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Aliases for GLRX Gene

Aliases for GLRX Gene

  • Glutaredoxin 2 3 5
  • Glutaredoxin (Thioltransferase) 2 3
  • Thioltransferase-1 3 4
  • Thioltransferase 2 3
  • TTase-1 3 4
  • GRX 3 4
  • GRX1 3

External Ids for GLRX Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLRX Gene

  • GC05M094407
  • GC05M095614
  • GC05M095178
  • GC05M095223
  • GC05M095175
  • GC05M095087
  • GC05M090339

Summaries for GLRX Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLRX Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the glutaredoxin family. The encoded protein is a cytoplasmic enzyme catalyzing the reversible reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides. This enzyme highly contributes to the antioxidant defense system. It is crucial for several signalling pathways by controlling the S-glutathionylation status of signalling mediators. It is involved in beta-amyloid toxicity and Alzheimer's disease. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GLRX Gene

GLRX (Glutaredoxin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLRX include alzheimer disease and pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and PAK Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include protein N-terminus binding and protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLRX2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX Gene

  • Has a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase activity in the presence of NADPH and glutathione reductase. Reduces low molecular weight disulfides and proteins.

Gene Wiki entry for GLRX Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLRX Gene

Genomics for GLRX Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLRX Gene

Genomic Location for GLRX Gene

Chromosome:
5
Start:
95,751,319 bp from pter
End:
95,823,005 bp from pter
Size:
71,687 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLRX Gene

Genes around GLRX on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GLRX Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GLRX Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLRX Gene

Proteins for GLRX Gene

  • Protein details for GLRX Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P35754-GLRX1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutaredoxin-1
    Protein Accession:
    P35754
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R4L2
    • Q3KQS1
    • Q6ICT1

    Protein attributes for GLRX Gene

    Size:
    106 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11776 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLRX Gene

neXtProt entry for GLRX Gene

Proteomics data for GLRX Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLRX Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 9 and Lys 20
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for GLRX (Glutaredoxin 1/GLRX1)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GLRX Gene

Domains & Families for GLRX Gene

Protein Domains for GLRX Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLRX Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P35754

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLRX1_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain.
  • Belongs to the glutaredoxin family.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutaredoxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLRX: view

No data available for Gene Families for GLRX Gene

Function for GLRX Gene

Molecular function for GLRX Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutaredoxin,12kDa,catalyzing glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreduction
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase activity in the presence of NADPH and glutathione reductase. Reduces low molecular weight disulfides and proteins.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLRX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity IEA --
GO:0015038 glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity EXP,TAS 7851394
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLRX: view

Animal Models for GLRX Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GLRX:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GLRX Gene

Localization for GLRX Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GLRX Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLRX gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 4
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 3
chloroplast 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLRX Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GLRX Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLRX: view

Pathways by source for GLRX Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLRX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0015949 nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS --
GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis IEA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GLRX Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GLRX Gene

(17) Drugs for GLRX Gene - From: Novoseek, DrugBank, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target 0

(30) Additional Compounds for GLRX Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLRX: view

Transcripts for GLRX Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLRX Gene

Glutaredoxin (thioltransferase):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLRX Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GLRX Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GLRX
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GLRX

Expression for GLRX Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLRX Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GLRX Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x11.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GLRX Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (8.0) and Oral epithelium (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLRX Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLRX Gene Hs.28988

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GLRX: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GLRX Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLRX Gene

Orthologs for GLRX Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GLRX Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLRX 35
  • 75.47 (n)
  • 73.58 (a)
GLRX 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Glrx 35
  • 87.42 (n)
  • 89.62 (a)
Glrx 16
Glrx 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLRX 35
  • 99.37 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GLRX 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Glrx 35
  • 84.91 (n)
  • 88.68 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
GLRX 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
LOC101902340 35
  • 82.7 (n)
  • 83.02 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLRX 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLRX 35
  • 58.33 (n)
  • 52 (a)
GLRX 36
  • 50 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLRX 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia glrx 35
  • 58.1 (n)
  • 52.38 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glrx 35
  • 57.61 (n)
  • 56.31 (a)
wufc38f02 35
glrx 36
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glrx-10 35
  • 53.33 (n)
  • 44.76 (a)
glrx-10 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GRX2 36
  • 24 (a)
ManyToMany
GRX1 36
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 31 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GLRX:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLRX Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GLRX (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GLRX (if available)

Paralogs for GLRX Gene

Paralogs for GLRX Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for GLRX Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GLRX Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLRX: view

Variants for GLRX Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLRX Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs4767 - 95,822,524(-) TTGTC(G/T)ATATC reference, missense
rs2007 -- 95,813,951(+) ACATG(C/G)AAATG utr-variant-3-prime
rs4561 -- 95,816,609(-) TTTAT(C/T)GGTAA reference, synonymous-codon
rs8750 -- 95,814,262(-) TCATG(C/T)GGAAC utr-variant-3-prime
rs8751 -- 95,814,112(-) GAAAG(A/G)GCTCC utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLRX Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830409 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv462255 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv882389 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for GLRX Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 59.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.26; 5.88% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GLRX Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GLRX

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX Gene

Disorders for GLRX Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GLRX Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
alzheimer disease
  • alzheimer disease, late-onset
pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma
  • cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GLRX in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GLRX

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GLRX
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GLRX
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GLRX
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLRX: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GLRX Gene

Publications for GLRX Gene

  1. Purification from placenta, amino acid sequence, structure comparisons and cDNA cloning of human glutaredoxin. (PMID: 7851394) Padilla C.A. … Holmgren A. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1995) 3 4 23 67
  2. Glutaredoxin mediates Akt and eNOS activation by flow in a glutathione reductase-dependent manner. (PMID: 17431186) Wang J. … Berk B.C. (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2007) 23 25 26
  3. Targeting thioredoxin reductase is a basis for cancer therapy by arsenic trioxide. (PMID: 17640917) Lu J. … Holmgren A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007) 23 25 26
  4. The gene for human glutaredoxin (GLRX) is localized to human chromosome 5q14. (PMID: 8838810) Padilla C.A. … Holmgren A. (Genomics 1996) 2 3 23
  5. Human glutaredoxin-1 catalyzes the reduction of HIV-1 gp120 and CD4 disulfides and its inhibition reduces HIV-1 replication. (PMID: 19038358) Auwerx J. … Lundberg M. (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2009) 3 23

Products for GLRX Gene

Sources for GLRX Gene

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