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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

GLRA4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 44
GCID: GC0XM102962

Glycine Receptor, Alpha 4

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Glycine Receptor, Alpha 41 2
Glycine Receptor Subunit Alpha-42

External Ids:    HGNC: 317151   Entrez Gene: 4415092   Ensembl: ENSG000001888287   UniProtKB: Q5JXX53   

Export aliases for GLRA4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XM102779 GC0XU900745 GC0XM102849 GC0XM092619


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GLRA4 Gene:
This gene encodes a protein which has a neurotransmitter-gated ion-channel ligand binding domain. The encoded
protein is very similar to a mouse protein which is a subunit of the retinal glycine receptor. Multiple
transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for GLRA4 Gene: 
GLRA4 (glycine receptor, alpha 4) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GLRA4 include hyperekplexia, and retinitis, and among its related super-pathways are SLC-mediated transmembrane transport and Stimuli-sensing channels. GO annotations related to this gene include chloride channel activity and glycine binding. An important paralog of this gene is GLRA2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5
Function: The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor
increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)

summary for GLRA4 Gene:
Glycine receptors (GlyR) are members of the cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels, responsible for
mediating the inhibitory effects of glycine. They are widely distributed throughout the CNS, particularly
within the hippocampus, spinal cord and brain stem. Glycine receptors exist as pentameric proteins,
homo-oligomers of the alpha isoforms (alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 or alpha4) or hetero-oligomers which also
contain the beta-subtype variant (beta1) which is essential for targeting the receptor to the synapse.
Glycine receptors contain an integral chloride channel, and have modulatory sites for anesthetics,
neurosteroids, cannabinoids and ethanol. Disruption in glycine receptor expression or ion channel function
can result in hyperekplexia, a rare neurological disorder.

Gene Wiki entry for GLRA4 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000023.10  NC_018934.2  NT_011651.17  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLRA4 gene promoter:
         C/EBPbeta   AML1a   GATA-3   Lmo2   RORalpha2   GATA-1   GATA-2   S8   Sox9   
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GLRA4

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GLRA4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xq22.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xq22.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xq22.2

GLRA4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLRA4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XM102962:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
102,962,152 bp from pter      End:
102,983,583 bp from pter
Size:
21,432 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glycine receptor subunit alpha-4 precursor  
Size: 417 amino acids; 47728 Da
Subunit: Pentamer composed of alpha and beta subunits (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell
membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein (By similarity)
Miscellaneous: The alpha subunit binds strychnine (By similarity)
Caution: Is shorter at the N-terminus compared to its mouse ortholog due to the presence of a premature stop codon

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLRA4: NX_Q5JXX5

Explore proteomics data for GLRA4 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q5JXX5

  • GLRA4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    GLRA4 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001019623.2  NP_001165756.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000361700   ENSP00000412480  
    Reactome Protein details: Q5JXX5
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for GLRA4: 
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    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005887integral to plasma membrane IEA--
    GO:0016020membrane ----
    GO:0016021integral to membrane ----
    GO:0030054cell junction IEA--
    GO:0034707chloride channel complex IEA--

    GLRA4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    GLRA: Ligand-gated ion channels / Glycine receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: α4 (pseudogene in humans) 
    Glycine receptors

    5/6 InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR008127 Glycine_rcpt_A
     IPR018000 Neurotransmitter_ion_chnl_CS
     IPR006028 GABAA_rcpt
     IPR006201 Neur_channel
     IPR006202 Neur_chan_lig-bd

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q5JXX5

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q5JXX5

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5
    Similarity: Belongs to the ligand-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.9) family. Glycine receptor (TC 1.A.9.3) subfamily.
    GLRA4 sub-subfamily


    GLRA4 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5
    Function: The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor
    increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005230extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity IEA--
    GO:0005254chloride channel activity IEA--
    GO:0016594glycine binding IEA--
    GO:0022824transmitter-gated ion channel activity IEA--
         
    GLRA4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


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    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for GLRA4 About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1SLC-mediated transmembrane transport
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules0.50
    2Ion channel transport
    Ion channel transport0.49
    3GABA A receptor activation
    Ligand-gated ion channel transport0.48
    4PKA activation in glucagon signalling
    Neurophysiological process PGE2-induced pain processing0.44

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for GLRA4
        Neurophysiological process PGE2-induced pain processing


    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for GLRA4
        Neurophysiological process PGE2-induced pain processing

    3        Reactome Pathways for GLRA4
        Ligand-gated ion channel transport
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules
    Ion channel transport



    GLRA4 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for GLRA4

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006810transport ----
    GO:0006811ion transport ----

    GLRA4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Compounds for GLRA4 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    beta-Alanine Endogenous glycine agonist, more selective than taurine (Cat. No. 0209) [107-95-9]
    HypotaurineNon-selective endogenous glycine receptor agonist[300-84-5]
    L-SerineWeak endogenous glycine receptor agonist[56-45-1]
    L-AlanineGlycine receptor agonist[56-41-7]
    Taurine Non-selective, endogenous glycine receptor partial agonist [107-35-7]

    1 HMDB Compound for GLRA4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ChlorineCl2 (see all 13)16887-00-6--

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about GLRA4

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLRA4 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001024452.2  NM_001172285.1  

    Unigene Cluster for GLRA4:

    Glycine receptor, alpha 4
    Hs.533289  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK309010
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000372617(uc011mse.2) ENST00000436213 ENST00000480725(uc010nou.2)
    ENST00000469567
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-374b* hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-518f* hsa-miR-630
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    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
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    Additional mRNA sequence: AK309010.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.102824979  DT.102824968  DT.121316229 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    GLRA4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GLRA4 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ACCACCCAGA
    GLRA4 Expression
    About this image


    GLRA4 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/2 selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Gut Tube (Gastrointestinal Tract)
             Definitive endoderm-like cells ( A scalable, suspension protocol for derivation of...
     
     Mesoderm (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             Mesoderm-like cells ( Derivation of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells and...

    See GLRA4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.533289
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GLRA4

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GLRA4 gene from 6/14 species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Glra41 , 5 glycine receptor, alpha 4 subunit1, 5 90.06(n)1
    94.95(a)1
      X (59.10 cM)5
    146571  NM_010297.21  NP_034427.21 
     1367576745 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GLRA41 glycine receptor, alpha 4 81.01(n)
    90.21(a)
      769706  XM_001232994.1  XP_001232995.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GLRA46
    Uncharacterized protein
    74(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343686.1(126874-144759)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii glra4a1 glycine receptor, alpha 4a 76.75(n)
    87.8(a)
      83413  NM_131782.1  NP_571857.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Rdl1 Resistant to dieldrin 49.49(n)
    42.42(a)
      39054  NM_168322.2  NP_729462.2 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea lgc-381 Protein LGC-38 53.11(n)
    46.1(a)
      3565717  NM_066131.4  NP_498532.3 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLRA4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GLRA4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for GLRA4 gene
    GLRA22  GABRR12  GLRA12  GLRB2  GABRB12  GABRD2  GABRP2  GABRB32  
    GABRB22  GABRQ2  GLRA32  GABRR22  
    18/24 SIMAP similar genes for GLRA4 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     GLRA4_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    GLRA2    GLRA3    GLRA1    GLRB    GABRP    GABRR2
    GABRR1    GABRB1    GABRA2    DKFZp781L0846    GABRB2    GABRD
    GABRA6    GABRA5    GABRG2    GABRA1    GABRA3    GABRB3

    GLRA4 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/375 SNPs in GLRA4 are shown (see all 375)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs126902421,2
    C,A,H--92626948(+) ACACAC/TGCACA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1453143641,2
    --102931379(+) CCACAA/TAGCTT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs134404801,2
    C,F--102931515(+) CTCCCA/GCCCTA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs70643501,2
    C,F,A,H--102931551(+) TGACCA/GTAGCA 1 -- ds500127Minor allele frequency- G:0.48NA NS EA WA CSA 2530
    rs2002063481,2
    C--102931616(+) CAGCCC/TGGGAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1855575541,2
    C--102931663(+) TTCCGA/CGTGGT 2 T syn10--------
    rs617440121,2
    C--102931713(+) ATAAAT/CGCCAG 2 /I /V mis11Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NS 68
    rs1496900291,2
    C--102931738(+) CCTCCA/GTCTCT 2 D syn10--------
    rs1899780291,2
    C--102931775(+) AGCCAC/TGGAAA 2 H R mis10--------
    rs1454918631,2
    C--102931805(+) TGATAC/TCTTCC 2 D G mis10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GLRA4 (102962152 - 102983583 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for GLRA4: --

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GLRA4

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): GLRA4
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GLRA4
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GLRA4

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    3 diseases for GLRA4:    About MalaCards
    hyperekplexia    retinitis    neuronitis


    GLRA4 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for GLRA4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for GLRA4 gene integrated from 9 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLRA4)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. (PubMed id 15772651)2 Ross M.T.... Bentley D.R. (2005)
    2. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (2002)
    3. The sequence of the human genome. (PubMed id 11181995)1 Venter J.C.... Zhu X. (2001)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 441509 HGNC: 31715 Ensembl:ENSG00000188828 euGenes: HUgn441509 ECgene: GLRA4
    H-InvDB: GLRA4

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GLRA4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GLRA4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLRA4

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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