: 1393605   UniProtKB: P048993   

Export aliases for GNAI2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC03M049690 GC03M049860 GC03P050118 GC03P050223 GC03P050232 GC03P050239


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GNAI2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is an alpha subunit of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins). The
encoded protein contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and is involved in the hormonal regulation of
adenylate cyclase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
(provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013)

GeneCards Summary for GNAI2 Gene:
GNAI2 (guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GNAI2 include ventricular tachycardia, idiopathic, and acth-secreting pituitary adenoma. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNAQ.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GNAI2_HUMAN, P04899
Function: Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various
transmembrane signaling systems. The G(i) proteins are involved in hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase: they
inhibit the cyclase in response to beta-adrenergic stimuli. May play a role in cell division
Function: Isoform sGi2: Regulates the cell surface density of dopamine receptors DRD2 by sequestrating them as an
intracellular pool

summary for GNAI2 Gene:
Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein
contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand-receptor binding
results in detachment of the G protein, switching it to an 'on' state and permitting Galpha activation of
second messenger signalling cascades. There are several types of Galpha proteins; Galphas and Galphai bind
directly to adenylyl cyclase and stimulate or inhibit its activity, leading to an increase or decrease in
cAMP levels respectively.

Gene Wiki entry for GNAI2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000003.11  NC_018914.2  NT_022517.19  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GNAI2 gene promoter:
         SRF   CHOP-10   GR   Sp1   SRF (504 AA)   GR-alpha   C/EBPalpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGNAI2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GNAI2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GNAI2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 3p21.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  3p21.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 3p21.31

GNAI2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GNAI2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 3         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC03P050263:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
50,263,724 bp from pter      End:
50,296,787 bp from pter
Size:
33,064 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GNAI2_HUMAN, P04899 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2  
Size: 355 amino acids; 40451 Da
Subunit: G proteins are composed of 3 units; alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha chain contains the guanine
nucleotide binding site. Interacts with GPSM1. Interacts with RGS12 and RGS14 (By similarity). Interacts with
UNC5B
Secondary accessions: B4DYA0 Q6B6N3 Q8IZ71
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  P04899-1   P04899-2   P04899-3   P04899-4   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GNAI2: NX_P04899

Explore proteomics data for GNAI2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys35, Lys46, Lys193, Lys198, Lys249, Lys296, Lys307, Lys350
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GNAI2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001159897.1  NP_001269546.1  NP_001269547.1  NP_001269548.1  NP_001269549.1  NP_002061.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000406871   ENSP00000406065   ENSP00000312999   ENSP00000394321   ENSP00000395736  
     ENSP00000406369   ENSP00000266027   ENSP00000444360  
    Reactome Protein details: P04899

    GNAI2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals GNAI2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GNAI2 Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GNAI2
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for GNAI2 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for GNAI2 (12 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for GNAI2

    GNAI2 Antibody Products:

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    ThermoFisher Antibody for GNAI2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GNAI2
    antibodies-online antibodies for GNAI2 (39 products) 

    GNAI2 Assay Products:

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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for GNAI2 
    antibodies-online kits for GNAI2 (11 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001019 Gprotein_alpha_su
     IPR011025 GproteinA_insert
     IPR001408 Gprotein_alpha_I
     IPR027417 P-loop_NTPase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P04899

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P04899

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001019 Alpha G-protein (transducin) signature
    IPB001408 G-protein alpha subunit group I signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GNAI2_HUMAN, P04899
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-alpha family. G(i/o/t/z) subfamily


    Find genes that share domains with GNAI2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GNAI2_HUMAN, P04899
    Function: Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various
    transmembrane signaling systems. The G(i) proteins are involved in hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase: they
    inhibit the cyclase in response to beta-adrenergic stimuli. May play a role in cell division
    Function: Isoform sGi2: Regulates the cell surface density of dopamine receptors DRD2 by sequestrating them as an
    intracellular pool

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GNAI2:
    guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein),alpha inhibiting activity,polypeptide 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001664G-protein coupled receptor binding IBA--
    GO:0003924GTPase activity IBA--
    GO:0004871signal transducer activity IBA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16189514
    GO:0005525GTP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GNAI2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         15 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Gnai2):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland 
     growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  liver/biliary system 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  respiratory system  skeleton  tumorigenesis 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GNAI2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for GNAI2: Gnai2tm1Lbi Gnai2tm1Rmm

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GNAI2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GNAI2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GNAI2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GNAI2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNAI2:
    hsa-mir-30e-5p (MIRT044144), hsa-mir-1 (MIRT023620), hsa-mir-935 (MIRT036699), hsa-mir-30a-5p (MIRT005181), hsa-mir-30d-5p (MIRT003274), hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT022392), hsa-mir-148b-3p (MIRT043588), hsa-mir-92b-3p (MIRT040616), hsa-mir-877-3p (MIRT036851)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GNAI2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GNAI2 (see all 68):
    hsa-miR-124* hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-632 hsa-miR-578 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-30a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGNAI2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GNAI2

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GNAI2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): GNAI2 (NM_002070)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GNAI2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GNAI2

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    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GNAI2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GNAI2_HUMAN, P04899: Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Cell
    membrane. Note=Localizes in the centrosomes of interphase and mitotic cells. Detected at the cleavage furrow
    and/or the midbody
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    plasma membrane5
    cytosol3
    nucleus2
    golgi apparatus1
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005813centrosome IDA17635935
    GO:0005829cytosol IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GNAI2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GNAI2 About   (see all 83)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
    Signal amplification0.79
    Inhibition of Insulin Secretion by Adrenaline/Noradrenaline0.64
    ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 120.74
    G alpha (z) signalling events0.47
    G-protein activation0.74
    Beta-agonist/Beta-blocker Pathway, Pharmacodynamics0.34
    2Ca-dependent events
    PLC beta mediated events0.67
    Opioid Signalling0.54
    G-protein mediated events0.65
    Inhibitory action of Lipoxin A4 on PDGF, EGF and LTD4 signaling0.33
    3EphB-EphrinB Signaling
    EphB-EphrinB Signaling0.58
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Reverse signaling by ephrin B0.34
    4Immune response CCR3 signaling in eosinophils
    Inhibitory action of Lipoxins on neutrophil migration0.51
    Immune response CCR3 signaling in eosinophils0.51
    5G Protein Signaling Pathways
    G Protein Signaling Pathways0.44
    Signal transduction cAMP signaling0.44


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GNAI2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GNAI2 (see all 57)
        RhoA Pathway
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Intracellular Calcium Signaling
    Visual Cycle in Retinal Rods
    CDK5 Pathway

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for GNAI2 (see all 25)
        Signal transduction cAMP signaling
    Development Endothelin-1/EDNRA signaling
    G-protein signaling Regulation of p38 and JNK signaling mediated by G-proteins
    G-protein signaling G-Protein alpha-i signaling cascades
    Inhibitory action of Lipoxins and Resolvin E1 on neutrophil functions

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for GNAI2 (see all 14)
        Signal Transduction of S1P Receptor
    G Protein Signaling Pathways
    Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone
    TSH signaling pathway

    Selected Reactome Pathways for GNAI2 (see all 9)
        Regulation of insulin secretion
    G alpha (z) signalling events
    G-protein activation
    Adenylate cyclase inhibitory pathway
    PLC beta mediated events

    3 PharmGKB Pathways for GNAI2
        Beta-agonist/Beta-blocker Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GNAI2) (see all 27):
        Rap1 signaling pathway
    Chemokine signaling pathway
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes
    Axon guidance
    Tight junction

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GNAI2: 
              Tight Junctions in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GNAI2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GNAI2 (P048991, 2, 3 ENSP000003129994) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 390)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    NCF1P145981, 2, 3, ENSP000002894734EBI-353997,EBI-395044 MINT-7135281 MINT-7135190 MINT-7135171 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000289473
    GNB1P628732, 3, ENSP000003678724MINT-7135221 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000367872
    HSP90AB1P082382, 3MINT-72645 I2D: score=3 
    NCF2P198781, 2, 3, ENSP000003565054EBI-353997,EBI-489611 MINT-7135264 MINT-7135250 MINT-7135281 MINT-7135162 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000356505
    CXCR5P323022, 3, ENSP000002921744MINT-50704 MINT-50707 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000292174
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 19):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000186activation of MAPKK activity IEA--
    GO:0001973adenosine receptor signaling pathway IBA--
    GO:0007049cell cycle IEA--
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS7961880
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS8587610

    Find genes that share ontologies with GNAI2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for GNAI2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    GalleinInhibitor of betagamma signaling[2103-64-2]
    Suramin hexasodium saltNon-selective P2 antagonist[129-46-4]
    G-Protein antagonist peptideInhibits G protein activation by GPCRs[143675-79-0]
    8-Bromo-cGMP, sodium salt cGMP analog; activates PKG[51116-01-9]
    Pertussis Toxin Catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of Gi, Go and Gt [70323-44-3]

    3 HMDB Compounds for GNAI2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Guanosine diphosphate5'-GDP (see all 10)146-91-8--
    Guanosine monophosphate5'-GMP (see all 14)85-32-5--
    Guanosine triphosphate5'-GTP (see all 10)86-01-1--



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GNAI2 gene (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001166425.1  NM_001282617.1  NM_001282618.1  NM_001282619.1  NM_001282620.1  NM_002070.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GNAI2:

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2
    Hs.77269  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK126708
    13 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000422163(uc003cyo.1 uc003cyp.1) ENST00000446079 ENST00000491100
    ENST00000480090 ENST00000313601(uc003cyq.1 uc011bdn.2) ENST00000441156(uc010hlg.1)
    ENST00000440628 ENST00000451956 ENST00000490122(uc003cyr.1) ENST00000468422
    ENST00000492383 ENST00000266027 ENST00000536647
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GNAI2 (see all 68):
    hsa-miR-124* hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-632 hsa-miR-578 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-30a
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    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): GNAI2 (NM_002070)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GNAI2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GNAI2
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GNAI2
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GNAI2
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GNAI2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GNAI2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF493906.1 AK055574.1 AK096299.1 AK096595.1 AK126708.1 AK131062.1 AK302330.1 AK304473.1 
    AY555145.1 AY677118.1 BC012138.1 BC014627.2 BC016995.1 CR456783.1 J03004.1 X04828.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 42):

    DT.100680604  DT.97768608  DT.75112974  DT.99968212  DT.91784324  DT.97860778  DT.100680607  DT.100057602 
    DT.95357437  DT.97800888  DT.100059846  DT.100862119  DT.91784320  DT.100059845  DT.120873963  DT.100680601 
    DT.95214674  DT.100648169  DT.100680617  DT.120873971  DT.95185336  DT.120874020  DT.100042317  DT.100859294 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1325):

    BQ924802 BM910681 AL522235 BU629898 BE208389 CA393116 BQ052858 BU632644 
    BQ718640 BQ677998 BE257810 CD613961 BM473715 BQ016684 CR610539 AK126708 
    BQ063369 AI863250 BF969380 BQ181203 BQ438820 BE047986 CD367585 BQ680464 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNAI2 (see all 12)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b · 15c · 15d · 15e ·
    SP1:              -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -                                         -                                 
    SP2:                                            -     -     -     -                 -                                         -                                 
    SP3:              -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                         -                                 
    SP4:                          -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                         -                                 
    SP5:                                            -     -     -     -     -           -                                         -                                 

    ExUns: 15f
    SP1:      
    SP2:      
    SP3:      
    SP4:      
    SP5:      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GNAI2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GNAI2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTTTATGGAA
    GNAI2 Expression
    About this image


    GNAI2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 19) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             Metanephros
     
     Lower Urinary Tract (Urinary System)
             Ureter
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
    GNAI2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GNAI2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.77269
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GNAI2: 
              Tight Junctions in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for GNAI2 gene from Selected species (see all 19)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gnai21 , 5 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha more1, 5 91.74(n)1
    98.31(a)1
      9 (58.43 cM)5
    146781  NM_008138.41  NP_032164.21 
     1076141385 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GNAI21 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha more 87.32(n)
    95.21(a)
      396367  NM_205402.1  NP_990733.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GNAI26
    guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), al...
    91(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(148689899-148811953)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.215122 Xenopus laevis guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi more 83.72(n)    AF086606.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii wufi21e062 wufi21e06 82.55(n)   327650  BC049343.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta G-ialpha65A3 G-protein coupled receptor protein
    signaling pathway more
    76(a)
    (best of 3)
        --
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GPA11 GPA1 54.92(n)
    50.14(a)
      856394   NP_011868.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GNAI2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GNAI2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GNAI2 gene
    GNAQ2  GNA112  GNA142  GNAI32  GNAT22  GNA132  GNAT32  GNAT12  
    GNA122  GNA152  GNAZ2  GNAO12  GNAI12  
    18 SIMAP similar genes for GNAI2 using alignment to 8 protein entries:     GNAI2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GNAI3    GNAI1    GNAT3    GNAT2    DKFZp686O0962    GNAT1
    GNAZ    GNAO1    GNA11    GNA14    GNAQ    GNA12
    GNA13    GNAL    GNA15    GNAS    GSA    WUGSC

    Find genes that share paralogs with GNAI2           About GenesLikeMe


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GNAI2
    PGOHUM00000238547 PGOHUM00000239685


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GNAI2 (see all 400)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 3 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1378532261,2
    Cother150226052(+) GGACCC/G/TGCGTA 6 R G C mis10--------
    rs1491184511,2
    --50204022(+) GCTAAC/TTTTTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1448643071,2
    --50204071(+) GTCTCC/GATCTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1387130991,2
    --50204100(+) GCCTCA/GGCCTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1403390471,2
    --50204135(+) GCCACC/TGTGCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1454012131,2
    --50204225(+) AACCTC/GCGCCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1924020711,2
    --50204275(+) AGCTGC/GGATTA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1474273381,2
    --50204290(+) TGCCCA/GCCACC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1483276661,2
    --50204432(+) CAACCA/GTGCCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1154094271,2
    F--50204464(+) TCTAAG/AGAAGG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.02WA 118

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GNAI2 (50263724 - 50296787 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for GNAI2 (see all 16):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv1008898CNV Deletion20482838
    dgv5132n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv876770CNV Loss21882294
    nsv834692CNV Loss17160897
    dgv602n27CNV Loss19166990
    nsv470561CNV Loss18288195
    nsv460531CNV Loss19166990
    nsv523560CNV Loss19592680
    nsv523662CNV Loss19592680
    dgv5131n71CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GNAI2
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GNAI2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GNAI2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 139360   
    OMIM disorders: 192605  
    7 diseases for GNAI2 (see first 20):    
    About MalaCards
    ventricular tachycardia, idiopathic    acth-secreting pituitary adenoma    familial hemiplegic migraine type 1    functioning pituitary adenoma
    olivopontocerebellar atrophy    hemiplegic migraine    familial hemiplegic migraine


    Find genes that share disorders with GNAI2           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GNAI2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GNAI2 (6 documents)

    Export disorders for GNAI2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GNAI2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 143):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GNAI2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human Gi protein alpha-subunit: deduction of amino acid structure from a cloned cDNA. (PubMed id 3100330)1, 2, 3 Didsbury J.R.... Snyderman R. (FEBS Lett. 1987)
    2. Identification of neuroglycan C and interacting partners as potential susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese population. (PubMed id 19367581)1, 4 So H.C....Sham P.C. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010)
    3. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    4. Non-functioning pituitary adenomas infrequently harbor G-protein gene mutations. (PubMed id 19169048)1, 4 Ruggeri R.M....CannavA^ S. (J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2008)
    5. Role of a Galphai2 protein splice variant in the formation of an intracellular dopamine D2 receptor pool. (PubMed id 17550964)1, 2 Lopez-Aranda M.F.... Khan Z.U. (J. Cell Sci. 2007)
    6. Localization of Gi alpha proteins in the centrosomes and at the midbody: implication for their role in cell division. (PubMed id 17635935)1, 2 Cho H. and Kehrl J.H. (J. Cell Biol. 2007)
    7. The -318 C&gt;G single-nucleotide polymorphism in GNAI2 gene promoter region impairs transcriptional activity through specific binding of Sp1 transcription factor and is associated with high blood pressure in Caucasians from Italy. (PubMed id 16565233)1, 4 Menzaghi C....Trischitta V. (J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2006)
    8. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    9. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    10. Modulation of G(ialpha(2)) signaling by the axonal guidance molecule UNC5H2. (PubMed id 12359238)1, 2 Komatsuzaki K.... Kinane T.B. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2771 HGNC: 4385 AceView: GNAI2 Ensembl:ENSG00000114353 euGenes: HUgn2771
    ECgene: GNAI2 Kegg: 2771 H-InvDB: GNAI2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GNAI2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for GNAI2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GNAI2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GNAI2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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