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Aliases for GLS2 Gene

Aliases for GLS2 Gene

  • Glutaminase 2 (Liver, Mitochondrial) 2 3
  • L-Glutamine Amidohydrolase 3 4
  • EC 3.5.1.2 4 63
  • GLS 3 4
  • GA 3 4
  • Phosphate-Activated Glutaminase 3
  • Phosphate-Dependent Glutaminase 3
  • Breast Cell Glutaminase 3
  • Glutaminase I 3
  • L-Glutaminase 4
  • HLGA 3
  • LGA 3

External Ids for GLS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLS2 Gene

  • GC12M055154
  • GC12M055155
  • GC12M056864
  • GC12M053903

Summaries for GLS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLS2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to stoichiometric amounts of glutamate and ammonia. Originally thought to be liver-specific, this protein has been found in other tissues as well. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for GLS2 Gene

GLS2 (Glutaminase 2 (Liver, Mitochondrial)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLS2 include stomach carcinoma in situ and juvenile dermatitis herpetiformis. Among its related pathways are Central carbon metabolism in cancer and MicroRNAs in cancer. GO annotations related to this gene include glutaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

  • Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLS2 Gene

Genomics for GLS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLS2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GLS2 Gene

Chromosome:
12
Start:
56,470,944 bp from pter
End:
56,488,414 bp from pter
Size:
17,471 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLS2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GLS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLS2 Gene

Proteins for GLS2 Gene

  • Protein details for GLS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9UI32-GLSL_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q9UI32
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z8Q9
    • Q8IX91
    • Q9NYY2
    • Q9UI31

    Protein attributes for GLS2 Gene

    Size:
    602 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    66323 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with the PDZ domain of the syntrophin SNTA1. Interacts with the PDZ domain of TAX1BP3.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLS2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLS2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GLS2 Gene

Proteomics data for GLS2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for GLS2 Gene

Gene Families for GLS2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9UI32

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLSL_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
  • Contains 2 ANK repeats.
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
Similarity:
  • Contains 2 ANK repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLS2: view

Function for GLS2 Gene

Molecular function for GLS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by P53 (at protein and mRNA level) under both stressed and non-stressed conditions.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004359 glutaminase activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11163757
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLS2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GLS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLS2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GLS2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GLS2 Gene

Localization for GLS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GLS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 2
extracellular 2
chloroplast 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 20351271
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GLS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLS2: view

Interacting Proteins for GLS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process TAS 10620514
GO:0006537 glutamate biosynthetic process IBA --
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process --
GO:0006543 glutamine catabolic process IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GLS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GLS2 Gene

(11) Drugs for GLS2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, HMDB, and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 51
D-Glutamic acid Experimental Pharma 0
D-Glutamine Experimental Pharma 0
cholesterol Experimental Pharma Agonist 0

(11) Additional Compounds for GLS2 Gene - From: NovoSeek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Ammonia
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammoniak
7664-41-7
Water
  • Dihydrogen oxide
  • Steam
7732-18-5
alpha-ketoglutarate
aspartate
bicarbonate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLS2: view

Transcripts for GLS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLS2 Gene

Glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GLS2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^
SP1:
SP2:
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9:
SP10: - - - - -
SP11: - - - - -
SP12: -
SP13:
SP14:

ExUns: 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^ 19a · 19b
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9: -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:

Relevant External Links for GLS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GLS2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GLS2

Expression for GLS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GLS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x11.1), Pancreas (x5.8), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.3), and Brain - Cerebellum (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GLS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (30.5) and Liver (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLS2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLS2 Gene Hs.212606

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLS2 Gene

Q9UI32-GLSL_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in liver. Expressed in brain and pancreas. Not observed in heart, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle and kidney. Expression is significantly reduced in hepatocellular carcinomas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GLS2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GLS2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GLS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GLS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLS2 35
  • 91.87 (n)
  • 95.12 (a)
GLS2 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLS2 35
  • 93.36 (n)
  • 95.68 (a)
GLS2 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gls2 35
  • 90.25 (n)
  • 94.35 (a)
Gls2 16
Gls2 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLS2 35
  • 99.67 (n)
  • 99.67 (a)
GLS2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gls2 35
  • 89.76 (n)
  • 94.35 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLS2 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 51 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 56 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLS2 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gls2 35
  • 69.66 (n)
  • 72.29 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:dkey-102c8.6 35
  • 68.99 (n)
  • 71.57 (a)
gls2 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
GLS2 (1 of 3) 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToMany
GLS2 (2 of 3) 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG42708 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glna-1 36
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
glna-2 36
  • 43 (a)
ManyToMany
glna-3 36
  • 41 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 26 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GLS2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLS2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GLS2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GLS2 (if available)

Paralogs for GLS2 Gene

Paralogs for GLS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLS2: view

Variants for GLS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs937114 -- 56,473,902(+) GTAAT(G/T)TTTAA intron-variant
rs937115 -- 56,475,495(+) GAAGC(A/T)GGAGG intron-variant
rs2279536 -- 56,487,990(-) GAGGC(C/T)GCGGC utr-variant-5-prime, reference, synonymous-codon, upstream-variant-2KB
rs2638314 -- 56,472,550(-) TTTTT(A/T)AAAAA intron-variant
rs2638334 -- 56,488,744(-) GGCTC(G/T)CTGAG upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv482992 CNV Complex 15286789
esv2677984 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2745928 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for GLS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 10.55% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.79; 66.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GLS2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GLS2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GLS2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

Disorders for GLS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for GLS2 Gene - From: DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
stomach carcinoma in situ
  • gastric carcinoma in situ
juvenile dermatitis herpetiformis
anterior scleritis
sclerosing keratitis
  • sclerokeratitis
l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
  • combined d-2- and l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
- elite association
Search GLS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GLS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GLS2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GLS2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GLS2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GLS2 Gene

Publications for GLS2 Gene

  1. Expression of functional human glutaminase in baculovirus system: affinity purification, kinetic and molecular characterization. (PMID: 17267261) Campos-Sandoval J.A. … MA!rquez J. (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2007) 23 25 26 67
  2. Identification of two human glutaminase loci and tissue-specific expression of the two related genes. (PMID: 11130979) Aledo J.C. … MA!rquez J. (Mamm. Genome 2000) 2 23 67
  3. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression studies of the human breast cancer cell glutaminase. (PMID: 10620514) Gomez-Fabre P.M. … Marquez J. (Biochem. J. 2000) 2 23 67
  4. Phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS2), a p53-inducible regulator of glutamine metabolism and reactive oxygen species. (PMID: 20351271) Suzuki S. … Prives C. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010) 23 67
  5. Glutaminase 2, a novel p53 target gene regulating energy metabolism and antioxidant function. (PMID: 20378837) Hu W. … Feng Z. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010) 23 67

Products for GLS2 Gene

Sources for GLS2 Gene

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