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GLS Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 65
GCID: GC02P191709

Glutaminase

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
glutaminase1 2     GAM2
GLS12 3 5     KGA2
K-glutaminase2 3     Glutaminase C2
L-Glutamine Amidohydrolase2 3     Glutaminase Kidney Isoform, Mitochondrial2
EC 3.5.1.23 8     Glutaminase, Phosphate-Activated2
AAD202     KIAA08383
GAC2     

External Ids:    HGNC: 43311   Entrez Gene: 27442   Ensembl: ENSG000001154197   OMIM: 1382805   UniProtKB: O949253   

Export aliases for GLS gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02P189939 GC02P190448 GC02P191948 GC02P191931 GC02P191571 GC02P191453 GC02P183605


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GLS Gene:
This gene encodes the K-type mitochondrial glutaminase. The encoded protein is an phosphate-activated
amidohydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia. This protein is primarily
expressed in the brain and kidney plays an essential role in generating energy for metabolism, synthesizing the
brain neurotransmitter glutamate and maintaining acid-base balance in the kidney. Alternate splicing results in
multiple transcript variants. (provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012)

GeneCards Summary for GLS Gene:
GLS (glutaminase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GLS include hepatic encephalopathy, and ependymoblastoma. GO annotations related to this gene include glutaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLSK_HUMAN, O94925
Function: Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role
in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain.
Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.12  NT_005403.18  NC_018913.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLS gene promoter:
         USF1   AP-2gamma   Tal-1beta   C/EBPalpha   E47   CHOP-10   USF-1   AP-2beta   STAT3   RSRFC4   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGLS promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GLS

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GLS


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q32-q34   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q32.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q32-q34

GLS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLS gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02P191709:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
191,745,547 bp from pter      End:
191,830,278 bp from pter
Size:
84,732 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLSK_HUMAN, O94925 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 669 amino acids; 73461 Da
Subunit: Heterotetramer. Interacts with ATCAY; the interaction is direct and may control GLS localization,
negatively regulating its activity
Caution: Isoform 3 is predicted to be expressed at very low levels due to a premature stop codon in the mRNA,
leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (PubMed:14759258), but has been shown to be well expressed
(PubMed:17940881 and PubMed:11015561) and the encoded protein is detected in mitochondria (PubMed:22228304)
Caution: A report observed N-glycosylation at Asn-620 (PubMed:19139490). However, as the protein is mitochondrial,
additional evidences are required to confirm this result
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAA74861.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GLS (see all 10):
3CZD (3D)        3UNW (3D)        3UO9 (3D)        3VOY (3D)        3VOZ (3D)        3VP0 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q9UL05 Q9UL06 Q9UL07 Q9UN40
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  O94925-1   O94925-2   O94925-3   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLS: NX_O94925

Explore proteomics data for GLS at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys121, Lys158
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for GLS (O94925) (see all 13)
     CSIEVTC  KFVIPDF  VGKEPSG  GKVADYIP 


    See GLS Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001243239.1  NP_055720.3  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000317379   ENSP00000340689   ENSP00000388990   ENSP00000386417   ENSP00000395596  
     ENSP00000387177   ENSP00000387135   ENSP00000403329  
    Reactome Protein details: O94925

    GLS Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Purified Protein for GLS
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GLS
    OriGene MassSpec for GLS
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for GLS
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    Novus Biologicals GLS Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GLS Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GLS

    GLS Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    OriGene Antibodies for GLS
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    Novus Biologicals GLS Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GLS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GLS
    Search ThermoFisher Antibodies for GLS
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GLS

    GLS Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GLS
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GLS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GLS


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ANKRD: Ankyrin repeat domain containing

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR015868 Glutaminase
     IPR002110 Ankyrin_rpt
     IPR012338 Beta-lactam/transpept-like
     IPR020683 Ankyrin_rpt-contain_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O94925

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O94925

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB002110 Ankyrin repeat signature
    IPB007043 Glutaminase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLSK_HUMAN, O94925
    Similarity: Belongs to the glutaminase family
    Similarity: Contains 2 ANK repeats


    GLS for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLSK_HUMAN, O94925
    Function: Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role
    in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain.
    Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity
    Catalytic activity: L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
    Enzyme regulation: Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are activated by phosphate. Inhibited by BPTES. BPTES binds between
    subunits and favors dissociation of the tetramer into dimers
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=1.9 mM for glutamine (isoform 1); KM=1.4 mM for glutamine
    (isoform 3);

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GLS:
    glutaminase,phosphate-dependent,ammonia formation

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.5.1.21 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004359glutaminase activity NAS10719215
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16899818
         
    GLS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Gls):
     behavior/neurological  mortality/aging  normal  respiratory system 

    GLS for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GLS
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GLS

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GLS
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GLS

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLS:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT018403), hsa-mir-7-5p (MIRT025883)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GLS using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLS (see all 71):
    hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-138-2* hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-10b* hsa-miR-383 hsa-miR-508-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGLS 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GLS
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GLS

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GLS

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GLS (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GLS
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GLS (NM_014905)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GLS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GLS

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GLS
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for GLS 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GLS


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GLSK_HUMAN, O94925: Isoform 1: Cytoplasm, cytosol
    GLSK_HUMAN, O94925: Isoform 3: Mitochondrion
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol5
    mitochondrion5
    extracellular2
    nucleus2
    plasma membrane2
    cytoskeleton1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion NAS10719215
    GO:0005759mitochondrial matrix TAS--
    GO:0005829cytosol IEA--

    GLS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GLS About   (see all 9)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Arginine and proline metabolism
    Arginine and proline metabolism
    glutamine degradation I0.00
    superpathway of citrulline metabolism0.00
    citrulline biosynthesis0.00
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    3Transmission across Chemical Synapses
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses0.72
    Neuronal System0.68
    4Circadian entrainment
    GABAergic synapse0.53
    Glutamatergic synapse0.39
    5Neurotransmitter Release Cycle
    Neurotransmitter Release Cycle0.32
    Glutamate Neurotransmitter Release Cycle0.00

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    3 BioSystems Pathways for GLS
        citrulline biosynthesis
    superpathway of citrulline metabolism
    glutamine degradation I

    2 Reactome Pathways for GLS
        Glutamate Neurotransmitter Release Cycle
    Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GLS) (see all 8):
        Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
    Arginine and proline metabolism
    D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    Glutamatergic synapse


    GLS for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GLS: 
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Amino Acid Metabolism I in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GLS

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GLS (O949253 ENSP000003173794) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 37)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SNTA1Q134243, ENSP000002173814I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000217381
    TAX1BP3O149073, ENSP000002255254I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000225525
    SAP18O004223, ENSP000003719734I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000371973
    PARD6AQ9NPB63, ENSP000002192554I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000219255
    MAGEA6P433603, ENSP000003291994I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000329199
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001967suckling behavior IEA--
    GO:0002087regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange by neurological system process IEA--
    GO:0006537glutamate biosynthetic process TAS--
    GO:0006541glutamine metabolic process ----
    GO:0006543glutamine catabolic process NAS10719215

    GLS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GLS (GLSK)

    7 HMDB Compounds for GLS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    AmmoniaNH3 (see all 31)7664-41-7--
    D-Glutamic acid(2R)-2-aminopentanedioate (see all 30)6893-26-1--
    D-GlutamineD-2-Aminoglutaramate (see all 3)5959-95-5--
    FamotidineAmfamox (see all 83)76824-35-6--
    L-Glutamic acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate (see all 49)56-86-0--
    L-Glutamine(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid (see all 31)56-85-9--
    WaterDihydrogen oxide (see all 2)7732-18-5--

    2 DrugBank Compounds for GLS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Glutamic Acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid (see all 15)56-86-0target--16815871 16720907 16861819 16824605 16952838
    L-Glutamine(S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid (see all 4)56-85-9enzymesubstrate16641247

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLS gene (see all 56)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glutamine 90.5 208 17322533 (4), 9616266 (4), 7850545 (3), 8041144 (3) (see all 99)
    6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine 87.6 2 14675161 (1), 15048852 (1)
    prfar 82.9 1 16142895 (1)
    glutamate 79.9 130 2213015 (4), 18452953 (4), 2107874 (3), 20392956 (2) (see all 79)
    glu-trna(gln) 78.6 6 11371208 (4), 11549469 (1)
    phosphoribosylamine 77 1 10713115 (1)
    imidazole glycerol phosphate 72.3 2 17261030 (1), 16142895 (1)
    glucosamine 6-phosphate 71.7 7 8805567 (2), 9545303 (1), 19957429 (1), 17322533 (1) (see all 5)
    acivicin 68.8 4 18697567 (2), 7559506 (1), 16030023 (1)
    alpha-ketoglutarate 63.4 2 8125383 (1), 19939921 (1)



    GLS for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLS gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001256310.1  NM_014905.4  

    Unigene Cluster for GLS:

    Glutaminase
    Hs.116448  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: CR749593
    15 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000320717(uc002usf.2 uc002ush.2 uc010zgi.1 uc010zgj.1)
    ENST00000338435(uc002use.2 uc002usg.1) ENST00000479552(uc002usd.2)
    ENST00000496170 ENST00000469774 ENST00000417154 ENST00000461965 ENST00000468352
    ENST00000495444 ENST00000409626 ENST00000457316 ENST00000409428 ENST00000409215
    ENST00000412247 ENST00000471443

    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GLS using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLS (see all 71):
    hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-138-2* hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-10b* hsa-miR-383 hsa-miR-508-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGLS 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GLS
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GLS
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GLS (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GLS
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GLS (NM_014905)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GLS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GLS
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GLS
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GLS
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GLS
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GLS
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GLS

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB020645.1 AF097492.1 AF097493.1 AF097494.1 AF097495.1 AF158555.1 AF223943.1 AF279697.1 
    AF327434.1 AJ431620.1 AK001220.1 AK025021.1 AK092974.1 AK289747.1 AK294927.1 AK298266.1 
    BC038507.1 BX641148.1 CR749593.1 Y08264.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 29):

    DT.100772969  DT.448974  DT.443960  DT.100653208  DT.101982033  DT.91772522  DT.100653211  DT.97807566 
    DT.100001112  DT.101973698  DT.91751567  DT.65287316  DT.100672416  DT.86857796  DT.107777  DT.120972102 
    DT.86850407  DT.91830616  DT.97799598  DT.75151669  DT.91772518  DT.91986251  DT.95092631  DT.95099453 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 462):

    AA766608 BP383094 BM841597 AI394110 CA447154 BE047020 AI733737 AI245038 
    AA863134 BM311486 BM982573 AF136409 BE349107 BP344806 F02807 AF097493 
    CN484324 AI651001 BG532044 AI968420 AA974976 AI292349 AI698509 AL695338 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    GLS expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GLS embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ATGGTGTATG
    GLS Expression
    About this image


    GLS expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 11) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Midbrain tegmentum
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Lens
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)
             Outflow Tract
    GLS Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GLS Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.116448

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLSK_HUMAN, O94925
    Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are detected in brain cortex. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in
    astrocytoma, ganglioglioma and ependymoma. Isoform 1 is highly expressed in brain and kidney, but not detected in
    liver. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in heart and pancreas, detected at lower levels in placenta, lung, pancreas
    and kidney, but is not detected in liver. Isoform 2 is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GLS: 
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Amino Acid Metabolism I in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GLS gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gls1 , 5 glutaminase1, 5 90.79(n)1
    95.95(a)1
      1 (26.86 cM)5
    146601  NM_001081081.21  NP_001074550.11 
     521634485 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GLS1 glutaminase 80.55(n)
    88.63(a)
      424043  NM_001031248.1  NP_001026419.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GLS6
    glutaminase
    79(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(134226888-134305541)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia AL773849.22   -- 83.55(n)    AL773849.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii glsa1 glutaminase a 72.99(n)
    84.9(a)
      564147  NM_001045044.1  NP_001038509.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG427081 CG42708 56.53(n)
    55.86(a)
      36396  NM_165943.2  NP_725217.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea DH11.13
    glna-21
    glutaminase3
    glna-21
    48(a)
    (best of 3)3
    57.33(n)1
    51(a)1
      II(8008607-8011324)3
    1742821  NM_063274.31  NP_495675.11 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLS (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GLS (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GLS gene
    GLS22  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for GLS using alignment to 10 protein entries:     GLSK_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp686O15119    GLS2

    GLS for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GLS (see all 1554)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs616367631,2
    C--183624392(+) ATCAA-/CAGACAT 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- CA:0.00NA 2
    rs1997858711,2
    C--191743920(+) TTTTT-/TAAATA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs730527921,2
    C,F--191744001(+) CAGATA/TGAAAA 2 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- T:0.13WA NA EA 358
    rs2016884141,2
    C--191744003(+) GATAG-/AAAAAA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1849075891,2
    --191744089(+) TTAATA/CTATTG 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1491797181,2
    --191744170(+) TAGTTG/TCATAA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs742717141,2
    C,F--191744179(+) AAAAAT/ACACCT 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.06EA 120
    rs1453592571,2
    --191744209(+) GCTCAC/TGCCTG 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1876477351,2
    --191744279(+) CCTGGC/TGAAAC 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1931631841,2
    --191744345(+) GGTGGG/TAGGAT 2 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GLS (191745547 - 191830278 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for GLS:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv3083CNV Insertion18451855
    nsv819974CNV Loss19587683
    nsv834493CNV Gain17160897

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GLS
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GLS
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GLS

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 138280    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for GLS (see all 48):    About MalaCards
    hepatic encephalopathy    ependymoblastoma    paranoid schizophrenia    metabolic acidosis
    ganglioglioma    toxic encephalopathy    rett syndrome    ependymoma
    huntington's disease    liver cirrhosis    hyperthyroidism    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    lateral sclerosis    schizophrenia    spinocerebellar ataxia    encephalomyelitis
    dementia    cytomegalovirus infection    childhood leukemia    alzheimer's disease

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GLS:
    Metabolic acidosis     Hepatic encephalopathy

    GLS for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GLS gene (see all 25)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hyperammonemia 53.2 2 19067141 (1)
    hepatic encephalopathy 42.7 3 15246207 (2), 16382342 (1)
    metabolic acidosis 41.1 2 8638675 (1), 15607573 (1)
    ascites 19.6 9 11033463 (4), 11876557 (2), 15511236 (1)
    lymphoblastic leukemia acute 11.8 1 9349841 (1)
    huntington disease 11 1 2213015 (1)
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 7.69 1 11458996 (1)
    neurodegenerative diseases 6.82 1 11458996 (1)
    gliosis 6.63 1 2079721 (1)
    cirrhosis 6.53 1 15246207 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GLS
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GLS (10 documents)

    Export disorders for GLS gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GLS gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 281):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLS)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (PubMed id 10048485)1, 2, 3 Nagase T.... Ohara O. (DNA Res. 1998)
    2. Cloning and analysis of unique human glutaminase isoforms generated by tissue-specific alternative splicing. (PubMed id 11015561)1, 2, 9 Elgadi K.M.... Abcouwer S.F. (Physiol. Genomics 1999)
    3. Brain-specific BNIP-2-homology protein Caytaxin relocalises glutaminase to neurite terminals and reduces glutamate levels. (PubMed id 16899818)1, 2, 9 Buschdorf J.P.... Low B.C. (J. Cell Sci. 2006)
    4. An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia. (PubMed id 15642443)1, 4, 9 Zhang B....Shen Y. (Eur. Psychiatry 2005)
    5. Full-length human glutaminase in complex with an allosteric inhibitor. (PubMed id 22049910)1, 2 DeLaBarre B.... Hurov J.B. (Biochemistry 2011)
    6. Risk of meningioma and common variation in genes related to innate immunity. (PubMed id 20406964)1, 4 Rajaraman P....Inskip P.D. (amp 2010)
    7. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and risk of childhood leukemia. (PubMed id 20438785)1, 4 Han S....Kang D. (Hum. Immunol. 2010)
    8. Variations in the promoter region of the glutaminase gene and the development of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis: a cohort study. (PubMed id 20820037)1, 4 Romero-GA^mez M....Ruiz A. (Ann. Intern. Med. 2010)
    9. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    10. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia: a pathway analysis of GWAS data. (PubMed id 20659789)1, 4 Jia P....Zhao Z. (Schizophr. Res. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2744 HGNC: 4331 AceView: GLS Ensembl:ENSG00000115419 euGenes: HUgn2744
    ECgene: GLS Kegg: 2744 H-InvDB: GLS

    (According to HUGE)
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    HUGE: KIAA0838

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GLS Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for GLS gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLS

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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