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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

GLRX2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 60
GCID: GC01M193065

Glutaredoxin 2

Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Glutaredoxin 21 2
GRX22 3 5
BA101E13.1 (GRX2 Glutaredoxin (Thioltransferase) 2)1 2
CGI-1332

External Ids:    HGNC: 160651   Entrez Gene: 510222   Ensembl: ENSG000000235727   OMIM: 6068205   UniProtKB: Q9NS183   

Export aliases for GLRX2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M190855 GC01M188579 GC01M189532 GC01M190353 GC01M189797 GC01M191332 GC01M164301


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GLRX2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glutaredoxin family of proteins, which maintain cellular thiol
homeostasis. These proteins are thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that use a glutathione-binding site and one or
two active cysteines in their active site. This gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms,
one of which is ubiquitously expressed and localizes to mitochondria, where it functions in mitochondrial redox
homeostasis and is important for the protection against and recovery from oxidative stress. Other isoforms, which
have more restrictive expression patterns, show cytosolic and nuclear localization, and are thought to function
in cellular differentiation and transformation, possibly with a role in tumor progression. (provided by RefSeq,
Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for GLRX2 Gene: 
GLRX2 (glutaredoxin 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GLRX2 include interstitial lung disease, and parkinson's disease, and among its related super-pathways are PAK Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding. An important paralog of this gene is GLRX.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18
Function: Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis
upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of
apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its
high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH),
but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both
glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide
production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of
cardiolipin and cytochrome c release

Gene Wiki entry for GLRX2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.10  NT_004487.19  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLRX2 gene promoter:
         MEF-2A   aMEF-2   ITF-2   E47   GATA-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): GLRX2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GLRX2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GLRX2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q31.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q31.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q31.2

GLRX2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLRX2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M193065:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
193,065,598 bp from pter      End:
193,075,244 bp from pter
Size:
9,647 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 164 amino acids; 18052 Da
Subunit: Monomer; active form. Homodimer; inactive form. The homodimer is probably linked by 1 2Fe-2S cluster
Subcellular location: Isoform 1: Mitochondrion
Subcellular location: Isoform 2: Nucleus
Miscellaneous: The absence of GLRX2 dramatically sensitizes cells to cell death induced by doxorubicin/adriamycin
and phenylarsine oxide
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAD34128.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Sequence=AAH28113.1; Type=Erroneous
initiation;
3 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GLRX2:
2CQ9 (3D)        2FLS (3D)        2HT9 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q3LR69 Q7L1N7 Q96JC0 Q9Y3D4
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q9NS18-1   Q9NS18-2   (Variant in position: 40:R->W)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLRX2: NX_Q9NS18

Explore proteomics data for GLRX2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q9NS18

  • GLRX2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    GLRX2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001230328.1  NP_057150.2  NP_932066.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000356409   ENSP00000356410  

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    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GLRX2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GLRX2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA11297543

    GLRX2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR002109 Glutaredoxin
     IPR014025 Glutaredoxin_subgr
     IPR015450 Grx-2
     IPR012336 Thioredoxin-like_fold
     IPR011899 Glutaredoxin_euk/vir

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9NS18

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9NS18

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002109 Glutaredoxin

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18
    Similarity: Belongs to the glutaredoxin family
    Similarity: Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain


    GLRX2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18
    Function: Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis
    upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of
    apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its
    high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH),
    but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both
    glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide
    production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of
    cardiolipin and cytochrome c release
    Enzyme regulation: The 2Fe-2S present in the homodimer leads to inactivation of the enzyme. The 2Fe-2S may serve
    as a redox sensor: the presence of one-electron oxidants or reductants leading to the loss of the 2Fe-2S cluster,
    subsequent monomerization and activation of the enzyme. Unlike other glutaredoxins, it is not inhibited by
    oxidation of structural Cys residues
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=5.9 mM for GSH; KM=0.77 mM for glutathionylated ribonuclease
    A; KM=4.3 mM for glutathionylated BSA; KM=0.11 mM for glutathionylated beta-mercaptoethanol;

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/7 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003756protein disulfide isomerase activity TAS11297543
    GO:0008794arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activity TAS11297543
    GO:0009055electron carrier activity NAS11297543
    GO:0015035protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA--
    GO:0015038glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity TAS11297543
         
    GLRX2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GLRX2:
     Increased G1 DNA content  Increased cilium length after  

         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Glrx2):
     homeostasis/metabolism  vision/eye 

    GLRX2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Glrx2tm1Ysh for GLRX2

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    Inhib. RNA
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    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for GLRX2 About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1PAK Pathway
    Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C0.56

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for GLRX2
        Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C



    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for GLRX2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 7)

    5/7 Interacting proteins for GLRX2 (Q9NS183 ENSP000003564104) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 7)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TXNRD1Q168813, ENSP000004120454I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000412045
    GLRXENSP000002378584STRING: ENSP00000237858
    ASNA1ENSP000003498874STRING: ENSP00000349887
    TXNENSP000003636414STRING: ENSP00000363641
    PRDX6ENSP000003420264STRING: ENSP00000342026
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/13 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent NAS11297543
    GO:0006457protein folding TAS11297543
    GO:0006749glutathione metabolic process TAS11397793
    GO:0006915apoptotic process NAS11297543
    GO:0009266response to temperature stimulus NAS11397793

    GLRX2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    GLRX2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for GLRX2

    1 DrugBank Compound for GLRX2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Glutathione5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (see all 5)70-18-8target--17355958 17546662 17401194

    6 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLRX2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hydroxyethyl disulfide 81.8 1 11397793 (1)
    dithiol 73.3 3 11297543 (2)
    iron-sulfur 72 8 15917333 (3), 17115894 (3), 20347849 (1), 17121859 (1)
    gssg 69.6 5 15347644 (2), 15917333 (1), 14676218 (1), 11035035 (1)
    doxorubicin 31.5 6 19038292 (3), 15328416 (2), 15649413 (1)
    cysteine 7.14 2 11035035 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about GLRX2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLRX2 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001243399.1  NM_016066.4  NM_197962.2  

    Unigene Cluster for GLRX2:

    Glutaredoxin 2
    Hs.458283  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BM908128
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000367439(uc001gsz.2) ENST00000367440(uc021pgp.1 uc001gta.2)
    ENST00000472197

    miRNA
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF132495.2 AF151891.1 AF290514.1 AY038988.1 BC009669.1 BC028113.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.409088  DT.100658989  DT.92422256 

    24/50 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 50):

    AF290514 BC009669 AA887118 AW161388 CD679257 NM_197962 BF968364 NM_016066 
    AI929473 AI929492 AW157841 AI929431 AI929534 AY038988 BU157087 BM887926 
    BU683002 BE788889 BC028113 BX105532 AL038711 BG182683 BU155397 AI929588 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLRX2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b
    SP1:                    -                           
    SP2:                                                
    SP3:              -     -                           


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GLRX2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    GLRX2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GLRX2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CATTGTCTTC
    GLRX2 Expression
    About this image


    GLRX2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/33 selected tissues (see all 33) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 8 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
             brain/hindbrain   
     
     Epithelium
             vagina ; squamous epithelial cells   
     
     Colon (Gastrointestinal Tract)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             colon ; peripheral nerve/ganglion   
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
             testis ; cells in seminiferus ducts   
     
     Breast
             breast ; myoepithelial cells   

    See GLRX2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for GLRX2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.458283

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRX2_HUMAN, Q9NS18
    Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Expressed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, colon, thymus, spleen, kidney,
    liver, small intestine, placenta and lung. Not expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including GLRX2: 
              Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GLRX2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for GLRX2 gene from 8/19 species (see all 19)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Glrx21 , 5 glutaredoxin 2 (thioltransferase)1, 5 78.61(n)1
    76.12(a)1
      1 (62.53 cM)5
    693671  NM_001038592.11  NP_001033681.11 
     1437390295 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GLRX21 glutaredoxin 2 71.23(n)
    66.67(a)
      424357  XM_422200.3  XP_422200.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GLRX26
    glutaredoxin 2
    64(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343267.1(1219775-1223389)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii glrx21 glutaredoxin 2 61.21(n)
    53.64(a)
      436677  NM_001002404.1  NP_001002404.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Grx-11 CG7975-PA 58.62(n)
    52.87(a)
      37483  NM_137765.2  NP_611609.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GRX2(YDR513W)4 Cytoplasmic glutaredoxin, thioltransferase, glutathione-dependent more   --   4(1471017-1471448) 852124  NP_010801.1 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AT5G403701 glutaredoxin-C2 50(n)
    43.62(a)
      834035  NM_123401.3  NP_198853.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os04g05083001 hypothetical protein 50.74(n)
    45.56(a)
      4336354  NM_001059805.1  NP_001053270.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLRX2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GLRX2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for GLRX2 gene
    GLRX2  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for GLRX2 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     GLRX2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GLRX    TXNRD1    TXNRD3

    GLRX2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/194 SNPs in GLRX2 are shown (see all 194)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs342628441,2
    C,F--193069792(-) CTTAGA/-AAATC 3 -- int16Minor allele frequency- -:0.04NS CSA 186
    rs346030731,2
    C,F--193073541(-) TGAGGC/-CCCGC 3 -- int15Minor allele frequency- -:0.02NS 180
    rs345526191,2
    C,F--199604047(-) TTGTAT/CGAGGA 3 -- ds50017Minor allele frequency- C:0.07NS WA 298
    rs1919494431,2
    --199604304(+) CCTTAA/TATTTT 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs1134239951,2
    C,F--199604631(+) TTATCA/C/GGGCAT 6 -- ut311CSA 1
    rs1844150121,2
    C--199604654(+) TAACTA/C/GACACT 6 -- ut310--------
    rs1129382791,2
    C,F--199604697(+) GAAATT/CCTTTC 6 /E /G mis12Minor allele frequency- C:0.00CSA NA 4338
    rs350900511,2
    C,F--199604699(+) AATTCT/CTTCCT 6 /K syn14Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 4414
    rs1485119771,2
    C--199604709(+) TCTTA-/CTTTTT 6 I S fra10--------
    rs1419296001,2
    C--199604731(+) CTGATG/AAACTA 6 /H /Y mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4476

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GLRX2 (193065598 - 193075244 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for GLRX2:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv466994CNV Loss19166990

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 606820    OMIM disorders: --

    7 diseases for GLRX2:    About MalaCards
    interstitial lung disease    parkinson's disease    ischemia    lung cancer
    cervicitis    melanoma    neuronitis


    GLRX2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GLRX2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GLRX2 (1 document)

    Export disorders for GLRX2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for GLRX2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 60):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLRX2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms. (PubMed id 11297543)1, 2, 3, 9 Lundberg M.... Holmgren A. (2001)
    2. Identification and characterization of a new mammalian glutaredoxin (thioltransferase), Grx2. (PubMed id 11397793)1, 2, 9 Gladyshev V.N.... Lou M.F. (2001)
    3. Characterization of human glutaredoxin 2 as iron-sulfur protein: a possible role as redox sensor. (PubMed id 15917333)1, 2, 9 Lillig C.H.... Holmgren A. (2005)
    4. Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin reduces S-glutathionylated proteins with high affinity accepting electrons from either glutathione or thioredoxin reductase. (PubMed id 14676218)1, 2, 9 Johansson C.... Holmgren A. (2004)
    5. Overexpression of glutaredoxin 2 attenuates apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release. (PubMed id 15649413)1, 2, 9 Enoksson M....Orrenius S. (2005)
    6. Short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of glutaredoxin 2 increases the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward doxorubicin and phenylarsine oxide. (PubMed id 15328416)1, 2, 9 Lillig C.H.... Holmgren A. (2004)
    7. Reversible sequestration of active site cysteines in a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer provides a mechanism for glutaredoxin 2 regulation in human mitochondria. (PubMed id 17121859)1, 2, 9 Johansson C....Oppermann U. (2007)
    8. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gen es influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (2010)
    9. Oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteines in human cytosolic and mitochondrial glutaredoxins: effects on structure and activity. (PubMed id 17355958)1, 7 Hashemy S.I....Holmgren A. (2007)
    10. Redox properties and evolution of human glutaredoxins. (PubMed id 17546662)1, 7 Sagemark J....Berndt K.D. (2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
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    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 51022 HGNC: 16065 AceView: GLRX2 Ensembl:ENSG00000023572 euGenes: HUgn51022
    ECgene: GLRX2 H-InvDB: GLRX2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GLRX2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/glrx2/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GLRX2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLRX2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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