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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

GLUL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC01M182350

Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase

(Previous name: glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase))
(Previous symbol: GLNS)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase1 2     Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase (Glutamine Synthase)1
GLNS1 2 3 5     PIG432
Glutamine Synthetase1 2     PIG592
Glutamate Decarboxylase2 3     Cell Proliferation-Inducing Protein 592
Glutamate--Ammonia Ligase2 3     Glutamine Synthase2
GS2 3     Proliferation-Inducing Protein 432
EC 6.3.1.23 8     EC 4.1.1.153

External Ids:    HGNC: 43411   Entrez Gene: 27522   Ensembl: ENSG000001358217   OMIM: 1382905   UniProtKB: P151043   

Export aliases for GLUL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M179878 GC01M177780 GC01M178872 GC01M179592 GC01M179593 GC01M179083 GC01M180617 GC01M153587


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GLUL Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glutamine synthetase family. It catalyzes the synthesis of
glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Glutamine is a main source of energy and is involved in cell proliferation,
inhibition of apoptosis, and cell signaling. This gene is expressed during early fetal stages, and plays an
important role in controlling body pH by removing ammonia from circulation. Mutations in this gene are associated
with congenital glutamine deficiency. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this
gene.(provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009)

GeneCards Summary for GLUL Gene: 
GLUL (glutamate-ammonia ligase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GLUL include glutamine deficiency, congenital, and glutathione synthetase deficiency, and among its related super-pathways are Metabolic pathways and Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell. GO annotations related to this gene include manganese ion binding and identical protein binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104
Function: This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate
(gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity).
Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.10  NT_004487.19  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLUL gene promoter:
         ATF-2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): GLUL promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GLUL

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GLUL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q25.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q31

GLUL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLUL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M182350:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
182,350,839 bp from pter      End:
182,361,341 bp from pter
Size:
10,503 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutamine synthetase  
Size: 373 amino acids; 42064 Da
Cofactor: Biotin (By similarity)
Cofactor: Magnesium or manganese (By similarity)
Subunit: Homooctamer and homotetramer. Interacts with PALMD (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion (By similarity)
Developmental stage: Expressed during early fetal stages
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GLUL:
2OJW (3D)        2QC8 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q499Y9 Q5T9Z1 Q7Z3W4 Q8IZ17

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLUL: NX_P15104

Explore proteomics data for GLUL at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Ubiquitinated by ZNRF1 (By similarity)
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P15104

  • 4/24 DME Specific Peptides for GLUL (P15104) (see all 24)
     GFPGPQG  GTNAEVM  YIWIDGT  PQGPYYC 

    GLUL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    GLUL Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001028216.1  NP_001028228.1  NP_002056.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000356537   ENSP00000344958   ENSP00000307900   ENSP00000398320  
    Reactome Protein details: P15104
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for GLUL: 
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GLUL
    OriGene MassSpec for GLUL 
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    Novus Biologicals GLUL Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GLUL Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GLUL
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/11 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005791rough endoplasmic reticulum IEA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    GLUL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    GLUL Antibody Products: 
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GLUL 

    Assay Products for GLUL: 
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR008147 Gln_synt_beta
     IPR014746 Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom
     IPR008146 Gln_synth_cat_dom
     IPR027302 Gln_synth_N_conserv_site
     IPR027303 Gln_synth_gly_rich_site

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P15104

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P15104

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104
    Similarity: Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family


    GLUL for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104
    Function: This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate
    (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity).
    Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts
    Catalytic activity: ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
    Catalytic activity: L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2)
    Induction: By glucocorticoids. Vitamin D and the Wnt signaling pathway inhibit its expression and activity

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GLUL:
    L-glutamine synthetase

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 6.3.1.21 2 EC 4.1.1.151

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/9 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000287magnesium ion binding IEA--
    GO:0004351glutamate decarboxylase activity IEA--
    GO:0004356glutamate-ammonia ligase activity EXP--
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    GLUL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GLUL:
     Increased G1 DNA content  Increased cell death HMECs cel 

         5 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Glul):
     behavior/neurological  growth/size  homeostasis/metabolism  mortality/aging  nervous system 

    GLUL for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for GLUL 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for GLUL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GLUL 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GLUL 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLUL:
    hsa-mir-29a (MIRT004021)

    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat GLUL
    8/22 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLUL (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-140-5p hsa-miR-582-3p hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-4286 hsa-miR-1285 hsa-miR-340 hsa-miR-3170 hsa-miR-497*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGLUL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GLUL
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    Gene Editing
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    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of GLUL

    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GLUL (NM_002065)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GLUL
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GLUL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GLUL
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                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of GLUL 

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GLUL


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for GLUL About   (see all 14)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Metabolism
    Metabolism0.40
    Metabolic pathways0.40
    2Transmission across Chemical Synapses
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses0.72
    Neuronal System0.67
    3Circadian entrainment
    GABAergic synapse0.53
    Glutamatergic synapse0.39
    4Neurotransmitter uptake and Metabolism In Glial Cells
    Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism1.00
    Neurotransmitter uptake and Metabolism In Glial Cells1.00
    5Reversible Hydration of Carbon Dioxide
    Nitrogen metabolism0.67

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 EMD Millipore Pathways for GLUL
        Selected targets of GCR-alpha
    Glutamic acid signaling


    1 BioSystems Pathway for GLUL
        glutamine biosynthesis I


    5/7        Reactome Pathways for GLUL (see all 7)
        Transmission across Chemical Synapses
    Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism
    Metabolism
    Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)
    Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives


    5/8         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GLUL) (see all 8):
        Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
    Arginine and proline metabolism
    Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
    Nitrogen metabolism
    Metabolic pathways


    GLUL for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for GLUL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/139 Interacting proteins for GLUL (P151041, 2, 3 ENSP000003079004) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 139)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SKILP127572, 3MINT-61661 I2D: score=3 
    GLULP151041, 2EBI-746653,EBI-746653 MINT-68068
    NUDT18Q6ZVK82, 3, ENSP000003078524MINT-68171 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000307852
    PLEKHF2Q9H8W42, 3, ENSP000003223734MINT-66879 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000322373
    PIAS1O759253, ENSP000002496364I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000249636
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/15 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 15):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001504neurotransmitter uptake TAS--
    GO:0006536glutamate metabolic process ----
    GO:0006538glutamate catabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006542glutamine biosynthetic process TAS--
    GO:0006807nitrogen compound metabolic process ----

    GLUL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    GLUL for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GLUL

    Browse Tocris compounds for GLUL (GLNA)

    2 HMDB Compounds for GLUL    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    L-Glutamic acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate (see all 49)56-86-0--
    L-Glutamine(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid (see all 31)56-85-9--

    9 DrugBank Compounds for GLUL    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Glutamine(S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid (see all 4)56-85-9targetproduct of16484281 16326016 16547651 16382338 16530878
    L-Glutamic Acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid (see all 15)56-86-0target--16973920 16673373 16876704 17284842
    L-Methionine(S)-2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (see all 6)63-68-3enzymeinhibitor6127334 4144717 4308004
    CeftriaxoneCefatriaxone (see all 4)73384-59-5enzymeinducer10696140 20423712
    Diazoxide-- 364-98-7enzymeinhibitor7926271
    Dihydroergotoxine-- 11032-41-0enzymeinducer6117619
    Ethyl biscoumacetatePelentan (see all 2)548-00-5enzymeinhibitor7195738
    PegvisomantGH (see all 6)218620-50-9enzymeinhibitor1970314
    Picrotoxin-- 124-87-8enzymeinhibitor840320

    10/95 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLUL gene (see all 95)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glutamine 96.3 1584 10681395 (8), 10943675 (8), 11589877 (8), 9288153 (8) (see all 99)
    methionine sulfoximine 93.5 62 14714472 (2), 20060132 (2), 12390519 (1), 12840174 (1) (see all 38)
    glutamate 81.3 432 19728998 (7), 20064572 (6), 20373878 (5), 12390519 (4) (see all 99)
    ammonium 73.2 84 8563633 (5), 16173463 (3), 19464754 (3), 14757761 (3) (see all 33)
    gamma-glutamyl phosphate 71 5 8563633 (3), 10664863 (1)
    phosphinothricin 67 24 17888468 (6), 16510221 (3), 16504520 (1), 12723887 (1) (see all 7)
    alpha-ketoglutarate 64.3 5 18421771 (1), 8971000 (1), 1360177 (1), 17477312 (1)
    2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 58.3 2 1979258 (1), 10366697 (1)
    carbamoyl phosphate 54.2 13 1976588 (5), 17518723 (1), 1687030 (1), 8587121 (1) (see all 5)
    nitrate 52.3 38 7534371 (2), 9244251 (1), 18419739 (1), 1967601 (1) (see all 23)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about GLUL / GLNA

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLUL gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001033044.2  NM_001033056.2  NM_002065.5  

    Unigene Cluster for GLUL:

    Glutamate-ammonia ligase
    Hs.518525  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_002065
    12 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000331872(uc010pnt.2 uc001gpd.2) ENST00000491322 ENST00000339526
    ENST00000463851 ENST00000461447 ENST00000484996 ENST00000489818 ENST00000475808
    ENST00000480604 ENST00000462444 ENST00000311223(uc001gpb.2 uc001gpc.2)
    ENST00000417584(uc001gpa.2)
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    8/22 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLUL (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-140-5p hsa-miR-582-3p hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-4286 hsa-miR-1285 hsa-miR-340 hsa-miR-3170 hsa-miR-497*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGLUL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GLUL (NM_002065)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GLUL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GLUL
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of GLUL 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of GLUL 
    Primer
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GLUL
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GLUL

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK122784.1 AK301600.1 AY486122.1 AY513283.1 AY947343.1 BC010037.2 BC011700.2 BC011852.2 
    BC018992.1 BC031964.1 BC051726.1 BC127883.1 BX537384.1 S70290.1 X59834.1 Y00387.2 

    24/59 DOTS entries (see all 59):

    DT.97789039  DT.95297120  DT.91909750  DT.95176992  DT.100687848  DT.91707765  DT.100687841  DT.100687844 
    DT.92475794  DT.95075484  DT.100687842  DT.102837867  DT.85104875  DT.91813488  DT.100687839  DT.91875449 
    DT.95075478  DT.100873067  DT.75153967  DT.97860944  DT.121426398  DT.100040371  DT.100687840  DT.100687850 

    24/1446 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1446):

    BQ002061 BF526461 BE781681 CN480796 BQ576351 AI719547 BU684513 AA779772 
    AA418870 AI688954 BU726821 BQ008649 BF939525 BQ188827 BX382320 CD677430 
    BU685432 CB117590 CB132724 BG056775 BQ009780 BQ691536 BP377716 BQ690979 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/20 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLUL (see all 20)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13a · 13b ·
    SP1:                          -     -     -     -           -     -     -                             -           -     -                       -     -         
    SP2:                          -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                             -           -     -                       -     -         
    SP3:                                                        -     -     -                             -           -     -                       -     -         
    SP4:                                      -     -     -     -     -     -                             -           -     -                       -     -         
    SP5:                          -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -   

    ExUns: 13c · 13d · 13e · 13f ^ 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15a · 15b · 15c · 15d
    SP1:              -     -                                             
    SP2:              -     -                                             
    SP3:              -     -                                             
    SP4:              -     -                                             
    SP5:              -     -                                             


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GLUL

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    GLUL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GLUL embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TACAGTATGT
    GLUL Expression
    About this image


    GLUL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/24 selected tissues (see all 24) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
             brain/midbrain   
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mature Muller Glia Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
             Retina
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Double Negative 2 Thymocytes Thymus
             Thymus
     
     Limb (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             limb/hindlimb   
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)
             Trachea

    See GLUL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for GLUL

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.518525
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including GLUL: 
              Nephrotoxicity in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Necrosis in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for GLUL gene from 10/29 species (see all 29)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Glul1 , 5 glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthetase)1, 5 89.45(n)1
    94.64(a)1
      1 (65.43 cM)5
    146451  NM_008131.31  NP_032157.21 
     1538999445 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GLUL1 glutamate-ammonia ligase 78.91(n)
    88.74(a)
      396489  NM_205493.1  NP_990824.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GLUL6
    --
    Uncharacterized protein
    89(a)
    65(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    possible ortholog
    GL343712.1(207755-222114)
    GL343625.1(57476-86902)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia glul-prov2 glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase) 76.31(n)    BC054153.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AY423006.12   -- 83.48(n)    AY423006.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Gs21 , 3 glutamate-ammonia ligase3
    Glutamine synthetase 21
    60(a)
    (best of 2)3
    64.44(n)1
    66.11(a)1
      10B113
    320871  NM_167284.11  NP_727525.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea Y105C5B.283
    gln-31
    Protein GLN-31 64(a)
    (best of 5)3
    60.98(n)1
    64.77(a)1
      IV(16168058-16170839)3
    1784521  NM_001047544.31  NP_001041009.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GLN1(YPR035W)4
    GLN11
    Glutamine synthetase (GS), synthesizes glutamine from more4
    Gln1p1
    57.18(n)1
    57.18(a)1
      16(642208-643320)4
    8561471, 4  NP_015360.21  NP_015360.14 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons GLN1.31 glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozyme 1-3 57.96(n)
    57.36(a)
      821050  NM_112663.2  NP_188409.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.78792 Oryza sativa shoot GS2 mRNA for chloroplastic glutamine more 73.63(n)    AK099252.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLUL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GLUL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for GLUL gene
    3 SIMAP similar genes for GLUL using alignment to 2 protein entries:     GLNA_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PIG59    DKFZp434M0813    PIG43

    GLUL for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    5/6 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GLUL (see all 6)
    PGOHUM00000242168 PGOHUM00000242513 PGOHUM00000239935 PGOHUM00000240465 PGOHUM00000235814


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/340 SNPs in GLUL are shown (see all 340)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0265604
    Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD)4--see VAR_0265602 R C mis40--------
    VAR_0265614
    Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD)4--see VAR_0265612 R C mis40--------
    rs803582151,2
    Cpathogenic1188905975(-) ATCGTC/TGCCCC 6 R C mis10--------
    rs803582141,2
    Cpathogenic1188906026(-) GCATAA/C/TGCATT 9 S R C mis10--------
    rs783535861,2
    C--153590513(+) GACATA/GTGTCA 3 -- int10--------
    rs30288371,2
    C--182351630(-) GTGAT-/TCA/  
      TCATTT
    AAGAA
    6 -- cds11CSA 2
    rs563548561,2
    C--182351631(+) TCTTA-/AAATG 
    A
    /AATGAA
    TCACT
    6 -- cds10--------
    rs717856331,2
    C--182354175(+) ATGACAT/-ATGTC 3 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs560292351,2
    C--182358541(+) ATATA-/TTTT  
            
    TTTAG
    3 -- int11Minor allele frequency- TTTT:0.00NA 2
    rs1120352371,2
    C--182358689(+) AGACTTG/-TCAAG 3 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GLUL (182350839 - 182361341 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for GLUL:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv22717CNV Loss19812545


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GLUL
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GLUL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GLUL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 138290   
    OMIM disorders: 610015  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLNA_HUMAN, P15104
  • Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD) [MIM:610015]: Rare developmental disorder with severe
    brain malformation resulting in multi-organ failure and neonatal death. Glutamine is largely absent from affected
    patients serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene
    represented in this entry

  • 20/61 diseases for GLUL (see all 61):    About MalaCards
    glutamine deficiency, congenital    glutathione synthetase deficiency    hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome    retinal detachment
    reye syndrome    hepatic encephalopathy    brain edema    acute porphyria
    paranoid schizophrenia    hyperinsulinism    brain malformations    porphyria
    acute liver failure    metabolic acidosis    proliferative vitreoretinopathy    familial adenomatous polyposis
    oligodendroglioma    febrile seizures    toxic encephalopathy    brain disease

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GLUL:
    Hepatic encephalopathy     Toxic encephalopathy     Hepatocellular carcinoma

    GLUL for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/56 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GLUL gene (see all 56)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hyperammonemia 67.3 8 12020613 (2), 15841446 (1), 1352200 (1), 1677585 (1)
    hepatic encephalopathy 43.2 2 10564534 (1), 12020613 (1)
    hepatocellular carcinoma 39.5 13 1346587 (3), 18282277 (2), 10952242 (2), 20525558 (1) (see all 6)
    brain diseases 32.4 3 18062818 (1), 9166739 (1), 11004532 (1)
    gliosis 30.3 2 8570019 (1), 19183851 (1)
    liver failure 29.5 5 10564534 (1), 17299991 (1), 11549067 (1), 16382338 (1)
    alzheimers disease 27.9 26 10733015 (5), 10520940 (2), 9166739 (2), 11746426 (2) (see all 12)
    neurodegeneration 27.8 3 20107048 (2), 14681883 (1)
    epilepsy temporal lobe 26.3 6 16095760 (1), 14723991 (1), 19170755 (1), 18226171 (1) (see all 5)
    reye syndrome 25.9 1 10199339 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GLUL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GLUL (3 documents)

    Export disorders for GLUL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for GLUL gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 555):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLUL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. cDNA sequence of the long mRNA for human glutamine synthase. (PubMed id 1681907)1, 2, 3 van den Hoff M.J.B....Lamers W.H. (1991)
    2. Sequence of a human glutamine synthetase cDNA. (PubMed id 2888076)1, 2, 3 Gibbs C.S.... Wilson R.H. (1987)
    3. Wnt and steroid pathways control glutamate signalling by regulating glutamine synthetase activity in osteoblastic cells. (PubMed id 18555765)1, 2, 9 Olkku A. and Mahonen A. (2008)
    4. Glutamine synthetase is essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 18662667)1, 2, 9 Vermeulen T....Haberle J. (2008)
    5. Overexpression of glutamine synthetase in human primary liver cancer. (PubMed id 7909780)1, 2, 9 Christa L....Lasserre C. (1994)
    6. An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia. (PubMed id 15642443)1, 4, 9 Zhang B....Shen Y. (2005)
    7. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis. (PubMed id 19156168)1, 4 Need A.C....Goldstein D.B. (2009)
    8. Association analysis of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 and the glutamine synthetase genes (GAD2, GLUL) with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 19125103)1, 4 Arai S....Fukumaki Y. (2009)
    9. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PubMed id 16710414)1, 2 Gregory S.G.... Bentley D.R. (2006)
    10. Congenital glutamine deficiency with glutamine synthetase mutations. (PubMed id 16267323)1, 2 Haeberle J.... Koch H.G. (2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 2752 HGNC: 4341 AceView: GLUL Ensembl:ENSG00000135821 euGenes: HUgn2752
    ECgene: GLUL Kegg: 2752 H-InvDB: GLUL

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GLUL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamine_synthetase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GLUL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLUL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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