Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for GLS Gene

Aliases for GLS Gene

  • Glutaminase 2 3
  • GLS1 3 4 6
  • L-Glutamine Amidohydrolase 3 4
  • K-Glutaminase 3 4
  • EC 4 64
  • Glutaminase Kidney Isoform, Mitochondrial 3
  • Glutaminase, Phosphate-Activated 3
  • Glutaminase C 3
  • KIAA0838 4
  • AAD20 3
  • GAC 3
  • GAM 3
  • KGA 3

External Ids for GLS Gene

Summaries for GLS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLS Gene

  • This gene encodes the K-type mitochondrial glutaminase. The encoded protein is an phosphate-activated amidohydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia. This protein is primarily expressed in the brain and kidney plays an essential role in generating energy for metabolism, synthesizing the brain neurotransmitter glutamate and maintaining acid-base balance in the kidney. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GLS Gene

GLS (Glutaminase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLS include hepatic encephalopathy and spinocerebellar ataxia 2. Among its related pathways are MicroRNAs in cancer and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include glutaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

  • Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLS Gene

Genomics for GLS Gene

Genomic Location for GLS Gene

190,880,821 bp from pter
190,965,552 bp from pter
84,732 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GLS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GLS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLS Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLS Gene

Proteins for GLS Gene

  • Protein details for GLS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UL05
    • Q9UL06
    • Q9UL07
    • Q9UN40

    Protein attributes for GLS Gene

    669 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    73461 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer. Interacts with ATCAY; the interaction is direct and may control GLS localization, negatively regulating its activity.
    • Sequence=BAA74861.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLS Gene


neXtProt entry for GLS Gene

Proteomics data for GLS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLS Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys121 and Lys158

Other Protein References for GLS Gene

Domains for GLS Gene

Gene Families for GLS Gene

  • ANKRD :Ankyrin repeat domain containing


  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.:
    • O94925
  • Contains 2 ANK repeats.:
    • O94925
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLS: view

Function for GLS Gene

Molecular function for GLS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glutaminase,phosphate-dependent,ammonia formation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=1.9 mM for glutamine (isoform 1) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22049910}; KM=1.4 mM for glutamine (isoform 3) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22049910};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are activated by phosphate. Inhibited by BPTES. BPTES binds between subunits and favors dissociation of the tetramer into dimers.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004359 glutaminase activity NAS 10719215
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16899818
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLS: view

miRNA for GLS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLS

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GLS Gene

Localization for GLS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

Isoform 1: Cytoplasm, cytosol.
Isoform 3: Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GLS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 5
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion NAS 10719215
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS: view

Pathways for GLS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLS: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001967 suckling behavior IEA --
GO:0002087 regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange by neurological system process IEA --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006537 glutamate biosynthetic process TAS 21757002
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS: view

Compounds for GLS Gene

(7) HMDB Compounds for GLS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • NH3
D-Glutamic acid
  • (2R)-2-aminopentanedioate
  • D-2-Aminoglutaramate
  • Amfamox
L-Glutamic acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate

(2) Drugbank Compounds for GLS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
L-Glutamic Acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
56-86-0 target
  • (S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
56-85-9 enzyme substrate

(56) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLS Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glutamine 90.5 132
6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine 87.6 2
prfar 82.9 1
glutamate 79.9 98
glu-trna(gln) 78.6 5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLS: view

Transcripts for GLS Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLS Gene

Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GLS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GLS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLS Gene Hs.116448

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLS Gene

Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are detected in brain cortex. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in astrocytoma, ganglioglioma and ependymoma. Isoform 1 is highly expressed in brain and kidney, but not detected in liver. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in heart and pancreas, detected at lower levels in placenta, lung, pancreas and kidney, but is not detected in liver. Isoform 2 is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GLS: view

Orthologs for GLS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GLS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLS 36
  • 99.7 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GLS 37
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLS 36
  • 92.46 (n)
  • 94.71 (a)
GLS 37
  • 87 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLS 36
  • 90.2 (n)
  • 93.97 (a)
GLS 37
  • 83 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gls 36
  • 90.79 (n)
  • 95.95 (a)
Gls 16
Gls 37
  • 94 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLS 37
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GLS 37
  • 77 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gls 36
  • 90.14 (n)
  • 95.8 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLS 36
  • 80.55 (n)
  • 88.63 (a)
GLS 37
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLS 37
  • 79 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gls 36
  • 81.39 (n)
  • 92.02 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glsa 36
  • 72.99 (n)
  • 84.9 (a)
glsa 37
  • 79 (a)
glsb 37
  • 68 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG42708 36
  • 56.53 (n)
  • 55.86 (a)
CG42708 37
  • 38 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glna-1 37
  • 28 (a)
glna-2 36
  • 57.33 (n)
  • 51 (a)
glna-2 37
  • 42 (a)
glna-3 37
  • 41 (a)
C09F9.3b 38
  • 45 (a)
C09F9.3a 38
  • 45 (a)
DH11.1 38
  • 48 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3937 37
  • 38 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GLS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLS Gene

Gene Tree for GLS (if available)
Gene Tree for GLS (if available)

Paralogs for GLS Gene

Paralogs for GLS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLS: view

Variants for GLS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1168 -- 190,965,051(-) AGCCC(A/G)AGCAG utr-variant-3-prime
rs10437 -- 190,963,960(-) TAACT(C/T)TGGTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs867637 -- 190,961,656(-) CTTCA(C/T)TAGTT intron-variant
rs883844 -- 190,961,043(+) AATTT(C/T)TTTTG intron-variant
rs932170 -- 190,948,557(-) ACTGG(A/T)TATAA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv3083 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv819974 CNV Loss 19587683
nsv834493 CNV Gain 17160897

Relevant External Links for GLS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for GLS Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GLS Gene

(25) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GLS Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hyperammonemia 53.2 1
hepatic encephalopathy 42.7 3
metabolic acidosis 41.1 2
ascites 19.6 7
lymphoblastic leukemia acute 11.8 1

Relevant External Links for GLS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS Gene

Publications for GLS Gene

  1. Cloning and analysis of unique human glutaminase isoforms generated by tissue-specific alternative splicing. (PMID: 11015561) Elgadi K.M. … Abcouwer S.F. (Physiol. Genomics 1999) 3 4 23
  2. An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia. (PMID: 15642443) Zhang B. … Shen Y. (Eur. Psychiatry 2005) 3 23 49
  3. Brain-specific BNIP-2-homology protein Caytaxin relocalises glutaminase to neurite terminals and reduces glutamate levels. (PMID: 16899818) Buschdorf J.P. … Low B.C. (J. Cell Sci. 2006) 3 4 23
  4. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (PMID: 10048485) Nagase T. … Ohara O. (DNA Res. 1998) 2 3 4
  5. Isolation, characterization and expression of a human brain mitochondrial glutaminase cDNA. (PMID: 10719215) Holcomb T. … Curthoys N.P. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 2000) 3 4

Products for GLS Gene

Sources for GLS Gene

Back to Top