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GLUD2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 65
GCID: GC0XP120181

Glutamate Dehydrogenase 2

(Previous name: glutamate dehydrogenase pseudogene 1)
(Previous symbol: GLUDP1)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glutamate Dehydrogenase 21 2     EC 1.4.1.33 8
GLUDP11 2 3     GDH22
Glutamate Dehydrogenase Pseudogene 11 2     Glutamate Dehydrogenase 2, Mitochondrial2
GDH 22 3     EC 1.4.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 43361   Entrez Gene: 27472   Ensembl: ENSG000001828907   OMIM: 3001445   UniProtKB: P494483   

Export aliases for GLUD2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XP114899 GC0XU900011 GC0XP9V0098 GC0XP119906 GC0XP120009 GC0XP109559


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GLUD2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondrion and acts as a homohexamer to recycle glutamate
during neurotransmission. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to
alpha-ketoglutarate. This gene is intronless.(provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010)

GeneCards Summary for GLUD2 Gene:
GLUD2 (glutamate dehydrogenase 2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include leucine binding and GTP binding. An important paralog of this gene is GLUD1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DHE4_HUMAN, P49448
Function: Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission

Gene Wiki entry for GLUD2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000023.10  NC_018934.2  NT_011786.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLUD2 gene promoter:
         Elk-1   p53   LUN-1   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5a)   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5b)   Nkx2-5   POU3F2   C/EBPalpha   Evi-1   Chx10   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGLUD2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GLUD2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GLUD2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xq24-q25   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xq24   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xq24-q25

GLUD2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLUD2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XP120181:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
120,181,462 bp from pter      End:
120,183,796 bp from pter
Size:
2,335 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DHE4_HUMAN, P49448 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 558 amino acids; 61434 Da
Subunit: Homohexamer (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: B2R8G0 Q9UDQ4

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLUD2: NX_P49448

Explore proteomics data for GLUD2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Stoichiometry shows that ADP-ribosylation occurs in one subunit per catalytically active homohexamer1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys162, Lys415, Lys527, Lys545
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for GLUD2 (P49448) (see all 27)
     QGFGNVG  ARRHYSE  ACVTGKP  DVPAPDM 


    See GLUD2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_036216.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000327589  

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    antibodies-online proteins for GLUD2 (5 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for GLUD2

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR006096 Glu/Leu/Phe/Val_DH_C
     IPR006095 Glu/Leu/Phe/Val_DH
     IPR016040 NAD(P)-bd_dom
     IPR006097 Glu/Leu/Phe/Val_DH_dimer_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P49448

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P49448

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB006095 Glu/Leu/Phe/Val dehydrogenase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DHE4_HUMAN, P49448
    Similarity: Belongs to the Glu/Leu/Phe/Val dehydrogenases family


    Find genes that share domains with GLUD2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: DHE4_HUMAN, P49448
    Function: Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission
    Catalytic activity: L-glutamate + H(2)O + NAD(P)(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NAD(P)H

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GLUD2:
    glutamate dehydrogenase 2,expressed in retina,testis,brain

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.4.1.31 2 EC 1.4.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004352glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity IDA15578726
    GO:0004353glutamate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity IDA11032875
    GO:0005525GTP binding IDA11032875
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
    GO:0043531ADP binding IDA12742085
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GLUD2           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for GLUD2

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLUD2:
    hsa-mir-1226-3p (MIRT036419)

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    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate GLUD2:
    hsa-miR-580
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGLUD2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    DHE4_HUMAN, P49448: Mitochondrion matrix
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    cytosol2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737NOT cytoplasm IDA18688271
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA18688271

    Find genes that share ontologies with GLUD2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GLUD2 About   (see all 6)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1glutamate degradation X
    glutamate degradation X0.33
    glutamate biosynthesis II0.00
    arginine biosynthesis IV0.33
    2Proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation
    D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism0.00
    Proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation
    3Metabolism
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    4Nitrogen metabolism
    Nitrogen metabolism
    5Arginine and proline metabolism
    Arginine and proline metabolism


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GLUD2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    3 BioSystems Pathways for GLUD2
        arginine biosynthesis IV
    glutamate biosynthesis II
    glutamate degradation X


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GLUD2) (see all 6):
        Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
    Arginine and proline metabolism
    D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
    Nitrogen metabolism
    Metabolic pathways

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for GLUD2
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GLUD2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GLUD2 (P494482, 3 ENSP000003275894) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 123)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TOM1L1O756742, 3MINT-63778 I2D: score=4 
    TRMT10CQ7L0Y33, ENSP000003123564I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000312356
    MYCP011063I2D: score=1 
    AMTENSP000002735884STRING: ENSP00000273588
    CPS1ENSP000004026084STRING: ENSP00000402608
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006520cellular amino acid metabolic process ----
    GO:0006536glutamate metabolic process IDA8207021
    GO:0006537glutamate biosynthetic process IDA11032875
    GO:0006538glutamate catabolic process IDA11032875
    GO:0055114oxidation-reduction process IDA8207021

    Find genes that share ontologies with GLUD2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GLUD2 (DHE4)

    9 HMDB Compounds for GLUD2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    AmmoniaNH3 (see all 31)7664-41-7--
    FamotidineAmfamox (see all 83)76824-35-6--
    L-Glutamic acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate (see all 49)56-86-0--
    NAD3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate (see all 28)53-84-9--
    NADH1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (see all 17)58-68-4--
    NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--
    NADPH2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide (see all 23)53-57-6--
    Oxoglutaric acid2-Ketoglutarate (see all 9)328-50-7--
    WaterDihydrogen oxide (see all 2)7732-18-5--

    3 DrugBank Compounds for GLUD2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Glutamic Acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid (see all 15)56-86-0target--17139284 17016423
    NADHbeta-DPNH (see all 18)606-68-8target--17139284 17016423
    Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide-- 53-84-9target--10592235

    8 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLUD2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glutamate 78.6 53 17500210 (3), 8738168 (2), 1686899 (2), 11032875 (2) (see all 37)
    gtp 53.3 2 12742085 (2)
    adp 51.6 1 12742085 (1)
    leucine 49.8 1 12742085 (1)
    alpha-ketoglutarate 46.2 1 16120687 (1)
    toxin a 40.1 9 10947228 (3), 16124706 (3)
    aspartate 25.7 3 15092215 (1), 1686899 (1), 9127191 (1)
    alanine 18.9 1 15092215 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with GLUD2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLUD2 gene: 
    NM_012084.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GLUD2:

    Glutamate dehydrogenase 2
    Hs.368538  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC050732
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000328078(uc004eto.3)
    miRNA
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK313356.1 BC005111.1 BC050732.2 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.102840028  DT.100818693  DT.454907  DT.101962257  DT.95355575  DT.91769355  DT.100760791  DT.100818695 
    DT.99982198 

    23 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BC050732 BQ227063 BC005111 BU190860 NM_012084 BG122137 BU166908 BP431298 
    AU129271 AA353744 BG104158 AW818494 CD620134 BQ343861 M78112 BQ681175 
    AI003870 BQ312551 AW901922 BI597888 BF950913 W05028 BF125637 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GLUD2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTGCTGTAAT
    GLUD2 Expression
    About this image

    GLUD2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GLUD2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.368538

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DHE4_HUMAN, P49448
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in retina, testis and, at a lower level, brain

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GLUD2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for GLUD2 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves --
    Glutamate dehydrogenase
    89(a)
    1 → many
    6(2134547-2155479)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Glutamate dehydrogenase
    85(a)
    1 → many
    GL343199.1(4105571-4144227)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii glud1a6
    glutamate dehydrogenase 1a
    83(a)
    1 → many
    13(22819296-22839236) ENSDARG00000008816
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Gdh3 glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) 66(a)
    (best of 2)
        --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea ZK829.43 glutamate dehydrogenase 62(a)   IV(11953424-11955386)   --
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GDH1(YOR375C)4 NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, synthesizes more   --   15(1043042-1041678) 854557  NP_015020.1 
            Species with no ortholog for GLUD2

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLUD2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GLUD2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GLUD2 gene
    GLUD12  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for GLUD2 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     DHE4_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GLUD1

    Find genes that share paralogs with GLUD2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GLUD2 (see all 93)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs97803621,2
    C,F,H--120133437(+) gctaaA/Ttgatg 1 -- us2k17Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NS EA NA 425
    rs1485644451,2
    --120133689(+) TTGGGA/CTATTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1477468291,2
    --120133731(+) GGTACC/TACGCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1839295891,2
    --120133734(+) ACCACA/GCTATT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1879196001,2
    --120134006(+) ACTTAC/TGCCTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs59097791,2
    C,F,H--120134281(+) TTTGGA/CGTTTG 1 -- us2k1 tfbs322--NS EA NA WA CSA 2406
    rs1512573531,2
    --120134574(+) ATGACA/TGCCGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs59562651,2
    C,F--120135309(+) CCTGGG/TTGGCG 1 -- us2k1 tfbs32Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 4
    rs59562661,2
    C,F--120135310(+) CTGGTC/TGGCGC 1 -- us2k1 tfbs32Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 4
    rs1123606281,2
    C,F--120135323(+) TGCCCG/CCAAAG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 1

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GLUD2 (120181462 - 120183796 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for GLUD2: --
    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GLUD2
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): GLUD2

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 300144    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with GLUD2           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GLUD2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GLUD2 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for GLUD2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GLUD2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 88):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLUD2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Novel human glutamate dehydrogenase expressed in neural and testicular tissues and encoded by an X-linked intronless gene. (PubMed id 8207021)1, 2, 3, 9 Shashidharan P.... Plaitakis A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994)
    2. Nerve tissue-specific human glutamate dehydrogenase that is thermolabile and highly regulated by ADP. (PubMed id 9109504)1, 3, 9 Shashidharan P....Plaitakis A. (J. Neurochem. 1997)
    3. Alpha helical structures in the leader sequence of human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase responsible for mitochondrial import. (PubMed id 22709669)1, 2 Kotzamani D. and Plaitakis A. (Neurochem. Int. 2012)
    4. Gain-of-function variant in GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase modifies Parkinson's disease onset. (PubMed id 19826450)1, 4 Plaitakis A....Spanaki C. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    5. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis. (PubMed id 19156168)1, 4 Need A.C....Goldstein D.B. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2009)
    6. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. (PubMed id 15772651)1, 2 Ross M.T.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2005)
    7. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    8. Mitochondrial targeting adaptation of the hominoid-specific glutamate dehydrogenase driven by positive Darwinian selection. (PubMed id 18688271)1, 9 Rosso L....Kaessmann H. (PLoS Genet. 2008)
    9. Properties and molecular evolution of human GLUD2 (neural and testicular tissue-specific) glutamate dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 17924438)1, 9 Kanavouras K....Plaitakis A. (J. Neurosci. Res. 2007)
    10. Birth and adaptive evolution of a hominoid gene that supports high neurotransmitter flux. (PubMed id 15378063)1, 9 Burki F. and Kaessmann H. (Nat. Genet. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2747 HGNC: 4336 AceView: GLUD2 Ensembl:ENSG00000182890 euGenes: HUgn2747
    ECgene: GLUD2 Kegg: 2747 H-InvDB: GLUD2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GLUD2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GLUD2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLUD2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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