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Aliases for GLUL Gene

Aliases for GLUL Gene

  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase 2 3
  • GLNS 3 4 6
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase 3 4
  • Glutamine Synthetase 2 3
  • EC 6.3.1.2 4 63
  • GS 3 4
  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase (Glutamine Synthase) 2
  • Cell Proliferation-Inducing Protein 59 3
  • Proliferation-Inducing Protein 43 3
  • Glutamate--Ammonia Ligase 4
  • Glutamine Synthase 3
  • EC 4.1.1.15 4
  • PIG43 3
  • PIG59 3

External Ids for GLUL Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GLUL Gene

  • GLNS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLUL Gene

  • GC01M179878
  • GC01M177780
  • GC01M178872
  • GC01M179592
  • GC01M179593
  • GC01M179083
  • GC01M180617
  • GC01M153587

Summaries for GLUL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLUL Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glutamine synthetase family. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia in an ATP-dependent reaction. This protein plays a role in ammonia and glutamate detoxification, acid-base homeostasis, cell signaling, and cell proliferation. Glutamine is an abundant amino acid, and is important to the biosynthesis of several amino acids, pyrimidines, and purines. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital glutamine deficiency, and overexpression of this gene was observed in some primary liver cancer samples. There are six pseudogenes of this gene found on chromosomes 2, 5, 9, 11, and 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

GeneCards Summary for GLUL Gene

GLUL (Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLUL include glutamine deficiency, congenital and glutathione synthetase deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Carbon metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and manganese ion binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUL Gene

  • This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLUL Gene

Genomics for GLUL Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLUL Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GLUL gene promoter:

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GLUL Gene

Start:
182,381,704 bp from pter
End:
182,392,206 bp from pter
Size:
10,503 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLUL Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GLUL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLUL Gene

Proteins for GLUL Gene

  • Protein details for GLUL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P15104-GLNA_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutamine synthetase
    Protein Accession:
    P15104
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q499Y9
    • Q5T9Z1
    • Q7Z3W4
    • Q8IZ17

    Protein attributes for GLUL Gene

    Size:
    373 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    42064 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=biotin; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57586;
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homooctamer and homotetramer. Interacts with PALMD (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLUL Gene

neXtProt entry for GLUL Gene

Proteomics data for GLUL Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLUL Gene

  • Ubiquitinated by ZNRF1.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys11, Lys14, Lys25, Lys91, Lys95, Lys103, Lys259, Lys268, Lys276, Lys291, Lys334, and Lys372
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GLUL Gene

Antibody Products

Domains for GLUL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLUL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P15104

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLNA_HUMAN :
  • P15104
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLUL: view

No data available for Gene Families for GLUL Gene

Function for GLUL Gene

Molecular function for GLUL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
L-glutamine synthetase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By glucocorticoids. Vitamin D and the Wnt signaling pathway inhibit its expression and activity.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLUL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLUL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0004351 glutamate decarboxylase activity IEA --
GO:0004356 glutamate-ammonia ligase activity EXP --
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLUL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLUL: view

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GLUL

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GLUL Gene

Localization for GLUL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUL Gene

Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GLUL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLUL gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
chloroplast 3
cytoskeleton 3
endoplasmic reticulum 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLUL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005791 rough endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLUL: view

Pathways for GLUL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLUL: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLUL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001504 neurotransmitter uptake TAS --
GO:0006536 glutamate metabolic process --
GO:0006538 glutamate catabolic process TAS 21757002
GO:0006542 glutamine biosynthetic process TAS 21757002
GO:0006807 nitrogen compound metabolic process --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLUL: view

Compounds for GLUL Gene

(2) HMDB Compounds for GLUL Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
L-Glutamic acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
56-86-0
L-Glutamine
  • (2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
56-85-9

(9) Drugbank Compounds for GLUL Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Ceftriaxone
  • Cefatriaxone
73384-59-5 enzyme inducer
Diazoxide
364-98-7 enzyme inhibitor
Dihydroergotoxine
11032-41-0 enzyme inducer
Ethyl biscoumacetate
  • Pelentan
548-00-5 enzyme inhibitor
L-Glutamic Acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
56-86-0 target

(95) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLUL Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glutamine 96.3 364
methionine sulfoximine 93.5 40
glutamate 81.3 161
ammonium 73.2 49
gamma-glutamyl phosphate 71 4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLUL: view

Transcripts for GLUL Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLUL Gene

Glutamate-ammonia ligase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GLUL

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLUL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13a · 13b ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - - - -
SP14: - - -
SP15: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP16: - - - - - - - -
SP17:
SP18: -
SP19: -
SP20: - -

ExUns: 13c · 13d · 13e · 13f ^ 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15a · 15b · 15c · 15d
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - -
SP6:
SP7:
SP8: - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - -
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15: - -
SP16:
SP17: - -
SP18:
SP19:
SP20:

Relevant External Links for GLUL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GLUL
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GLUL

Expression for GLUL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLUL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GLUL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (5.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GLUL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (28.0), Frontal cortex (10.4), Cervix (6.8), and Brain (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLUL Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLUL Gene Hs.518525

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GLUL: view

Expression partners for GLUL Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLUL Gene

Orthologs for GLUL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GLUL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLUL 35
  • 89.54 (n)
  • 96.25 (a)
GLUL 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLUL 35
  • 90.8 (n)
  • 97.32 (a)
-- 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToMany
GLUL 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Glul 35
  • 89.45 (n)
  • 94.64 (a)
Glul 16
Glul 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLUL 35
  • 99.64 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GLUL 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Glul 35
  • 86.86 (n)
  • 92.49 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLUL 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GLUL 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLUL 35
  • 78.91 (n)
  • 88.74 (a)
GLUL 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLUL 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia glul 35
  • 75.07 (n)
  • 85.52 (a)
LOC394904 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia glul-prov 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glulb 35
  • 75.92 (n)
  • 87.33 (a)
glula 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
glulb 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11265 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gs1 37
  • 58 (a)
Gs2 37
  • 60 (a)
Gs1 35
  • 60.77 (n)
  • 61.05 (a)
Gs1 36
  • 54 (a)
OneToMany
Gs2 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008988 35
  • 58.24 (n)
  • 58.33 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C28D4.3 37
  • 57 (a)
F26D10.10 37
  • 60 (a)
qrs-1 37
  • 59 (a)
qrs-2 37
  • 58 (a)
Y105C5B.28 37
  • 64 (a)
gln-1 35
  • 59.13 (n)
  • 60 (a)
gln-1 36
  • 54 (a)
OneToMany
gln-2 36
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
gln-3 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
gln-5 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
gln-6 36
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR182C 35
  • 58.55 (n)
  • 57.97 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E06293g 35
  • 56.73 (n)
  • 57.89 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLN1 35
  • 57.12 (n)
  • 57.02 (a)
GLN1 36
  • 53 (a)
OneToOne
GLN1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GSR2 35
  • 56.76 (n)
  • 56.76 (a)
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.3518 35
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.1208 35
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.331 35
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.7879 35
Os03g0223400 35
  • 59.06 (n)
  • 56.76 (a)
wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.24508 35
corn
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.45 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06724 35
  • 60.28 (n)
  • 59.15 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes gln1 35
  • 58.31 (n)
  • 56.48 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.392 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GLUL:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for GLUL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GLUL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GLUL (if available)

Paralogs for GLUL Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GLUL Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLUL: view

No data available for Paralogs for GLUL Gene

Variants for GLUL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLUL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs7734 -- 182,383,486(-) CAGAC(A/G)ACACG utr-variant-3-prime
rs8527 -- 182,383,585(-) AAGTG(A/G)TTCTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs8762 -- 182,383,483(-) ACAAC(A/G)CGTTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs9347 -- 182,384,063(-) GGGGG(A/T)CTCTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs912900 -- 182,391,497(+) CCACC(A/G)GCGGC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLUL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv22717 CNV Loss 19812545

Relevant External Links for GLUL Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GLUL
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GLUL

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUL Gene

Disorders for GLUL Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for GLUL Gene (138290)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

GLNA_HUMAN
  • Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD) [MIM:610015]: Rare developmental disorder with severe brain malformation resulting in multi-organ failure and neonatal death. Glutamine is largely absent from affected patients serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16267323}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GLUL Gene

(56) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GLUL Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hyperammonemia 67.3 5
hepatic encephalopathy 43.2 2
hepatocellular carcinoma 39.5 10
brain diseases 32.4 3
gliosis 30.3 2

Relevant External Links for GLUL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GLUL
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GLUL
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLUL: view

No data available for Genatlas for GLUL Gene

Publications for GLUL Gene

  1. Glutamine synthetase isolated from human brain: octameric structure and homology of partial primary structure with human liver glutamine synthetase. (PMID: 12387715) Boksha I.S. … Burbaeva G.S.H. (Biokhimiia 2002) 3 4 23
  2. Overexpression of glutamine synthetase in human primary liver cancer. (PMID: 7909780) Christa L. … Lasserre C. (Gastroenterology 1994) 3 4 23
  3. An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia. (PMID: 15642443) Zhang B. … Shen Y. (Eur. Psychiatry 2005) 3 23 48
  4. Wnt and steroid pathways control glutamate signalling by regulating glutamine synthetase activity in osteoblastic cells. (PMID: 18555765) Olkku A. … Mahonen A. (Bone 2008) 3 4 23
  5. Glutamine synthetase is essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. (PMID: 18662667) Vermeulen T. … Haeberle J. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2008) 3 4 23

Products for GLUL Gene

Sources for GLUL Gene

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