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Aliases for GLRX Gene

Aliases for GLRX Gene

  • Glutaredoxin (Thioltransferase) 2 3
  • GRX 3 4 6
  • Thioltransferase-1 3 4
  • TTase-1 3 4
  • Glutaredoxin-1 3
  • GRX1 3

External Ids for GLRX Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLRX Gene

  • GC05M094407
  • GC05M095614
  • GC05M095178
  • GC05M095223
  • GC05M095175
  • GC05M095087
  • GC05M090339

Summaries for GLRX Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLRX Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the glutaredoxin family. The encoded protein is a cytoplasmic enzyme catalyzing the reversible reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides. This enzyme highly contributes to the antioxidant defense system. It is crucial for several signalling pathways by controlling the S-glutathionylation status of signalling mediators. It is involved in beta-amyloid toxicity and Alzheimer's disease. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GLRX Gene

GLRX (Glutaredoxin (Thioltransferase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLRX include pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma and transitional meningioma. Among its related pathways are PAK Pathway and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLRX2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX Gene

  • Has a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase activity in the presence of NADPH and glutathione reductase. Reduces low molecular weight disulfides and proteins

Gene Wiki entry for GLRX Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLRX Gene

Genomics for GLRX Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLRX Gene

Genomic Location for GLRX Gene

95,751,319 bp from pter
95,823,005 bp from pter
71,687 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLRX Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GLRX Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLRX Gene

Proteins for GLRX Gene

  • Protein details for GLRX Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R4L2
    • Q3KQS1
    • Q6ICT1

    Protein attributes for GLRX Gene

    106 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11776 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLRX Gene

neXtProt entry for GLRX Gene

Proteomics data for GLRX Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLRX Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys9 and Lys20
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GLRX Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GLRX Gene

Domains for GLRX Gene

Protein Domains for GLRX Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLRX Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P35754
  • Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain.
  • Belongs to the glutaredoxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLRX: view

No data available for Gene Families for GLRX Gene

Function for GLRX Gene

Molecular function for GLRX Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glutaredoxin,12kDa,catalyzing glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreduction
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Has a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase activity in the presence of NADPH and glutathione reductase. Reduces low molecular weight disulfides and proteins

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLRX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity IEA --
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0015038 glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity TAS 7851394
GO:0047485 protein N-terminus binding IPI 16884690
GO:0097573 glutathione oxidoreductase activity TAS 19542013
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLRX: view

Animal Models for GLRX Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GLRX:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GLRX Gene

Localization for GLRX Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GLRX Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLRX gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 3
chloroplast 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLRX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS 16884690
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 18570454
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX: view

Pathways for GLRX Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLRX: view

Pathways by source for GLRX Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLRX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0015949 nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis IEA --
GO:0045838 positive regulation of membrane potential IDA 19542013
GO:0055086 nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX: view

Compounds for GLRX Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for GLRX Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide

(1) Drugbank Compounds for GLRX Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
70-18-8 target

(46) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLRX Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
dithiol 89.5 11
hydroxyethyl disulfide 86.2 2
gssg 82.5 15
dehydroascorbic acid 78.9 19
gsno 69.2 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLRX: view

Transcripts for GLRX Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLRX Gene

Glutaredoxin (thioltransferase):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GLRX

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLRX Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GLRX Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GLRX Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLRX Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GLRX Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (11.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLRX Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLRX Gene Hs.28988

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GLRX: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLRX Gene

Orthologs for GLRX Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GLRX Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLRX 35
  • 99.37 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 83 (a)
-- 36
  • 73 (a)
-- 36
  • 78 (a)
-- 36
  • 66 (a)
-- 36
  • 80 (a)
  • 81 (a)
LOC101902340 35
  • 82.7 (n)
  • 83.02 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLRX 35
  • 75.47 (n)
  • 73.58 (a)
  • 74 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Glrx 35
  • 87.42 (n)
  • 89.62 (a)
Glrx 16
Glrx 36
  • 89 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLRX 36
  • 76 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Glrx 35
  • 84.91 (n)
  • 88.68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLRX 35
  • 58.33 (n)
  • 52 (a)
  • 50 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLRX 36
  • 57 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia glrx 35
  • 58.1 (n)
  • 52.38 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glrx 35
  • 57.61 (n)
  • 56.31 (a)
glrx 36
  • 58 (a)
wufc38f02 35
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glrx-10 35
  • 53.33 (n)
  • 44.76 (a)
glrx-10 36
  • 45 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GRX1 36
  • 30 (a)
GRX2 36
  • 24 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 31 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GLRX:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLRX Gene

Gene Tree for GLRX (if available)
Gene Tree for GLRX (if available)

Paralogs for GLRX Gene

Paralogs for GLRX Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GLRX Gene using alignment to 1 proteins: Pseudogenes for GLRX Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLRX: view

Variants for GLRX Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLRX Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2007 -- 95,813,951(+) ACATG(C/G)AAATG utr-variant-3-prime
rs4561 -- 95,816,609(-) TTTAT(C/T)GGTAA synonymous-codon, reference
rs8750 -- 95,814,262(-) TCATG(C/T)GGAAC utr-variant-3-prime
rs8751 -- 95,814,112(-) GAAAG(A/G)GCTCC utr-variant-3-prime
rs871775 -- 95,823,064(-) TATCT(C/T)CTAGA upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLRX Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830409 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv462255 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv882389 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for GLRX Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX Gene

Disorders for GLRX Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (3) Diseases for GLRX Gene including...

Search for GLRX Gene in MalaCards »

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GLRX Gene

(15) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GLRX Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
neurodegenerative diseases 15.9 1
cell damage 6.54 2
cardiovascular diseases 0 1
carcinoma squamous cell 0 1
necrosis 0 8

Relevant External Links for GLRX

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLRX: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX Gene

Publications for GLRX Gene

  1. Purification from placenta, amino acid sequence, structure comparisons and cDNA cloning of human glutaredoxin. (PMID: 7851394) Padilla C.A. … Holmgren A. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1995) 3 4 23
  2. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding human glutaredoxin. (PMID: 8018729) Fernando M.R. … Takeshige K. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1994) 3 4 23
  3. The primary structure and properties of thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) from human red blood cells. (PMID: 8019414) Papov V.V. … Biemann K. (Protein Sci. 1994) 3 4 23
  4. The gene for human glutaredoxin (GLRX) is localized to human chromosome 5q14. (PMID: 8838810) Padilla C.A. … Holmgren A. (Genomics 1996) 2 3 23
  5. Purification, cloning and expression of dehydroascorbic acid-reducing activity from human neutrophils: identification as glutaredoxin. (PMID: 8645179) Park J.B. … Levine M. (Biochem. J. 1996) 3 4 23

Products for GLRX Gene

Sources for GLRX Gene

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