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Aliases for GLS2 Gene

Aliases for GLS2 Gene

  • Glutaminase 2 2 3 5
  • Glutaminase 2 (Liver, Mitochondrial) 2 3
  • L-Glutamine Amidohydrolase 3 4
  • EC 3.5.1.2 4 61
  • GLS 3 4
  • GA 3 4
  • Glutaminase Liver Isoform, Mitochondrial 3
  • Phosphate-Activated Glutaminase 3
  • Phosphate-Dependent Glutaminase 3
  • Breast Cell Glutaminase 3
  • Glutaminase I 3
  • L-Glutaminase 4
  • HLGA 3
  • LGA 3

External Ids for GLS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLS2 Gene

  • GC12M055154
  • GC12M055155
  • GC12M056864
  • GC12M053903

Summaries for GLS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLS2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to stoichiometric amounts of glutamate and ammonia. Originally thought to be liver-specific, this protein has been found in other tissues as well. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for GLS2 Gene

GLS2 (Glutaminase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLS2 include Juvenile Dermatitis Herpetiformis and Stomach Carcinoma In Situ. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Transmission across Chemical Synapses. GO annotations related to this gene include glutaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

  • Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLS2 Gene

Genomics for GLS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLS2 Gene

Enhancers for GLS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH12F056768 0.4 FANTOM5 12.8 -280.3 -280255 0.2 GATAD2A RFX1 SP5 FOXA3 CEBPB CEBPG RAD21 YY1 CTBP1 ATF3 APOF HSD17B6 RDH16 SPRYD4 GLS2 GPR182 NACA MYO1A PAN2 PIR51277
GH12F056461 0.4 Ensembl 12.6 +27.1 27114 0.2 ZFP69B JUND GLS2 STAT2 APOF CS SPRYD4 TIMELESS
GH12F056564 1 Ensembl ENCODE 11.4 -79.9 -79861 7.9 HDGF ELF3 HDAC1 ARID4B ZNF48 RAD21 RARA SCRT2 CEBPB PPARG RBMS2 GLS2 BAZ2A SPRYD4 APOF ATP5B SNORD59A SNORD59B NACA GC12P056589
GH12F056591 0.6 ENCODE 11.4 -103.3 -103321 1.3 PKNOX1 JUN SIN3A TEAD3 FOSL1 GATA3 FOS FOSL2 RCOR1 SMARCE1 RBMS2 BAZ2A GLS2 SPRYD4 APOF STAT2 NACA GC12P056593 GC12P056594
GH12F056593 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 11.4 -105.9 -105864 1.8 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 ZNF2 ZNF766 ZNF143 DEK REST SREBF1 BAZ2A RBMS2 NEMP1 RN7SL809P RNU6-343P TMEM198B SMARCC2 CDK2 ANKRD52 ESYT1
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GLS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GLS2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000431251 314 1001 PKNOX1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 ZNF2 SLC30A9 GLIS2 FOS

Genomic Location for GLS2 Gene

Chromosome:
12
Start:
56,470,944 bp from pter
End:
56,488,414 bp from pter
Size:
17,471 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLS2 Gene

Genes around GLS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GLS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GLS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLS2 Gene

Proteins for GLS2 Gene

  • Protein details for GLS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9UI32-GLSL_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q9UI32
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z8Q9
    • Q8IX91
    • Q9NYY2
    • Q9UI31

    Protein attributes for GLS2 Gene

    Size:
    602 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    66323 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with the PDZ domain of the syntrophin SNTA1. Interacts with the PDZ domain of TAX1BP3.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLS2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLS2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GLS2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GLS2 Gene

Q9UI32:
  • NPMVNAGAI
  • EAVRNTLSLMHSCGMYDFSGQFAFHVGLPAKS
  • SEKETGDRN
  • VGKEPSG
  • AIGYYLKEKKCFP
  • YFQLCSVEVTCES
  • DLLFYTIAEGQE
  • GFSNATFQSE
  • ILLVVPNVMGMMC
  • KFVIPDF
  • PFCLQSCVKPL
  • SNIVLLTQAFR
  • DYDSRTALHVAAAEGH

Post-translational modifications for GLS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for GLS2 Gene

Gene Families for GLS2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9UI32

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLSL_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
  • Contains 2 ANK repeats.
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
Similarity:
  • Contains 2 ANK repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLS2: view

Function for GLS2 Gene

Molecular function for GLS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by P53 (at protein and mRNA level) under both stressed and non-stressed conditions.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004359 glutaminase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11163757
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLS2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GLS2

miRNA for GLS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLS2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GLS2 Gene

Localization for GLS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GLS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 2
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
chloroplast 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 20351271
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GLS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLS2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process TAS 10620514
GO:0006537 glutamate biosynthetic process IBA --
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006543 glutamine catabolic process IBA --
GO:0008652 cellular amino acid biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GLS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GLS2 Gene

(14) Drugs for GLS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 59
Water Approved Pharma 0
D-Glutamic acid Experimental Pharma 0
D-Glutamine Experimental Pharma 0

(8) Additional Compounds for GLS2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Ammonia
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammoniak
7664-41-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLS2: view

Transcripts for GLS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLS2 Gene

Glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^
SP1:
SP2:
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9:
SP10: - - - - -
SP11: - - - - -
SP12: -
SP13:
SP14:

ExUns: 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^ 19a · 19b
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9: -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:

Relevant External Links for GLS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GLS2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GLS2

Expression for GLS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GLS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GLS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x11.1), Pancreas (x5.8), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.3), and Brain - Cerebellum (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GLS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (30.5) and Liver (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GLS2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GLS2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GLS2 Gene:

GLS2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLS2 Gene:

Hs.212606

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLS2 Gene:

Q9UI32-GLSL_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in liver. Expressed in brain and pancreas. Not observed in heart, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle and kidney. Expression is significantly reduced in hepatocellular carcinomas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GLS2: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for GLS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GLS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLS2 34 35
  • 99.67 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLS2 34 35
  • 93.36 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLS2 34 35
  • 91.87 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gls2 34 16 35
  • 90.25 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gls2 34
  • 89.76 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLS2 35
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 56 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 51 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLS2 35
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gls2 34
  • 69.66 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:dkey-102c8.6 34
  • 68.99 (n)
gls2 35
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
GLS2 (1 of 3) 35
  • 61 (a)
OneToMany
GLS2 (2 of 3) 35
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG42708 35
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glna-2 35
  • 43 (a)
ManyToMany
glna-3 35
  • 41 (a)
ManyToMany
glna-1 35
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 26 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for GLS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLS2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GLS2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GLS2 (if available)

Paralogs for GLS2 Gene

Paralogs for GLS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLS2: view

Variants for GLS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1043011 -- 56,471,256(-) AGAGA(A/C)TGGGC downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime
rs10876892 -- 56,481,762(+) GGCAT(C/G)TGCCT intron-variant
rs111276307 -- 56,472,738(+) GGTTG(A/G)CCACA reference, missense
rs111550645 -- 56,481,269(+) GGCGC(A/C/G)ATCTC intron-variant
rs111689036 -- 56,471,911(+) CTGAA(A/G)TCTTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2677984 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2745928 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3629598 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1052713 CNV gain 25217958
nsv482992 CNV gain+loss 15286789

Variation tolerance for GLS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 10.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.79; 66.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GLS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GLS2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GLS2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

Disorders for GLS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for GLS2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
juvenile dermatitis herpetiformis
stomach carcinoma in situ
  • carcinoma in situ of stomach
sclerosing keratitis
  • sclerokeratitis
anterior scleritis
l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
  • combined d-2- and l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GLS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GLS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GLS2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GLS2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GLS2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GLS2 Gene

Publications for GLS2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression studies of the human breast cancer cell glutaminase. (PMID: 10620514) Gomez-Fabre P.M. … Marquez J. (Biochem. J. 2000) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Glutaminase 2, a novel p53 target gene regulating energy metabolism and antioxidant function. (PMID: 20378837) Hu W. … Feng Z. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010) 3 4 22 64
  3. Genomic organization and transcriptional analysis of the human l- glutaminase gene. (PMID: 12444921) Perez-Gomez C. … Marquez J. (Biochem. J. 2003) 3 4 22 64
  4. The C-terminus of human glutaminase L mediates association with PDZ domain-containing proteins. (PMID: 11163757) Olalla L. … Marquez J. (FEBS Lett. 2001) 3 4 22 64
  5. Identification of two human glutaminase loci and tissue-specific expression of the two related genes. (PMID: 11130979) Aledo J.C. … MA!rquez J. (Mamm. Genome 2000) 2 3 22 64

Products for GLS2 Gene

Sources for GLS2 Gene

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