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GLRA4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 46
GCID: GC0XM102962

Glycine Receptor, Alpha 4

  See GLRA4-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glycine Receptor, Alpha 41 2
Glycine Receptor Subunit Alpha-42

External Ids:    HGNC: 317151   Entrez Gene: 4415092   Ensembl: ENSG000001888287   UniProtKB: Q5JXX53   

Export aliases for GLRA4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XM102779 GC0XU900745 GC0XM102849 GC0XM092619


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GLRA4 Gene:
This gene encodes a protein which has a neurotransmitter-gated ion-channel ligand binding domain. The encoded
protein is very similar to a mouse protein which is a subunit of the retinal glycine receptor. Multiple
transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for GLRA4 Gene:
GLRA4 (glycine receptor, alpha 4) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GLRA4 include hyperekplexia. GO annotations related to this gene include chloride channel activity and glycine binding. An important paralog of this gene is GLRA2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5
Function: The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor
increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)

summary for GLRA4 Gene:
Glycine receptors (GlyR) are members of the cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels, responsible for
mediating the inhibitory effects of glycine. They are widely distributed throughout the CNS, particularly
within the hippocampus, spinal cord and brain stem. Glycine receptors exist as pentameric proteins,
homo-oligomers of the alpha isoforms (alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 or alpha4) or hetero-oligomers which also
contain the beta-subtype variant (beta1) which is essential for targeting the receptor to the synapse.
Glycine receptors contain an integral chloride channel, and have modulatory sites for anesthetics,
neurosteroids, cannabinoids and ethanol. Disruption in glycine receptor expression or ion channel function
can result in hyperekplexia, a rare neurological disorder.

Gene Wiki entry for GLRA4 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000023.10  NC_018934.2  NT_011651.18  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GLRA4 gene promoter:
         C/EBPbeta   AML1a   GATA-3   Lmo2   RORalpha2   GATA-1   GATA-2   S8   Sox9   
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GLRA4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GLRA4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xq22.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xq22.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xq22.2

GLRA4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GLRA4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XM102962:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
102,962,152 bp from pter      End:
102,983,583 bp from pter
Size:
21,432 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glycine receptor subunit alpha-4 precursor  
Size: 417 amino acids; 47728 Da
Subunit: Pentamer composed of alpha and beta subunits (By similarity)
Miscellaneous: The alpha subunit binds strychnine (By similarity)
Caution: Is shorter at the N-terminus compared to its mouse ortholog due to the presence of a premature stop codon

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GLRA4: NX_Q5JXX5

Explore proteomics data for GLRA4 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn72
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GLRA4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001019623.2  NP_001165756.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000361700   ENSP00000412480  
    Reactome Protein details: Q5JXX5

    GLRA4 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
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    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    GLRA: Ligand-gated ion channels / Glycine receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: alpha4 (pseudogene in humans)
    Glycine receptors

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR008127 Glycine_rcpt_A
     IPR018000 Neurotransmitter_ion_chnl_CS
     IPR006028 GABAA_rcpt
     IPR006201 Neur_channel
     IPR006202 Neur_chan_lig-bd

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q5JXX5

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q5JXX5

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5
    Similarity: Belongs to the ligand-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.9) family. Glycine receptor (TC 1.A.9.3) subfamily.
    GLRA4 sub-subfamily


    Find genes that share domains with GLRA4           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5
    Function: The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor
    increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005230extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity IEA--
    GO:0005254chloride channel activity IEA--
    GO:0016594glycine binding IEA--
    GO:0022824transmitter-gated ion channel activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GLRA4           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GLRA4
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    hsa-miR-374b* hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-518f* hsa-miR-630
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GLRA4_HUMAN, Q5JXX5: Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell
    membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane IEA--
    GO:0016020membrane ----
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----
    GO:0030054cell junction IEA--
    GO:0034707chloride channel complex IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GLRA4           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GLRA4 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Ion channel transport
    Ion channel transport0.58
    2Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules0.47
    3Ca-dependent events
    Neurophysiological process PGE2 induced pain processing0.38
    4Ligand-gated ion channel transport
    Ligand-gated ion channel transport


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GLRA4           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for GLRA4
        Neurophysiological process PGE2-induced pain processing

    1 Reactome Pathway for GLRA4
        Ligand-gated ion channel transport


        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for GLRA4
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GLRA4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    1 Interacting protein for GLRA4 (ENSP000003617004) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GPHNENSP000003030194STRING: ENSP00000303019
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006810transport ----
    GO:0006811ion transport ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with GLRA4           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for GLRA4 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    beta-Alanine Endogenous glycine agonist, more selective than taurine (Cat. No. 0209) [107-95-9]
    HypotaurineNon-selective endogenous glycine receptor agonist[300-84-5]
    L-SerineWeak endogenous glycine receptor agonist[56-45-1]
    L-AlanineGlycine receptor agonist[56-41-7]
    Taurine Non-selective, endogenous glycine receptor partial agonist [107-35-7]

    1 HMDB Compound for GLRA4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ChlorineCl2 (see all 13)16887-00-6--



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GLRA4 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001024452.2  NM_001172285.1  

    Unigene Cluster for GLRA4:

    Glycine receptor, alpha 4
    Hs.533289  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK309010
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000372617(uc011mse.2) ENST00000436213 ENST00000480725(uc010nou.2)
    ENST00000469567
    miRNA
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    4 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLRA4:
    hsa-miR-374b* hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-518f* hsa-miR-630
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): GLRA4 (NM_001172285)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GLRA4
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    Primer
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GLRA4
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GLRA4
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GLRA4

    Additional mRNA sequence: AK309010.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.102824979  DT.102824968  DT.121316229 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GLRA4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ACCACCCAGA
    GLRA4 Expression
    About this image


    GLRA4 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     
     NULL (Uncategorized)
             Mesoderm-like cells
    GLRA4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GLRA4 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.533289
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GLRA4

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GLRA4 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Glra41 , 5 glycine receptor, alpha 4 subunit1, 5 90.06(n)1
    94.95(a)1
      X (59.10 cM)5
    146571  NM_010297.21  NP_034427.21 
     1367576745 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GLRA41 glycine receptor, alpha 4 80.8(n)
    89.6(a)
      769706  XM_004940618.1  XP_004940675.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GLRA46
    glycine receptor, alpha 4
    75(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343686.1(126874-144759)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii glra4a1 glycine receptor, alpha 4a 76.75(n)
    87.8(a)
      83413  NM_131782.2  NP_571857.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Rdl1 Resistant to dieldrin 51.45(n)
    45.99(a)
      39054  NM_168322.3  NP_729462.2 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea lgc-381 lgc-38 53.15(n)
    45.95(a)
      3565717  NM_066131.5  NP_498532.3 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GLRA4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GLRA4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GLRA4 gene
    GLRA22  GABRR12  GLRA12  GLRB2  GABRB12  GABRR32  GABRD2  GABRP2  
    GABRB32  GABRB22  GABRQ2  GLRA32  GABRR22  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for GLRA4 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     GLRA4_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    GLRA2    GLRA3    GLRA1    GLRB    GABRP    GABRR2
    GABRR1    GABRB1    GABRA2    DKFZp781L0846    GABRB2    GABRD
    GABRA6    GABRA5    GABRG2    GABRA1    GABRA3    GABRB3

    Find genes that share paralogs with GLRA4           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GLRA4 (see all 375)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs126902421,2
    C,A,H--92626948(+) ACACAC/TGCACA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1453143641,2
    --102931379(+) CCACAA/TAGCTT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs134404801,2
    C,F--102931515(+) CTCCCA/GCCCTA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs70643501,2
    C,F,A,H--102931551(+) TGACCA/GTAGCA 1 -- ds500127Minor allele frequency- G:0.48NA NS EA WA CSA 2530
    rs2002063481,2
    C--102931616(+) CAGCCC/TGGGAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1855575541,2
    C--102931663(+) TTCCGA/CGTGGT 2 T syn10--------
    rs617440121,2
    C--102931713(+) ATAAAT/CGCCAG 2 /I /V mis11Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NS 68
    rs1496900291,2
    C--102931738(+) CCTCCA/GTCTCT 2 D syn10--------
    rs1899780291,2
    C--102931775(+) AGCCAC/TGGAAA 2 H R mis10--------
    rs1454918631,2
    C--102931805(+) TGATAC/TCTTCC 2 D G mis10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GLRA4 (102962152 - 102983583 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for GLRA4: --
    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GLRA4
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): GLRA4

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GLRA4
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GLRA4

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    1 disease for GLRA4:    
    About MalaCards
    hyperekplexia


    Find genes that share disorders with GLRA4           About GenesLikeMe


    Export disorders for GLRA4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GLRA4 gene integrated from 10 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GLRA4)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. (PubMed id 15772651)2 Ross M.T.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2005)
    2. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    3. The sequence of the human genome. (PubMed id 11181995)1 Venter J.C.... Zhu X. (Science 2001)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 441509 HGNC: 31715 Ensembl:ENSG00000188828 euGenes: HUgn441509 ECgene: GLRA4
    H-InvDB: GLRA4

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GLRA4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GLRA4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GLRA4

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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