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GLUL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC01M182350

Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase

(Previous name: glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase))
(Previous symbol: GLNS)
  See GLUL-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase1 2     Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase (Glutamine Synthase)1
GLNS1 2 3 5     PIG432
Glutamine Synthetase1 2     PIG592
Glutamate Decarboxylase2 3     Cell Proliferation-Inducing Protein 592
Glutamate--Ammonia Ligase2 3     Glutamine Synthase2
GS2 3     Proliferation-Inducing Protein 432
EC 6.3.1.23 8     EC 4.1.1.153

External Ids:    HGNC: 43411   Entrez Gene: 27522   Ensembl: ENSG000001358217   OMIM: 1382905   UniProtKB: P151043   

Export aliases for GLUL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M179878 GC01M177780 GC01M178872 GC01M179592 GC01M179593 GC01M179083 GC01M180617 GC01M153587


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GLUL Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glutamine synthetase family. It catalyzes the synthesis of
glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Glutamine is a main source of energy and is involved in cell proliferation,
inhibition of apoptosis, and cell signaling. This gene is expressed during early fetal stages, and plays an
important role in controlling body pH by removing ammonia from circulation. Mutations in this gene are associated
with congenital glutamine deficiency. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this
gene.(provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009)

GeneCards Summary for GLUL Gene:
GLUL (glutamate-ammonia ligase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GLUL include glutamine deficiency, congenital, and reye syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include manganese ion binding and identical protein binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104
Function: This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate
(gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity).
Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NT_004487.20  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLUL gene promoter:
         ATF-2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): GLUL promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GLUL

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GLUL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q25.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q31

GLUL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLUL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M182350:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
182,350,839 bp from pter      End:
182,361,341 bp from pter
Size:
10,503 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutamine synthetase  
Size: 373 amino acids; 42064 Da
Cofactor: Biotin (By similarity)
Cofactor: Magnesium or manganese (By similarity)
Subunit: Homooctamer and homotetramer. Interacts with PALMD (By similarity)
Developmental stage: Expressed during early fetal stages
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GLUL:
2OJW (3D)        2QC8 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q499Y9 Q5T9Z1 Q7Z3W4 Q8IZ17

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLUL: NX_P15104

Explore proteomics data for GLUL at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitinated by ZNRF1 (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys11, Lys14, Lys25, Lys91, Lys95, Lys103, Lys259, Lys268, Lys276, Lys291,
                                 Lys334, Lys372
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for GLUL (P15104) (see all 24)
     GFPGPQG  GTNAEVM  YIWIDGT  PQGPYYC 


    See GLUL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001028216.1  NP_001028228.1  NP_002056.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000356537   ENSP00000344958   ENSP00000307900   ENSP00000398320  
    Reactome Protein details: P15104

    GLUL Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for GLUL
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GLUL
    OriGene MassSpec for GLUL
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for GLUL
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for GLUL
    Novus Biologicals GLUL Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GLUL Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GLUL
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for GLUL 

    GLUL Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GLUL
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    OriGene Antibodies for GLUL
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GLUL
    Novus Biologicals GLUL Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GLUL
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for GLUL
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GLUL

    GLUL Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for GLUL
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GLUL
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for GLUL 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR008147 Gln_synt_beta
     IPR014746 Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom
     IPR008146 Gln_synth_cat_dom
     IPR027302 Gln_synth_N_conserv_site
     IPR027303 Gln_synth_gly_rich_site

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P15104

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P15104

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104
    Similarity: Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family


    Find genes that share domains with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104
    Function: This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate
    (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity).
    Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts
    Catalytic activity: ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
    Catalytic activity: L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2)
    Induction: By glucocorticoids. Vitamin D and the Wnt signaling pathway inhibit its expression and activity

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GLUL:
    L-glutamine synthetase

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 6.3.1.21 2 EC 4.1.1.151

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000287magnesium ion binding IEA--
    GO:0004351glutamate decarboxylase activity IEA--
    GO:0004356glutamate-ammonia ligase activity EXP--
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GLUL:
     Increased G1 DNA content  Increased cell death HMECs cel 

         5 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Glul):
     behavior/neurological  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism  mortality/aging  nervous system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GLUL
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GLUL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GLUL
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GLUL

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLUL:
    hsa-mir-125a-3p (MIRT038640), hsa-mir-183-5p (MIRT025018), hsa-mir-320b (MIRT036244), hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT040016), hsa-let-7e-5p (MIRT051664), hsa-mir-186-5p (MIRT021141), hsa-mir-484 (MIRT041957), hsa-mir-185-5p (MIRT045330), hsa-mir-29a-3p (MIRT004021), hsa-mir-296-3p (MIRT038394), hsa-mir-423-5p (MIRT038153), hsa-mir-196a-5p (MIRT048155), hsa-mir-937-3p (MIRT036638), hsa-let-7a-5p (MIRT052399), hsa-mir-320a (MIRT044856), hsa-mir-24-3p (MIRT030540), hsa-mir-149-5p (MIRT045626), hsa-mir-877-5p (MIRT037273), hsa-let-7f-5p (MIRT051362), hsa-mir-877-3p (MIRT036966)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GLUL using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLUL (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-140-5p hsa-miR-582-3p hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-4286 hsa-miR-1285 hsa-miR-340 hsa-miR-3170 hsa-miR-497*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGLUL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GLUL
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GLUL

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GLUL

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GLUL (see all 19)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GLUL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GLUL (NM_002065)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GLUL
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GLUL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GLUL

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GLUL
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for GLUL 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GLUL


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GLNA_HUMAN, P15104: Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol4
    chloroplast3
    cytoskeleton3
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    extracellular2
    mitochondrion2
    nucleus2
    plasma membrane2

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005791rough endoplasmic reticulum IEA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GLUL About   (see all 12)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Neurotransmitter uptake and Metabolism In Glial Cells
    Neurotransmitter uptake and Metabolism In Glial Cells
    Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism0.00
    glutamine biosynthesis I0.00
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    3Transmission across Chemical Synapses
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses0.72
    Neuronal System0.68
    4Circadian entrainment
    GABAergic synapse0.53
    Glutamatergic synapse0.39
    5Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives
    Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives
    Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)0.00


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 BioSystems Pathway for GLUL
        glutamine biosynthesis I


    2 Reactome Pathways for GLUL
        Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism
    Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GLUL) (see all 8):
        Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
    Arginine and proline metabolism
    Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
    Nitrogen metabolism
    Metabolic pathways

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GLUL: 
              Nephrotoxicity in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Necrosis in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GLUL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GLUL (P151041, 2, 3 ENSP000003079004) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 187)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SKILP127572, 3MINT-61661 I2D: score=3 
    GLULP151041, 2EBI-746653,EBI-746653 MINT-68068
    NUDT18Q6ZVK82, 3, ENSP000003078524MINT-68171 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000307852
    PLEKHF2Q9H8W42, 3, ENSP000003223734MINT-66879 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000322373
    PIAS1O759253, ENSP000002496364I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000249636
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    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 15):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001504neurotransmitter uptake TAS--
    GO:0006536glutamate metabolic process ----
    GO:0006538glutamate catabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006542glutamine biosynthetic process TAS--
    GO:0006807nitrogen compound metabolic process ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GLUL
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GLUL (GLNA)

    2 HMDB Compounds for GLUL    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    L-Glutamic acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate (see all 49)56-86-0--
    L-Glutamine(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid (see all 31)56-85-9--

    9 DrugBank Compounds for GLUL    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Glutamine(S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid (see all 4)56-85-9targetproduct of16484281 16326016 16547651 16382338 16530878
    L-Glutamic Acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid (see all 15)56-86-0target--16973920 16673373 16876704 17284842
    L-Methionine(S)-2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (see all 6)63-68-3enzymeinhibitor6127334 4144717 4308004
    CeftriaxoneCefatriaxone (see all 4)73384-59-5enzymeinducer10696140 20423712
    Diazoxide-- 364-98-7enzymeinhibitor7926271
    Dihydroergotoxine-- 11032-41-0enzymeinducer6117619
    Ethyl biscoumacetatePelentan (see all 2)548-00-5enzymeinhibitor7195738
    PegvisomantGH (see all 6)218620-50-9enzymeinhibitor1970314
    Picrotoxin-- 124-87-8enzymeinhibitor840320

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLUL gene (see all 95)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glutamine 96.3 1584 10681395 (8), 10943675 (8), 11589877 (8), 9288153 (8) (see all 99)
    methionine sulfoximine 93.5 62 14714472 (2), 20060132 (2), 12390519 (1), 12840174 (1) (see all 38)
    glutamate 81.3 432 19728998 (7), 20064572 (6), 20373878 (5), 12390519 (4) (see all 99)
    ammonium 73.2 84 8563633 (5), 16173463 (3), 19464754 (3), 14757761 (3) (see all 33)
    gamma-glutamyl phosphate 71 5 8563633 (3), 10664863 (1)
    phosphinothricin 67 24 17888468 (6), 16510221 (3), 16504520 (1), 12723887 (1) (see all 7)
    alpha-ketoglutarate 64.3 5 18421771 (1), 8971000 (1), 1360177 (1), 17477312 (1)
    2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 58.3 2 1979258 (1), 10366697 (1)
    carbamoyl phosphate 54.2 13 1976588 (5), 17518723 (1), 1687030 (1), 8587121 (1) (see all 5)
    nitrate 52.3 38 7534371 (2), 9244251 (1), 18419739 (1), 1967601 (1) (see all 23)



    Find genes that share compounds with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLUL gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001033044.2  NM_001033056.2  NM_002065.5  

    Unigene Cluster for GLUL:

    Glutamate-ammonia ligase
    Hs.518525  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_002065
    12 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000331872(uc010pnt.2 uc001gpd.2) ENST00000491322 ENST00000339526
    ENST00000463851 ENST00000461447 ENST00000484996 ENST00000489818 ENST00000475808
    ENST00000480604 ENST00000462444 ENST00000311223(uc001gpb.2 uc001gpc.2)
    ENST00000417584(uc001gpa.2)
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GLUL using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLUL (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-140-5p hsa-miR-582-3p hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-4286 hsa-miR-1285 hsa-miR-340 hsa-miR-3170 hsa-miR-497*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGLUL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GLUL
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GLUL
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GLUL (see all 19)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GLUL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GLUL (NM_002065)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GLUL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GLUL
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GLUL
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GLUL
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GLUL
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GLUL
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GLUL

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK122784.1 AK301600.1 AY486122.1 AY513283.1 AY947343.1 BC010037.2 BC011700.2 BC011852.2 
    BC018992.1 BC031964.1 BC051726.1 BC127883.1 BX537384.1 S70290.1 X59834.1 Y00387.2 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 59):

    DT.97789039  DT.95297120  DT.91909750  DT.95176992  DT.100687848  DT.91707765  DT.100687841  DT.100687844 
    DT.92475794  DT.95075484  DT.100687842  DT.102837867  DT.85104875  DT.91813488  DT.100687839  DT.91875449 
    DT.95075478  DT.100873067  DT.75153967  DT.97860944  DT.121426398  DT.100040371  DT.100687840  DT.100687850 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1446):

    AA779772 AA418870 AI688954 BU726821 BQ008649 BF939525 BQ188827 BX382320 
    CD677430 BU685432 CB117590 CB132724 BG056775 BQ009780 BQ691536 BP377716 
    BQ690979 AA418869 BF339029 T08012 BM697627 BU543600 BF724702 F03096 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLUL (see all 20)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13a · 13b ·
    SP1:                          -     -     -     -           -     -     -                             -           -     -                       -     -         
    SP2:                          -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                             -           -     -                       -     -         
    SP3:                                                        -     -     -                             -           -     -                       -     -         
    SP4:                                      -     -     -     -     -     -                             -           -     -                       -     -         
    SP5:                          -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -   

    ExUns: 13c · 13d · 13e · 13f ^ 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15a · 15b · 15c · 15d
    SP1:              -     -                                             
    SP2:              -     -                                             
    SP3:              -     -                                             
    SP4:              -     -                                             
    SP5:              -     -                                             


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GLUL

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GLUL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TACAGTATGT
    GLUL Expression
    About this image


    GLUL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 27) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
             Astrocyte-like cells
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mature Muller Glia Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
             Retina-like cells
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Perivenous Hepatocytes Liver Lobule
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Double Negative 2 Thymocytes Thymus
             Thymus
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
    GLUL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GLUL Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.518525
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GLUL: 
              Nephrotoxicity in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Necrosis in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for GLUL gene from Selected species (see all 30)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Glul1 , 5 glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthetase)1, 5 89.45(n)1
    94.64(a)1
      1 (65.43 cM)5
    146451  NM_008131.31  NP_032157.21 
     1538999445 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GLUL1 glutamate-ammonia ligase 78.91(n)
    88.74(a)
      396489  NM_205493.1  NP_990824.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GLUL6
    glutamate-ammonia ligase
    88(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343712.1(207755-222114)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia glul-prov2 glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase) 76.31(n)    BC054153.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AY423006.12   -- 83.48(n)    AY423006.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Gs23
    Gs11
    glutamate-ammonia ligase3
    Glutamine synthetase 11
    60(a)
    (best of 2)3
    60.77(n)1
    61.05(a)1
      10B113
    331721  NM_001169368.21  NP_001162839.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea Y105C5B.283
    gln-11
    gln-11 64(a)
    (best of 5)3
    59.13(n)1
    60(a)1
      IV(16168058-16170839)3
    1808751  NM_076611.31  NP_509012.21 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GLN1(YPR035W)4
    GLN11
    Glutamine synthetase (GS), synthesizes glutamine from more4
    GLN11
    57.12(n)1
    57.02(a)1
      16(642208-643320)4
    8561471, 4  NP_015360.21  NP_015360.14 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons GSR21 GSR2 56.76(n)
    56.76(a)
      842935  NM_105291.3  NP_176794.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.78792 Oryza sativa shoot GS2 mRNA for chloroplastic glutamine more 73.63(n)    AK099252.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLUL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GLUL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GLUL gene
    3 SIMAP similar genes for GLUL using alignment to 2 protein entries:     GLNA_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PIG59    DKFZp434M0813    PIG43

    Find genes that share paralogs with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GLUL (see all 6)
    PGOHUM00000242168 PGOHUM00000242513 PGOHUM00000239935 PGOHUM00000240465 PGOHUM00000235814


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GLUL (see all 340)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0265604
    Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD)4--see VAR_0265602 R C mis40--------
    VAR_0265614
    Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD)4--see VAR_0265612 R C mis40--------
    rs803582151,2
    Cpathogenic1188905975(-) ATCGTC/TGCCCC 6 R C mis10--------
    rs803582141,2
    Cpathogenic1188906026(-) GCATAA/C/TGCATT 9 S R C mis10--------
    rs783535861,2
    C--153590513(+) GACATA/GTGTCA 3 -- int10--------
    rs30288371,2
    C--182351630(-) GTGAT-/TCA/  
      TCATTT
    AAGAA
    6 -- cds11CSA 2
    rs563548561,2
    C--182351631(+) TCTTA-/AAATG 
    A
    /AATGAA
    TCACT
    6 -- cds10--------
    rs717856331,2
    C--182354175(+) ATGACAT/-ATGTC 3 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs560292351,2
    C--182358541(+) ATATA-/TTTT  
            
    TTTAG
    3 -- int11Minor allele frequency- TTTT:0.00NA 2
    rs1120352371,2
    C--182358689(+) AGACTTG/-TCAAG 3 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GLUL (182350839 - 182361341 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for GLUL:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv22717CNV Loss19812545

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GLUL
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GLUL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GLUL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 138290   
    OMIM disorders: 610015  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104
  • Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD) [MIM:610015]: Rare developmental disorder with severe
    brain malformation resulting in multi-organ failure and neonatal death. Glutamine is largely absent from affected
    patients serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene
    represented in this entry

  • 10 diseases for GLUL:    
    About MalaCards
    glutamine deficiency, congenital    reye syndrome    glutathione synthetase deficiency    retinal detachment
    acute porphyria    brain edema    paranoid schizophrenia    hepatic encephalopathy
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis    schizophrenia

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GLUL:
    Hepatic encephalopathy     Toxic encephalopathy     Hepatocellular carcinoma

    Find genes that share disorders with GLUL           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GLUL gene (see all 56)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hyperammonemia 67.3 8 12020613 (2), 15841446 (1), 1352200 (1), 1677585 (1)
    hepatic encephalopathy 43.2 2 10564534 (1), 12020613 (1)
    hepatocellular carcinoma 39.5 13 1346587 (3), 18282277 (2), 10952242 (2), 20525558 (1) (see all 6)
    brain diseases 32.4 3 18062818 (1), 9166739 (1), 11004532 (1)
    gliosis 30.3 2 8570019 (1), 19183851 (1)
    liver failure 29.5 5 10564534 (1), 17299991 (1), 11549067 (1), 16382338 (1)
    alzheimers disease 27.9 26 10733015 (5), 10520940 (2), 9166739 (2), 11746426 (2) (see all 12)
    neurodegeneration 27.8 3 20107048 (2), 14681883 (1)
    epilepsy temporal lobe 26.3 6 16095760 (1), 14723991 (1), 19170755 (1), 18226171 (1) (see all 5)
    reye syndrome 25.9 1 10199339 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GLUL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GLUL (3 documents)

    Export disorders for GLUL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GLUL gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 557):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLUL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. cDNA sequence of the long mRNA for human glutamine synthase. (PubMed id 1681907)1, 2, 3 van den Hoff M.J.B....Lamers W.H. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1991)
    2. Sequence of a human glutamine synthetase cDNA. (PubMed id 2888076)1, 2, 3 Gibbs C.S.... Wilson R.H. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1987)
    3. Wnt and steroid pathways control glutamate signalling by regulating glutamine synthetase activity in osteoblastic cells. (PubMed id 18555765)1, 2, 9 Olkku A. and Mahonen A. (Bone 2008)
    4. Glutamine synthetase is essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 18662667)1, 2, 9 Vermeulen T.... Haeberle J. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2008)
    5. Overexpression of glutamine synthetase in human primary liver cancer. (PubMed id 7909780)1, 2, 9 Christa L....Lasserre C. (Gastroenterology 1994)
    6. An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia. (PubMed id 15642443)1, 4, 9 Zhang B....Shen Y. (Eur. Psychiatry 2005)
    7. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis. (PubMed id 19156168)1, 4 Need A.C....Goldstein D.B. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2009)
    8. Association analysis of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 and the glutamine synthetase genes (GAD2, GLUL) with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 19125103)1, 4 Arai S....Fukumaki Y. (Psychiatr. Genet. 2009)
    9. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PubMed id 16710414)1, 2 Gregory S.G.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006)
    10. Congenital glutamine deficiency with glutamine synthetase mutations. (PubMed id 16267323)1, 2 Haeberle J.... Koch H.G. (N. Engl. J. Med. 2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2752 HGNC: 4341 AceView: GLUL Ensembl:ENSG00000135821 euGenes: HUgn2752
    ECgene: GLUL Kegg: 2752 H-InvDB: GLUL

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GLUL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamine_synthetase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GLUL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLUL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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