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Aliases for GLS Gene

Aliases for GLS Gene

  • Glutaminase 2 3 5
  • L-Glutamine Amidohydrolase 3 4
  • K-Glutaminase 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • GLS1 3 4
  • Glutaminase Kidney Isoform, Mitochondrial 3
  • Glutaminase, Phosphate-Activated 3
  • Glutaminase C 3
  • KIAA0838 4
  • AAD20 3
  • GAC 3
  • GAM 3
  • KGA 3

External Ids for GLS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLS Gene

  • GC02P189939
  • GC02P190448
  • GC02P191709
  • GC02P191948
  • GC02P191931
  • GC02P191571
  • GC02P191453
  • GC02P183605

Summaries for GLS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLS Gene

  • This gene encodes the K-type mitochondrial glutaminase. The encoded protein is an phosphate-activated amidohydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia. This protein is primarily expressed in the brain and kidney plays an essential role in generating energy for metabolism, synthesizing the brain neurotransmitter glutamate and maintaining acid-base balance in the kidney. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GLS Gene

GLS (Glutaminase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLS include Acute Endometritis and Hepatic Encephalopathy. Among its related pathways are Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination) and Neurotransmitter Release Cycle. GO annotations related to this gene include glutaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

  • Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.

Tocris Summary for GLS Gene

  • Glutaminase (GLS) is an aminohydrolase enzyme, EC, which catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid glutamine to glutamate. Two GLS isoforms have been identified to date, GLS1 (KGA; kidney-type glutaminase) and GLS2 (LGA; liver-type glutaminase).

No data available for CIViC summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLS Gene

Genomics for GLS Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLS Gene

Enhancers for GLS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH02G190843 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 23.5 -36.3 -36291 2.3 KLF17 SIN3A FOSL1 ZNF316 FOS NFE2 MAFK NFE2L2 ZNF362 ZBED1 GLS NAB1 ENSG00000228509 ENSG00000235852 LOC105373805 STAT4 STAT1 GC02M190697
GH02G190966 1.1 dbSUPER 33.8 +92.0 91986 12.4 FOXA2 PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ARNT SIN3A ZNF766 FOS ZNF263 JUNB ZNF592 GLS ENSG00000230686 LOC105373805 STAT1 ENSG00000235852 LOC100420571 GC02P190930
GH02G190840 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 30 -39.1 -39075 1.7 PKNOX1 NFIA HLF HMG20A KAT8 GLIS2 PBX2 CEBPA MAFK TRIM28 GLS ENSG00000228509 ENSG00000235852 LOC105373805 HIBCH GC02M190697
GH02G190846 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 26.7 -33.2 -33170 2.0 SIN3A HIC1 JUND SMARCA4 POLR2A IKZF1 SCRT2 MAFK GLS ENSG00000235852 ENSG00000228509 GC02M190697
GH02G190850 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 26.9 -30.0 -30021 0.4 ZFP64 RAD21 YY1 ZNF138 ZNF654 ZNF680 ZNF426 REST ZNF623 ZNF518A GLS ENSG00000233654 ENSG00000235852 ENSG00000228509 GC02M190697
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GLS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GLS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for GLS Gene

190,880,821 bp from pter
190,965,552 bp from pter
84,732 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GLS Gene

Genes around GLS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GLS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GLS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLS Gene

Proteins for GLS Gene

  • Protein details for GLS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UL05
    • Q9UL06
    • Q9UL07
    • Q9UN40

    Protein attributes for GLS Gene

    669 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    73461 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer. Interacts with ATCAY; the interaction is direct and may control GLS localization, negatively regulating its activity.
    • Sequence=BAA74861.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLS Gene


neXtProt entry for GLS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GLS Gene


Post-translational modifications for GLS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=2, 3121 and isoforms=3158
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for GLS Gene

Gene Families for GLS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLS: view

Function for GLS Gene

Molecular function for GLS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutaminase,phosphate-dependent,ammonia formation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=1.9 mM for glutamine (isoform 1) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22049910}; KM=1.4 mM for glutamine (isoform 3) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22049910};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are activated by phosphate. Inhibited by BPTES. BPTES binds between subunits and favors dissociation of the tetramer into dimers.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004359 glutaminase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16899818
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLS: view

Animal Models for GLS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GLS:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GLS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLS

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GLS Gene

Localization for GLS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

Isoform 1: Cytoplasm, cytosol.
Isoform 3: Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLS gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 2
nucleus 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion NAS,IDA 10719215
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS: view

Pathways & Interactions for GLS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLS: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001967 suckling behavior IEA --
GO:0002087 regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange by neurological system process IEA --
GO:0006537 glutamate biosynthetic process TAS 21757002
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006543 glutamine catabolic process NAS 10719215
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GLS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GLS Gene

(44) Drugs for GLS Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
esculin Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 0
indocyanine Green Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, Enzyme, catalytic activity 0
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 61
Water Approved Pharma 0

(24) Additional Compounds for GLS Gene - From: Novoseek, Tocris, and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammoniak

(2) Tocris Compounds for GLS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
968 Allosteric inhibitor of glutaminase 311795-38-7
BPTES Selective allosteric glutaminase (GLS1) inhibitor 314045-39-1

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GLS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BPTES GLS inhibitor 314045-39-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GLS Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLS Gene

Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GLS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GLS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GLS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GLS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (14.5) and Frontal cortex (12.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GLS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GLS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GLS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLS Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLS Gene:

Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are detected in brain cortex. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in astrocytoma, ganglioglioma and ependymoma. Isoform 1 is highly expressed in brain and kidney, but not detected in liver. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in heart and pancreas, detected at lower levels in placenta, lung, pancreas and kidney, but is not detected in liver. Isoform 2 is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GLS Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Kidney(4.2)
  • Pancreas(3.1)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.2)
  • Bone marrow(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GLS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GLS Gene

Orthologs for GLS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GLS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLS 34 35
  • 99.7 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLS 34 35
  • 92.46 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLS 35
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gls 34 16 35
  • 90.79 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLS 34 35
  • 90.2 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gls 34
  • 90.14 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GLS 35
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLS 34 35
  • 80.55 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLS 35
  • 79 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gls 34
  • 81.39 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glsa 34 35
  • 72.99 (n)
glsb 35
  • 68 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG42708 34 35
  • 56.53 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glna-2 34 35
  • 57.33 (n)
DH11.1 36
  • 48 (a)
C09F9.3a 36
  • 45 (a)
C09F9.3b 36
  • 45 (a)
glna-3 35
  • 41 (a)
glna-1 35
  • 28 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3937 35
  • 38 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GLS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLS Gene

Gene Tree for GLS (if available)
Gene Tree for GLS (if available)

Paralogs for GLS Gene

Paralogs for GLS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLS: view

Variants for GLS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000004237 -- 190,912,062(+) AGTTT(C/G)ACTTG intron-variant
rs1000038358 -- 190,902,172(+) TTTTA(A/T)TGTAA intron-variant
rs1000050307 -- 190,958,539(+) CTGCT(C/T)ACTCT intron-variant
rs1000057296 -- 190,895,607(+) AGGCA(C/T)TCAAA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs1000071047 -- 190,901,764(+) TTCTC(A/C)AGTCT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv3083 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv584064 CNV gain 21841781
nsv584065 CNV loss 21841781
nsv819974 CNV loss 19587683
nsv834493 CNV gain 17160897
nsv954449 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv999391 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for GLS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.43; 42.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GLS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

Disorders for GLS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for GLS Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
acute endometritis
hepatic encephalopathy
  • portal-systemic encephalopathy
lacrimal gland adenocarcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland
retinitis pigmentosa 20
  • rp20
silent myocardial infarction
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GLS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GLS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GLS Gene

Publications for GLS Gene

  1. Brain-specific BNIP-2-homology protein Caytaxin relocalises glutaminase to neurite terminals and reduces glutamate levels. (PMID: 16899818) Buschdorf J.P. … Low B.C. (J. Cell Sci. 2006) 3 4 22 64
  2. An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia. (PMID: 15642443) Zhang B. … Shen Y. (Eur. Psychiatry 2005) 3 22 46 64
  3. Cloning and analysis of unique human glutaminase isoforms generated by tissue-specific alternative splicing. (PMID: 11015561) Elgadi K.M. … Abcouwer S.F. (Physiol. Genomics 1999) 3 4 22 64
  4. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (PMID: 10048485) Nagase T. … Ohara O. (DNA Res. 1998) 2 3 4 64
  5. Full-length human glutaminase in complex with an allosteric inhibitor. (PMID: 22049910) DeLaBarre B. … Hurov J.B. (Biochemistry 2011) 3 4 64

Products for GLS Gene

Sources for GLS Gene

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