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GLRX2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 60
GCID: GC01M193065

Glutaredoxin 2

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glutaredoxin 21 2
GRX22 3 5
BA101E13.1 (GRX2 Glutaredoxin (Thioltransferase) 2)1 2
CGI-1332

External Ids:    HGNC: 160651   Entrez Gene: 510222   Ensembl: ENSG000000235727   OMIM: 6068205   UniProtKB: Q9NS183   

Export aliases for GLRX2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M190855 GC01M188579 GC01M189532 GC01M190353 GC01M189797 GC01M191332 GC01M164301


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GLRX2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glutaredoxin family of proteins, which maintain cellular thiol
homeostasis. These proteins are thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that use a glutathione-binding site and one or
two active cysteines in their active site. This gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms,
one of which is ubiquitously expressed and localizes to mitochondria, where it functions in mitochondrial redox
homeostasis and is important for the protection against and recovery from oxidative stress. Other isoforms, which
have more restrictive expression patterns, show cytosolic and nuclear localization, and are thought to function
in cellular differentiation and transformation, possibly with a role in tumor progression. (provided by RefSeq,
Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for GLRX2 Gene:
GLRX2 (glutaredoxin 2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding. An important paralog of this gene is GLRX.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18
Function: Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis
upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of
apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its
high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH),
but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both
glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide
production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of
cardiolipin and cytochrome c release

Gene Wiki entry for GLRX2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NT_004487.20  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLRX2 gene promoter:
         MEF-2A   aMEF-2   ITF-2   E47   GATA-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): GLRX2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GLRX2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GLRX2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q31.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q31.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q31.2

GLRX2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLRX2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M193065:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
193,065,598 bp from pter      End:
193,075,244 bp from pter
Size:
9,647 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 164 amino acids; 18052 Da
Subunit: Monomer; active form. Homodimer; inactive form. The homodimer is probably linked by 1 2Fe-2S cluster
Miscellaneous: The absence of GLRX2 dramatically sensitizes cells to cell death induced by doxorubicin/adriamycin
and phenylarsine oxide
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAD34128.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Sequence=AAH28113.1; Type=Erroneous
initiation;
3 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GLRX2:
2CQ9 (3D)        2FLS (3D)        2HT9 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q3LR69 Q7L1N7 Q96JC0 Q9Y3D4
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q9NS18-1   Q9NS18-2   (Variant in position: 40:R->W)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLRX2: NX_Q9NS18

Explore proteomics data for GLRX2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GLRX2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001230328.1  NP_057150.2  NP_932066.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000356409   ENSP00000356410  

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR002109 Glutaredoxin
     IPR014025 Glutaredoxin_subgr
     IPR015450 Grx-2
     IPR012336 Thioredoxin-like_fold
     IPR011899 Glutaredoxin_euk/vir

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9NS18

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9NS18

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002109 Glutaredoxin

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18
    Similarity: Belongs to the glutaredoxin family
    Similarity: Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain


    Find genes that share domains with GLRX2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18
    Function: Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis
    upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of
    apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its
    high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH),
    but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both
    glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide
    production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of
    cardiolipin and cytochrome c release
    Enzyme regulation: The 2Fe-2S present in the homodimer leads to inactivation of the enzyme. The 2Fe-2S may serve
    as a redox sensor: the presence of one-electron oxidants or reductants leading to the loss of the 2Fe-2S cluster,
    subsequent monomerization and activation of the enzyme. Unlike other glutaredoxins, it is not inhibited by
    oxidation of structural Cys residues
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=5.9 mM for GSH; KM=0.77 mM for glutathionylated ribonuclease
    A; KM=4.3 mM for glutathionylated BSA; KM=0.11 mM for glutathionylated beta-mercaptoethanol;

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003756protein disulfide isomerase activity TAS11297543
    GO:0008794arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activity TAS11297543
    GO:0009055electron carrier activity NAS11297543
    GO:0015035protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA--
    GO:0015038glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity TAS11297543
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GLRX2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GLRX2:
     Increased G1 DNA content  Increased cilium length after  

         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Glrx2):
     homeostasis/metabolism  vision/eye 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GLRX2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Glrx2tm1Ysh for GLRX2

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for GLRX2

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    hsa-miR-1206
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGLRX2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18: Isoform 1: Mitochondrion
    GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18: Isoform 2: Nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    nucleus5
    cytosol3
    extracellular2
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA11297543

    Find genes that share ontologies with GLRX2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GLRX2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1PAK Pathway
    Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C0.56

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GLRX2
        Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C



        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including GLRX2: 
              Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GLRX2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 17)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GLRX2 (Q9NS183 ENSP000003564104) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 17)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TXNRD1Q168813, ENSP000004120454I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000412045
    GLRX5ENSP000003285704STRING: ENSP00000328570
    ISCA1ENSP000003651594STRING: ENSP00000365159
    ISCA2ENSP000002988184STRING: ENSP00000298818
    GLRX3ENSP000003308364STRING: ENSP00000330836
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated NAS11297543
    GO:0006457protein folding TAS11297543
    GO:0006749glutathione metabolic process TAS11397793
    GO:0006915apoptotic process NAS11297543
    GO:0009266response to temperature stimulus NAS11397793

    Find genes that share ontologies with GLRX2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GLRX2

    1 DrugBank Compound for GLRX2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Glutathione5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (see all 5)70-18-8target--17355958 17546662 17401194

    6 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLRX2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hydroxyethyl disulfide 81.8 1 11397793 (1)
    dithiol 73.3 3 11297543 (2)
    iron-sulfur 72 8 15917333 (3), 17115894 (3), 20347849 (1), 17121859 (1)
    gssg 69.6 5 15347644 (2), 15917333 (1), 14676218 (1), 11035035 (1)
    doxorubicin 31.5 6 19038292 (3), 15328416 (2), 15649413 (1)
    cysteine 7.14 2 11035035 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with GLRX2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLRX2 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001243399.1  NM_016066.4  NM_197962.2  

    Unigene Cluster for GLRX2:

    Glutaredoxin 2
    Hs.458283  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BM908128
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000367439(uc001gsz.2) ENST00000367440(uc021pgp.1 uc001gta.2)
    ENST00000472197
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF132495.2 AF151891.1 AF290514.1 AY038988.1 BC009669.1 BC028113.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.409088  DT.100658989  DT.92422256 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 50):

    AA887118 AI929431 AI929473 AW157841 CD679257 NM_197962 NM_016066 AW161388 
    AY038988 BF968364 AI929534 BC009669 AI929492 AF290514 BU157087 BE788889 
    AA421320 AA421273 BU155397 AL038711 BQ432881 AF132495 BU594775 BU683002 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLRX2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b
    SP1:                    -                           
    SP2:                                                
    SP3:              -     -                           


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GLRX2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GLRX2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CATTGTCTTC
    GLRX2 Expression
    About this image


    GLRX2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)
             Telencephalon
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
    GLRX2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GLRX2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.458283

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18
    Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Expressed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, colon, thymus, spleen, kidney,
    liver, small intestine, placenta and lung. Not expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including GLRX2: 
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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for GLRX2 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Glrx21 , 5 glutaredoxin 2 (thioltransferase)1, 5 78.61(n)1
    76.12(a)1
      1 (62.53 cM)5
    693671  NM_001038592.11  NP_001033681.11 
     1437390295 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GLRX21 glutaredoxin 2 71.23(n)
    66.67(a)
      424357  XM_422200.4  XP_422200.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GLRX26
    glutaredoxin 2
    64(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343267.1(1219775-1223389)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia glrx21 glutaredoxin 2 62.12(n)
    54.55(a)
      549391  NM_001016637.2  NP_001016637.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii glrx21 glutaredoxin 2 60.96(n)
    53.15(a)
      436677  NM_001002404.1  NP_001002404.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Grx-11 Grx-1 58.62(n)
    52.87(a)
      37483  NM_137765.2  NP_611609.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GRX2(YDR513W)4 Cytoplasmic glutaredoxin, thioltransferase, glutathione-dependent more   --   4(1471017-1471448) 852124  NP_010801.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLRX2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GLRX2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GLRX2 gene
    GLRX2  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for GLRX2 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     GLRX2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GLRX    TXNRD3

    Find genes that share paralogs with GLRX2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GLRX2 (see all 194)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs342628441,2
    C,F--193069792(-) CTTAGA/-AAATC 3 -- int16Minor allele frequency- -:0.04NS CSA 186
    rs346030731,2
    C,F--193073541(-) TGAGGC/-CCCGC 3 -- int15Minor allele frequency- -:0.02NS 180
    rs345526191,2
    C,F--199604047(-) TTGTAT/CGAGGA 3 -- ds50017Minor allele frequency- C:0.07NS WA 298
    rs1919494431,2
    --199604304(+) CCTTAA/TATTTT 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs1134239951,2
    C,F--199604631(+) TTATCA/C/GGGCAT 6 -- ut311CSA 1
    rs1844150121,2
    C--199604654(+) TAACTA/C/GACACT 6 -- ut310--------
    rs1129382791,2
    C,F--199604697(+) GAAATT/CCTTTC 6 /E /G mis12Minor allele frequency- C:0.00CSA NA 4338
    rs350900511,2
    C,F--199604699(+) AATTCT/CTTCCT 6 /K syn14Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 4414
    rs1485119771,2
    C--199604709(+) TCTTA-/CTTTTT 6 I S fra10--------
    rs1419296001,2
    C--199604731(+) CTGATG/AAACTA 6 /H /Y mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4476

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GLRX2 (193065598 - 193075244 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for GLRX2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv466994CNV Loss19166990

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GLRX2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GLRX2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 606820    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with GLRX2           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GLRX2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GLRX2 (1 document)

    Export disorders for GLRX2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GLRX2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 60):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLRX2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms. (PubMed id 11297543)1, 2, 3, 9 Lundberg M.... Holmgren A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    2. Identification and characterization of a new mammalian glutaredoxin (thioltransferase), Grx2. (PubMed id 11397793)1, 2, 9 Gladyshev V.N.... Lou M.F. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    3. Characterization of human glutaredoxin 2 as iron-sulfur protein: a possible role as redox sensor. (PubMed id 15917333)1, 2, 9 Lillig C.H.... Holmgren A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005)
    4. Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin reduces S-glutathionylated proteins with high affinity accepting electrons from either glutathione or thioredoxin reductase. (PubMed id 14676218)1, 2, 9 Johansson C.... Holmgren A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    5. Overexpression of glutaredoxin 2 attenuates apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release. (PubMed id 15649413)1, 2, 9 Enoksson M....Orrenius S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005)
    6. Short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of glutaredoxin 2 increases the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward doxorubicin and phenylarsine oxide. (PubMed id 15328416)1, 2, 9 Lillig C.H.... Holmgren A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004)
    7. Reversible sequestration of active site cysteines in a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer provides a mechanism for glutaredoxin 2 regulation in human mitochondria. (PubMed id 17121859)1, 2, 9 Johansson C.... Oppermann U. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007)
    8. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    9. Oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteines in human cytosolic and mitochondrial glutaredoxins: effects on structure and activity. (PubMed id 17355958)1, 7 Hashemy S.I....Holmgren A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007)
    10. Redox properties and evolution of human glutaredoxins. (PubMed id 17546662)1, 7 Sagemark J....Berndt K.D. (Proteins 2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 51022 HGNC: 16065 AceView: GLRX2 Ensembl:ENSG00000023572 euGenes: HUgn51022
    ECgene: GLRX2 H-InvDB: GLRX2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GLRX2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/glrx2/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GLRX2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLRX2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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