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Aliases for GLS Gene

Aliases for GLS Gene

  • Glutaminase 2 3 5
  • L-Glutamine Amidohydrolase 3 4
  • K-Glutaminase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GLS1 3 4
  • Glutaminase, Phosphate-Activated 3
  • Glutaminase C 3
  • KIAA0838 4
  • AAD20 3
  • GAC 3
  • GAM 3
  • KGA 3

External Ids for GLS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLS Gene

  • GC02P189939
  • GC02P190448
  • GC02P191709
  • GC02P191948
  • GC02P191931
  • GC02P191571
  • GC02P191453
  • GC02P183605

Summaries for GLS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLS Gene

  • This gene encodes the K-type mitochondrial glutaminase. The encoded protein is an phosphate-activated amidohydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia. This protein is primarily expressed in the brain and kidney plays an essential role in generating energy for metabolism, synthesizing the brain neurotransmitter glutamate and maintaining acid-base balance in the kidney. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GLS Gene

GLS (Glutaminase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLS include Hepatic Encephalopathy and Acute Endometritis. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination). GO annotations related to this gene include glutaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

  • Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLS Gene

Genomics for GLS Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLS Gene

Enhancers for GLS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GLS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GLS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GLS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GLS Gene

190,880,821 bp from pter
190,965,552 bp from pter
84,732 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GLS Gene

Genes around GLS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GLS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GLS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLS Gene

Proteins for GLS Gene

  • Protein details for GLS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UL05
    • Q9UL06
    • Q9UL07
    • Q9UN40

    Protein attributes for GLS Gene

    669 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    73461 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer. Interacts with ATCAY; the interaction is direct and may control GLS localization, negatively regulating its activity.
    • Sequence=BAA74861.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLS Gene


neXtProt entry for GLS Gene

Proteomics data for GLS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 121 and Lys 158
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for GLS Gene

Gene Families for GLS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
  • Contains 2 ANK repeats.
  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
  • Contains 2 ANK repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLS: view

Function for GLS Gene

Molecular function for GLS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutaminase,phosphate-dependent,ammonia formation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=1.9 mM for glutamine (isoform 1) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22049910}; KM=1.4 mM for glutamine (isoform 3) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22049910};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are activated by phosphate. Inhibited by BPTES. BPTES binds between subunits and favors dissociation of the tetramer into dimers.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLS: view

Animal Models for GLS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GLS:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GLS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLS

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GLS Gene

Localization for GLS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

Isoform 1: Cytoplasm, cytosol.
Isoform 3: Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GLS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 5
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
chloroplast 1
cytoskeleton 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GLS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLS: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001967 suckling behavior IEA --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006537 glutamate biosynthetic process TAS 21757002
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006543 glutamine catabolic process NAS 10719215
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GLS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GLS Gene

(35) Drugs for GLS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 57
D-Glutamic acid Experimental Pharma 0
D-Glutamine Experimental Pharma 0
L-Glutamic Acid Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 0

(28) Additional Compounds for GLS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammoniak
  • Dihydrogen oxide
  • Steam
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLS: view

Transcripts for GLS Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLS Gene

Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GLS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GLS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GLS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (14.5) and Frontal cortex (12.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLS Gene Hs.116448

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLS Gene

Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are detected in brain cortex. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in astrocytoma, ganglioglioma and ependymoma. Isoform 1 is highly expressed in brain and kidney, but not detected in liver. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in heart and pancreas, detected at lower levels in placenta, lung, pancreas and kidney, but is not detected in liver. Isoform 2 is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GLS: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GLS Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for GLS Gene

Orthologs for GLS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GLS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLS 35
  • 92.46 (n)
  • 94.71 (a)
GLS 36
  • 87 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLS 35
  • 90.2 (n)
  • 93.97 (a)
GLS 36
  • 83 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gls 35
  • 90.79 (n)
  • 95.95 (a)
Gls 16
Gls 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLS 35
  • 99.7 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GLS 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gls 35
  • 90.14 (n)
  • 95.8 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLS 36
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GLS 36
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLS 35
  • 80.55 (n)
  • 88.63 (a)
GLS 36
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLS 36
  • 79 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gls 35
  • 81.39 (n)
  • 92.02 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glsa 35
  • 72.99 (n)
  • 84.9 (a)
glsa 36
  • 79 (a)
glsb 36
  • 68 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG42708 35
  • 56.53 (n)
  • 55.86 (a)
CG42708 36
  • 38 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C09F9.3a 37
  • 45 (a)
C09F9.3b 37
  • 45 (a)
DH11.1 37
  • 48 (a)
glna-2 35
  • 57.33 (n)
  • 51 (a)
glna-1 36
  • 28 (a)
glna-2 36
  • 42 (a)
glna-3 36
  • 41 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3937 36
  • 38 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GLS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLS Gene

Gene Tree for GLS (if available)
Gene Tree for GLS (if available)

Paralogs for GLS Gene

Paralogs for GLS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLS: view

Variants for GLS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs16833035 - 190,901,971(+) AACTG(C/G)CCAAA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs1607187 -- 190,950,312(-) tcata(G/T)ctaaa intron-variant
rs1801892 -- 190,931,565(+) TGTAA(A/C/T)TTCCA nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon, missense
rs1801893 -- 190,931,603(+) AAAAA(A/C)ACTTG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs867637 -- 190,961,656(-) CTTCA(C/T)TAGTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv3083 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv819974 CNV Loss 19587683
nsv834493 CNV Gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for GLS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.43; 42.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GLS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

Disorders for GLS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for GLS Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hepatic encephalopathy
  • portal-systemic encephalopathy
acute endometritis
spinocerebellar ataxia 2
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 13
lacrimal gland adenocarcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GLS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GLS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GLS Gene

Publications for GLS Gene

  1. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (PMID: 10048485) Nagase T. … Ohara O. (DNA Res. 1998) 2 3 4 67
  2. c-Myc suppression of miR-23a/b enhances mitochondrial glutaminase expression and glutamine metabolism. (PMID: 19219026) Gao P. … Dang C.V. (Nature 2009) 3 23
  3. In vitro glutaminase regulation and mechanisms of glutamate generation in HIV-1-infected macrophage. (PMID: 19222703) Erdmann N. … Zheng J. (J. Neurochem. 2009) 3 23
  4. New insights into brain glutaminases: beyond their role on glutamatergic transmission. (PMID: 19428808) MA!rquez J. … Campos-Sandoval J.A. (Neurochem. Int. 2009) 3 23
  5. Glutamine in neoplastic cells: focus on the expression and roles of glutaminases. (PMID: 19428809) Szeliga M. … Obara-Michlewska M. (Neurochem. Int. 2009) 3 23

Products for GLS Gene

Sources for GLS Gene